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The Universal Household Assistant, A Cyclopedia of What Everyone Should Know, by Samuel H. Burt

A CYCLOPEDIA OF

PRACTICAL INFORMATION.

COMPLETE DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING AND DOING OVER 5,000

THINGS NECESSARY IN BUSINESS, THE TRADES, THE

SHOP, THE HOME, THE FARM, AND THE KITCHEN.

Recipes^ Prescriptions, Medicines, M ami fac hiring Pi-ocesses, Trade Secrets, Chemical Preparations, Mechanical Appliances, Aid to In- jured, Antidotes, Business Information, Every Day Law, , -' ''Ornaments, Home Decorations, Art Work, Fancy Work, ' Agriculture, Fruit Culture, Stock Raising, and hun- - f' ; dreds of other tiseful hijtts and helps,

Gathered from the Most Reliable Sources.

COMPILED ANdArRANGED BY

S. H. BURT.

NEW YORK: X^^frw....wr>

S. H. MOORE & CO.

1834.

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COPYRIGHT 1S84 BY A. L. BURT.

PREFACE.

** What every one should know " are those practical, handy ways of doing, making and mending all sorts and kinds of things, ignor- ance of which necessitates so much extra labor, trouble, anxiety and expense.

In the common daily experience of every one there are hundreds of occasions when a knowledge of ** how to do " would add largely to the success, comfort or safety of life. There are emergencies con- stantly arising, both in the ordinary course of business and trade, and through the occurrence of accidents, that require instant atten- tion, or the results will be most disastrous. There are innumerable instances where a practical knowledge of the elements of Medicine and Surgery would be of incalculable benefit in preserving life. The comfort, luxury and beauty of the household can be largely in- creased by a little study of the means of repairing our posessions.

It is to supply much needed information on these and other com- mon but essential topics that this book has been made. It has been the intention of the compiler to gather into this volume all those practical rules, recipes and hints which are capable of being followed and applied by any one without high-priced professional advice or instruction; to show the way of doing things oneself without un- necessary delay, labor or expense; to gather much that has existed in the general experience of men and women, but which has never been classified, and to present this mass of information in a handy form so that it may be easy of access whenever the constantly recur- ring occasions demand.

A list of the contents of this book would include all the simple recipes, prescriptions and medicines, their composition, uses and effects, which a family employs; it would contain descriptions of all the manufacturing processess, the trade secrets, the chemical and

4 PREFACE.

mechanical agents, etc., that should form a part of the industrial equipment of every artisan and mechanic; it would contain business, law, and mercantile information by means of which the trades are conducted; it would contain complete directions for doing all those common things that daily perplex housekeepers all over the land; it would contain many hints and directions of value to the farmer, relating to the culture of the land, the growing of crops and fruits, the rearing of live stock, etc.; it would contain directions for master- ing those branches of art work that are occupying so much attention at present; it would contain rules for conduct in all sorts of emergen- cies, from the poisoning of a human being to the breaking of a chair leg, from a catalogue of antidotes to the recipe for making a furniture varnish.

All these things, and many more, this book contains. The alphabetical arrangement of subjects has been selected as the most convenient for reference. From hundreds of reliable sources the articles have been selected, and no thing has been admitted which has not the sanction of usage and worth.

Some of the information between these covers will not be unfa- miliar to each reader, but what new hints and helps are gleaned will repay one fifty times the cost; and as people cannot always remember what they do know when it is most necessary, this little mentor and guide should always be at hand, ready to give you its aid.

In presenting this book to the Public, the compiler feels assured that its usefulness and novelty will be an immediate passport to favor, and that its worth will bring it lasting popularity.

S. H. B.

New York, 1884.

A Cyclopedia of Practical Information.

Abscess. - In some particulars an abscess resembles a large boil. There is an inflammatory condition, with heat, pain, and swelling. The result of this inflammation is the discharge of degenerated mat- ter or pus. They may be opened as soon as pulsation is detected, the same as boils, or the operation may be delayed until by using hot water compresses, flax seed poultice, bread and hot milk poultice, they come to a point or head. The matter or pus should be com- pletely discharged by gentle pressure, and the cavity freely washed out by injecting a mixture of one part carbolic acid and twenty of warm water, and pressure exerted by a bandage, t lien healing will rapidly take place.

Acid - (Strawberry). - Take three pounds of ripe strawberries, two ounces of citric acid, and one quart of spring water. Dissolve the acid in the water, and pour it on the strawberries, and let them stand in a cool place twenty-four hours. Then drain the liquid off, and pour it on three more pounds of fruit; let it stand twenty-four hours. Add to the liquid its own weight of sugar; boil it three or four minutes in a porcelain-lined preserve kettle, lest metal may affect the taste, and, when cool, cork it in bottles lightly for three days, then tightly, and seal them. Keep in a dry and cool place. It is delicious for sick and Well.

Aconite Liniment. - Tincture of aconite root, tincture of arnica flowers, laudanum in equal parts. Mix thoroughly; a very useful lini- ment.

Aconite - poisoning by. - This root has been sometimes swallowed for horseradish. The symptoms of poisoning by this means, or by an overdose are tingling and numbness of the tongue, throat, and limbs, pam in the stomach, vomiting, purging, feeble pulse, labored breathing, and great prostration. Give an emetic of sulphate of zinc in water, or three or four spoonfuls of table salt and water. Use an alcoholic stimulant, and in the meantime send for the family physi- cian.

6 IVIIA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

Accidents. - In all recent wounds, the first consideration is to re- move foreign bodies, such as pieces of glass, splinters of wood, pieces of stone, earth, or any other substance that may have been introduced by the violence of the act which caused the wound. Where there is much loss of blood, an attempt should be made to stop it with dry lint, compressed above the part wounded, if the blood be of a florid color; and below, if of a dark color. In proportion to the importance of the part wounded, will be the degree of the discharge of blood, and the subsequent tendency to inflammation and its consequences.

Accidents - ways to prevent. - As most sudden deaths come by water, particular caution is therefore necessary in its vicinity.

Stand not near a tree, or any leaden spout, iron gate, or palisade, in time of lightning.

Lay loaded guns in safe places, and never imitate firing a gun in jest.

Never sleep near charcoal; if drowsy at any work where charcoal fires are used, take the fresh air.

Carefully rope trees before they are cut down, that when they fall they may do no injury.

When benumbed with cold beware of sleeping out of doors; rub yourself, if you have it in your power, with snow, and do not hastily approach the fire.

Beware of damp air vaults; let them remain open some time before you enter; or scatter powdered lime in them. Where a lighted candle will not burn, animal life cannot exist; it will be an excellent caution, therefore, before entering damp and confined places, to try this sim- ple experiment.

Never leave saddle or draught horses, while in use, by themselves; nor go immediately behind a led horse, as he is apt to kick.

Be wary of children, whether they are up or in bed; and particu- larly when they are near the fire, an element with which they are very apt to amuse themselves.

Leave nothing poisonous open or accessible; and never omit to write the word " Poison " in large letters upon it, wherever it may be placed.

In walking the streets keep out of the line of the cellars, and never look one way and walk another.

Never throw pieces of orange-peel, or broken glass bottles into the streets.

Never meddle with gunpowder by candle light.

In opening effervescing drinks, such as soda water, hold the cork in your hand.

Quit your house with care on a frosty morning.

Have your horses' shoes, sharpened when there are indications of frost.

In trimming a lamp with naphtha, never fill it. Leave space for the spirit to expand with warmth.

Never quit a room leaving the poker in the fire.

WIIA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 7

When the brass rod of the stair carpet becomes loose, fasten it im- mediately.

Keep lucifer matches in their cases, and never let them be strewed about.

Acid Drops. - Pound and sift into a clean pan eight ounces of dou- ble refined sugar, add slowly as much water as will render the sugar sufficiently moist not to stick to the stirring spoon, place the pan on a small stove or slow fire, and stir till it nearly boils, remove from the fire and stir in one and one-fourth ounces .tartaric acid. Place it on the fire for half a minute, then dip out small quantities from the pan, and let it fall in small drops on a clean tin plate; remove the drops in two hours with a knife.

Acid Stomach. - A little magnesia and water will sometimes cor- rect the acidity of a child's stomach, and render unnecessary any stronger medicine. Powder a teaspoonful of magnesia, and put it in half a glass of water; it will not dissolve, of course, but will mix with the water so that an infant can swallow it. Give a teaspoonful of this three times a day until indications warrant you in discontinuing it.

.�olian Harp - to make. - This instrument, when placed in a win- dow in a draft of air, produces the most pleasing music. We here give directions whereby any one may construct one for himself: Length, thirty-two inches by six inches; depth, one and three- quarter inches. The strings are attached to the small hooks at the end, corresponding to the pegs. The strings must be about the thickness of the first string of the violin. These strings answer well, but if too expensive the small gut used by whip manu- facturers may be used. The bottom plank of the harp should be oak, three-quarters of an inch thick, length three feet, breadth ten inches. The bridges may be any sonorous wood (but steel will give the best sound), half an inch in height, cut angular to a blunt point. They must not be flattened down, but must be made to fit very flat to the bottom board, or it will jar and never play well. This is the great defect in all harps made by amateurs. The ends of the harps should be oak, one inch thick, and must be fixed very firmly to the bottom board, but not with metal screws or glue; and in these the pins are fixed for tightening the strings. Use fiddle-pins, half at each end. The top should be half an inch thick, and sycamore wood is the best, and m.ay be polished; it should be very slightly fastened on, for it has to be removed every time to tune. Common catgut does nearly as well as German. Get as thick a string as you can for one side, and a thin one for the other; then graduate them from the thick to the thin. so as not to have two alike. They are in general tune to treble C, but it is preferable to tune to low C, and then each string an octave higher. This is easily altered, if desii'able. The instriojnents must be very strong in all respects, for the strings exert almost incredible strength. The position for placing the harp at the window to be with the upper surface inclined towards the draft of air.

Ague Cure. - Cut three lemons into thin slices and pound them

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with a mallet, then take enough coffee to make a quart, boil it down to a pint and pour it while quite hot over the lemons. Let it stand till cold, then strain through a cloth, and take the whole at one dose, itii mediately after the chill is over, and />efoi'e the fever comes on.

Ague Pill. - Quinine, twenty grains; Dover's powders, ten grains; subcarbonate of iron, ten grains; mix with mucilage of gum arable and form into twenty pills. Dose, two each hour, commencing five hours before the chill should set in. Then take one night and morning un- til all are taken.

Alabaster - to clean. - For cleaning it there is nothing better than soap and water. Stains may be removed by washing with soap and water, then white-washing the stained part, letting it stand some hours, then washing off the white-wash, and rubbing the stained part.

Ale (Ginger). - The Belfast ginger ale may be made as follows: Powered double refined sugar, sixteen ounces; essence of cayenne, four drachms; essence of lemon, forty drops. The soda, acid, and sugar must be carefully dried separately, at a temperature not ex- ceeding one hundred and twenty degrees; and the sugar, before dry- ing, must be thoroughly incorporated with the essences, to which a small quantity of caramel as coloring may be added. This forms a powder, a dessert-spoonful of which will make a tumblerful of the drink.

Ammonia - uses of. - For washing paint, put a tablespoonful of spirits of ammonia in a quart of moderately hot water, dip in a flannel cloth, and with this simply wipe off the woodwork; no scrubbing will be necessary.

For taking grease spots from any fabric, use the ammonia nearly pure, then lay white blotting paper over the spot and iron it lightly. In washing laces, put about twelve drops in a pint of warm suds.

To clean silver, mix two teaspoonfuls of ammonia in a quart of hot soap suds, put in your silverware and wash it, using an old nail brush or tooth brush for the purpose.

For cleaning hair brushes, etc, simply shake the brushes up and down in a mixture of one teaspoonful of ammonia to one pint of hot ?water; when they are cleansed, rinse ihem in cold water, and stand them in the wind or in a hot place to dry.

For washing finger marks from looking glasses or windows, put a few drops of ammonia on a moist rag, and make quick work of it.

If you wish your house plants to flourish, put a few drops of the spirits in every pint of water used in watering.

A teaspoonful in a basin of cold water adds much to the refreshing effects of a bath.

Nothing is better than ammonia for cleaning the hair. In every case rinse off ammonia with clear water.

Liquid ammonia is the most powerful and useful agent for cleaning silk stuffs and hats, and for neutralizing the effects of acids. In this latter case it is often enough to expose the spots to the vapor of am- monia, which makes them disappear entirely.

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Ants - several ways to destroy. - Put red pepper in the places the ants frequent the most, and scrub the shelves or drawers with strong carbolic soap.

A small bag of sulphur kept in a drawer or cupboard, or saucers of olive-tar set where they are, will drive them away,

A string wet in kerosene oil and tied around sugar barrels, lard cans, preserves, etc., is said to keep away ants. The string should be wet with the oil every few days.

Ants may be driven awa)-^ by putting Scotch snuff wherever they are in the habit of going for food.

A small spray of wormwood if placed on buttery shelves, will, it is said, destroy or drive away ants.

Persons who are troubled with ants in their houses may get rid of them by rubbing the shelves with gum camphor. Two applications will be sufficient, with a week intervening.

A strong solution of carbolic acid and water, poured into holes, kill all the ants it touches, and the survivors immediately take them- selves off.

Ants that frequent houses or gardens may be destroyed by taking flour of brimstone half a pound, and potash four ounces; set them in an iron or earthen pan over the fire until dissolved and united; after- wards beat them to a powder, and infuse a little of this powder in water - and wherever you sprinkle it the ants will die or leave the place.

Red ants may be banished from a pantry or store-room by strewing the shelves with a small quantity of cloves, either whole or ground. We use the former, as not being so likely to get in the food placed upon the shelves. The cloves should be renewed occasionally, as after a time they lose their strength and decay.

Antiseptic. - Boracic acid is said to be one of the best antiseptics; one part of a ten per cent, solution added to eight of milk, is said to keep it fresh a week.

Antiseptic. - Dr. Zollner states that carbon disulphide in a state of vapor is capable of acting as a powerful antiseptic. Two drops allowed to evaporate spontaneously in a closed vessel of the ordinary temperature were found to keep meat, fruit, vegetables, and bread in a perfectly fresh condition for several weeks. The articles submitted to the process acquire neither smell nor taste, the carbon disulphide evaporating entirely when they are exposed to the air at the ordinary temperature. The vapor of carbon disulphide being very mflamma- ble, all experiments should be performed during daylight.

Anti-Fat Diet. - For those people whose embonpoint is a matter of solicitude, whether because it is uncomfortable or unfashionable, the following diet is proposed by a doctor; Lean mutton and beef, veal and lamb, soups not thickened, beef-tea and broth; poultry, game, fish, and eggs; bread in moderation; greens, cresses, lettuce, etc.; green peas, cabbage, cauliflower, onions; fresh fruit without sugar.

lo WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

Apartments - to perfume. - The best and most simple method to diffuse the odor of any perfume throughout an apartment is to make use of a spirit-lamp. Into this lamp put the essence or scent, which should not contain water. Provide the lamp w^ith a thick wick, and place slightly above a small ball of spongy platinum; then light the wick, and when the platinum is red-hot, which Avill be the case in a few seconds, blow out the flame. The platinum ball will continue in a state of ignition as long as any spirit remains in the bottle, throw- ing off the perfume and vapor as it arises by means of the wick, and diffusing it generally throughout the whole apartment. In the ab- sence of a spirit-lamp, a narrow-necked bottle may be made use of; but care must be taken that it does not crack when the wick is alight. The lamp is the safest.

Aperients. - For children nothing is better than: - i. Brimstone and treacle; to each teacupful of this, when mixed, add a teaspoonful of cream of tartar. As this sometimes produces sickness, the follow- ing may be used: 2. Take of tartrate of soda one dram and a half, powdered jalap and powdered rhubarb, each fifteen grains, gin- ger, two grains; mix. Dose for a child over five years, one small teaspoonful; over ten years, a large teaspoonful; for a person over twenty, three teaspoonsful, or the whole, as may be required by the habit of the person. This medicine may be dissolved in warm water, common or mint tea. This powder can be kept for use in a wide- mouthed bottle, and be in readiness for any emergency.

Apothecaries' Weight. - Twenty grains make one scruple, three scruples one dram, eight drams one ounce, twelve ounces one pound. Medicines are always purchased wholesale by avoirdupois weight. For compounding liquids, an apothecary's glass measure will be found indispensable. A two or three ounce size will be large enough for most purposes.

Apples - to keep. - i. Having selected the best fruit, wipe it per- fectly dry with a fine cloth, then take a jar of suitable size, the inside of which is thoroughly coated with cement, and having placed alayer of fine sand perfectly dry at the bottom, place thereon a layer of the fruit - apples or pears, as the case may be - but not so close as to touch each other, and then a layer of sand; and in this way pro- ceed till the vessel is full. Over the upper layer of fruit a thick Stratum of sand may be spread and lightly pressed down with the hands. In this manner choice fruit perfectly ripe may be kept for almost any length of tirne, if the jar be placed in a situation free from moisture.

2. Take fine dry sawdust, preferably that made by a circular saw from well seasoned hard wood, and place a thick layer on bottom of 4 barrel. Then place a layer of apples, not close together and no*- close to staves of the barrel. Put sawdust liberally over and around, and proceed until a bushel and a half, or less, are so packed in each barrel. They are to be kept in a cool place.

Apple Butter. - Boil new cider down to one-half quantity. Pare,

WIIA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 1 1

cut and core equal quantities of sweet and southem, and from sunrise to sunset, for six or seven days in suc- cession, set the vessel where it will receive the sun's rays. At the end

14 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

of the third or fourth day a number of particles of a fine yellow oily matter will float on the surface, which, after a day or two, will gather into a scum. This is the attar of roses. It must be taken up as often as it appears, with a piece of cotton tied to a stick, and squeezed from this into a small phial, which must be kept corked and tied over.

Autumn Leaves - to preserve and use. - Autumn leaves are used in various methods, the most popular being, perhaps, to dry them flatly and carefully, and take great care to preserve their stalks. When thoroughly dry they are varnished, which gives them a pretty gloss,, and also acts as a preservative to them from all insects and moths. After this they are carefully laid aside for the decoration of the winter dinner table, and may be most safely preserved in a tin box with a well fitting cover. Grasses added to them are very effective, and when dry they may be dyed. They may be also frosted when dry, by dipping each stalk into a solution of alum and leaving them to dry upright. With the grasses and leaves may be used the dried everlast- ing flowers and the prepared moss, but no little taste is needed in their arrangement to avoid the least heaviness of effect. I have found that glass vases and stands are the most effective for their arrange- ment, as the transparancy of these increase the wished-for lightness and grace.

Awnings - to make waterproof. - Plunge first into a solution con- taining twenty per cent, soap, and afterward in another solution the same percentage of copper. Wash afterwards.

Axle Grease - to make. - Take one part good plumbago (black lead) sifted through a coarse muslin so as to be perfectly free from grit, and stir it into five quarts of lard, warmed so as to be stirred easily without melting. Stir vigorously until it is smooth and uni form. Then raise the heat until the mixture melts. Stir constantly, remove from the fire, and keep stirring until cold. Apply cold to the axle or any other bearing with a brush. If intended for use where the axle or bearing is in a warm apartment, as the interior of mills, etc., two ounces of hard tallow or one ounce of beeswax may be used to every ten pounds of the mixture. This grease is cheaper in use than oil, tallow or tar, or any compound of them.

Babies - how^ to put to sleep. - A baby is the most nervous of be- ings, and the tortures it suffers in going to sleep and being awakened by careless sounds when " dropping off," are only comparable to the saijae experience of an older person during the acute nervous head- ache. Young babies ought to pass the first months of their lives in the country, for its stillness no less than its fresh air. But where silence is not to be commanded, baby may be soothed by folding a soft napkin, wet in warmish water, lightly over the top of its head, its eyes and ears. It is the best way to put nervous babies to sleep. It has been tried hundreds of times for a child so irritable that pare- goric and soothing syrup only made it wide awake. A fine towel would be wet and laid over its head, the ends twisted a little till it made a sort of a skull-cap, and, though baby sometimes fought against

WITA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO JV. 15

being blindfolded in this way, five minutes usually sent bim off into deep and blissful slumber. The compress cooled the little feverish brain, deadened sound in his ears, and shut out everything that took his attention, so that sleep caught him unawares. Teething babies find this very comfortable, for their heads are always hot, and there is a fevered beating in the arteries each side.

Baby Basket - to make. - Procure a large round basket and a small camp-stool. Measure the size round the top of the basket; get the quantity of material, measure the depth of basket and allow the scallops to fall over the edge. Bind the scallops; fasten it to the edge of the basket, draw it down tightly to the bottom in plaits. Cut a round piece of material the shape of the bottom of basket, fasten it round the edge, and finish with a box-plaiting of ribbons. Make the cushions and pockets to please the fancy, A box-plaiting round the top of basket, also round the scallops. Between each scallop put a bow or cord, and tassels of worsted; fasten this on the camp-stool, around which put a ruffle of the same material the basket is lined with.

Baby Food. - Put one teacupful of oatmeal in two quarts of boiling water, slightly salted. Let it cook two hours and a half, then strain. When cool, to one gill of gruel add one gill of thin cream and one teaspoonful of sugar. To this then add one pint of boiling water, and it is ready for use. This can be digested when milk and all else fail.

Bacon - how to select. - Bacon should have a thin rind, and the fat should be firm and tinged red by the curing. The flesh should be of a clear red, without intermixture of yellow, and it should firmly adhere to the bone. To judge the state of a ham, plunge a knife into it to the bone; on drawing it back, if particles of meat adhere to it, or if the smell is disagreeable, the curing has not been effectual, and the ham is not good. It should, in such a state, be immediately cooked. In buying a ham, a short, thick one, is to be preferred to the long and thin.

Bad Breath - remedy for. - Take eight drops of muriatic acid m half a tumbler of spring-water, and add a little lemon-peel or juice to suit the palate. Let this mixture be taken three times a day for some time, and, if found beneficial, then use it occasionally.

Bad Breath - to relieve. - Bad breath, from catarrh, foul stomach, or bad teeth, may be temporarily relieved by diluting a little bromo- chloralum with eight or ten parts of water, and using it as a gargle, and swallowing a few drops just before going out.

Bag for Knitting Work. - In these days of knitting and crochet- ing, a small pocket or bag is convenient to hold the balls of wool, silk or cotton, and the needles or crochet hooks. This knitting-work pocket is worn attached to the belt, and is made of ecru linen, and lined with red satin, or any other material that one may fancy. Cut from each of these materials five pieces of the following dimensions: Two inches wide at the top, not allowing for seams, one-half inch

1 6 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO IV.

wide at the bottom, and six inches long. These pieces are cut so as to bulge out at the sides, and are each four inches in width at the widest part. Embroider the linen in any design that you may fancy, but it seems desirable that this should be in outline stitch, and done with red silk. Join the linen pieces so that the seams are on the right side; notch them so that they will lie flat, and cover them with red silk braid, cross-stitched with some contrasting tone or color. Join the lining and place inside this, and bind the top with the same braid and fasten down in the same manner. Work a red silk eyelet-hole in one of the side pieces to allow the end of the wool you are working with to come through. Close the bottom of the bag with a bunch of loops of red satin ribbon, and sew an end of the same ribbon, in which is sewed quite a large shield pin to fasten it to the dress belt.

Baking Powder - to make. - Take six ounces of carbonate of s )da, four ounces of tartaric acid, two ounces of sugar (very finely sifted), one ounce of salt. All must be mixed very completely together, and, after the flour has been made into dough (with water for bread, or milk for rolls), add one teaspoonful of the powder to every pound of flour, and mix thoroughly. If the powder is to be kept, it must be put into open-mouthed dry bottles, corked and kept in a dry place.

Bald Head - remedy for. - A most valuable remedy for promoting the growth of the hair, is an application once or twice a day, of wild indigo and alcohol. Take four ounces wild indigo, and steep it about a week or ten days in a pint of alcohol and a pint of hot water, when it will be ready for use. The head must be thoroughly washed with the liquid, morning and evening, application being made with a sponge or soft brush. Another excellent preparation is composed of three ounces of castor oil, with just enough alcohol to cut the oil, to which add twenty drops tincture of cantharides, and perfume to suit. This not only softens and imparts a gloss to the hair, but also invigorates and strengthens the roots of the hair.

Balm of Gilead. - Opodeldoc, spirits of wine, sal amn>oniac, equal parts of each. Shake. Bottle and label. Cures neuralgia, pains, aches, etc. Apply as a lotion.

Balsam (Indian). - Clear, pale resin, three pounds and melt it, adding spirits of turpentine, one quart; balsam of tolu, one ounce; balsam of fir, four ounces; oil of hemlock, origanum, with Venice turpentine, of each, one ounce; strained honey, four ounces; mix well, and bottle. Dose, six to twelve drops; for a child of six, three to five drops, on a little sugar. The dose can be varied accord- ing to the ability of the stomach to bear it and the necessity of the case. It is a valuable preparation for coughs, internal pains, or strains, and works benignly upon the kidneys.

Bandages. - Bandages can be made by tearing a sheet into narrow strips, rolling each one tightly and fastening the end with a pin. Old linen does not mean worn out shirt-fronts, but soft pieces of table- cloths, napkins or cambric handkerchiefs.

Banners- to paint.- Stretch the fabric upon a frame, and finish

IVHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 17

your design and lettering. Use a size made of bleached sheilac dis- solved in alcohol, thinned to the proper consistence, go over such parts as are to be gilded or painted, overrunning the outlines slightly, to prevent the color from spreading. For inside work the white of an Q%^ makes a good size; lay the gold while the size is still wet; when dry, dust off the surplus gold, and proceed with the shading, painting, etc. A little honey, combined with thick glue, is another good size.

Barometer - to make. - Take a long, narrow bottle, and put into it two and one-half drams of camphor; spirits of wine eleven drams. When the camphor is dissolved, add to it the following mixture: Water, nine drams; saltpeter, thirty-eight grains; sal- ammoniac, thirty-eight grains. Dissolve these salts in the water prior to mixing with the camphorated spirit; then shake all well to- gether, cork the bottle well, wax the top, but afterwards make a very small aperture in the cork with a red-hot needle. By observing the different appearances which the materials assume as the weather changes, it becomes an excellent prognosticator of a coming storm or a sunny sky.

Barometers - handy and cheap. - i. One that answers the purpose of indicating the approach of fair or foul weather, can be made as fol- lows: Take an eight-ounce bottle, the glass being clear and white, and put into it six ounces of the highest colored whisky to be ob- tained, and put into it all the gum-camphor it will dissolve, and a little more. Set in some convenient place. On the approach of rain or bad weather the camphor will settle toward the bottom of the bot- tle; the heavier the rain, or the more sultry the weather, the closer the camphor will settle to the bottom. Fair weather is indicated by the feather-like appearance of the camphor which rises and floats in the liquid. If alcohol is used, it must be diluted so that it will not be stronger than the whisky, for if it is, so much of the camphor will be held in solution that the atmosphere will have no perceptible effect upon it.

2. Take an eight-ounce phial, and put in it three gills of water, and place in it a healthy leech, changing the water in summer once a week, and in winter once in a fortnight, and it will most ac- curately prognosticate the weather. If the weather is to be fine, the leech lies motionless at the bottom of the glass and coiled together in a spiral form; if rain may be expected, it will creep up to the top of its lodgings and remain there till the weather is settled; if Ave are to have wind, it will move through its habitation with amazing swift- ness, and seldom goes to rest till it begins to blow hard; if a remark- able storm of thunder and rain is to succeed, it will lodge for some days before almost continually out of the water, and discover great uneasiness in violent throes and convulsive-like motions; in frost, as in clear, summer-like weather, it lies constantly at the bottom; and in snow, as in rainy weather, it pitches its dwelling in the very mouth of the phial. The top should be covered over with a piece of muslin.

1 8 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO TV.

Basket for Flowers. - Very beautiful baskets for holding flowers can be made of the longer and more feathery kind of mosses. A light frame, of any shape you like, should be made with wire and covered with common pasteboard or calico, and the moss, which should first be well picked over and cleansed from any bits of dirt or dead leaves which may be hanging about it, gathered into little tufts, and sewed with a coarse needle and thread to the covering, so as to clothe it thickly with a close and compact coating, taking care that the points of the moss are all outward. A long handle, constructed in the same manner, should be attached to the basket, and a tin or other vessel filled with either wet sand or water, placed within to hold the flowers. By dipping the whole structure into water once in three or four days, its verdure and elasticity will be fully preserved.

Bath-Bag. - Make a small square bag of flannel, leaving one end partly open. In this put all the remnants of soap as the pieces be- come too small to handle easily. When the bag is filled, baste up the opening, and it makes a good bath-tub arrangement.

Bathing Rules. - Avoid bathing within two hours after a meal.

Avoid bathing when exhausted by fatigue or from any other cause.

Avoid bathing when the body is cooling after perspiration.

Avoid bathing altogether in the open air, if after having been a short time in the water, it causes a sense of chilliness and numbness of the hands and feet.

Bathe when the body is warm, provided no time is lost in getting into the water.

Avoid chilling the body by sitting or standing undressed on the banks or in boats after having been in the water.

Avoid remaining too long in the water; leave the water immedi- ately there ic the slightest feeling of chillness.

The vigorous and strong may bathe early in the morning on an empty stomach.

The young, and those who are weak, had better bathe two or three hours after a meal; the best time for such is from two to three hours after breakfast.

Those who are subject to attacks of giddiness or faintness, and those who suffer from palpitation and other sense of discomfort at the heart, should not bathe without first consulting their medical ad- viser.

Bay Rum - to make. - Saturate one-quarter pound of carbonate of magnesia with oil of bay; pulverize the magnesia, place it in a filter, and pour water through it until the desired quantity is ob- tained, then add alcohol. The quantity of water and alcohol em- ployed depends on the desired strength and quantity of the bay rum. Another: - Oil of bay, ten fluid drams; oil of pimento, one fluid dram; acetic ether, two fluid drams; alcohol, three gallons; wa- ter, two and a half gallons. Mix, and after two weeks' repose, filter.

Bay Rum. - To one pint of alcohol add one pint of water, one tea- spoonful of powdered borax, and one-half dram oil of bay.

IVHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W. ig

Beans - to bake. - Prepare the beans by soaking over night and boiling as usual. I use a quart pot for my pint of beans, as the milk boils over so easily. Put in the beans, salt, and a tablespoonful of molasses, cover well with milk, and refill as it cooks away. Give nine or ten hours' baking in a slow oven, and you will have beans de- licious and healthful. People with weak digestive powers can eat beans cooked in this way without harm.

Beds - should be aired. - It must be a false idea of neatness, which demands that beds should be made soon after being vacated. Let it be remembered that more than three-fifths of the solids and liquids taken inio the stomach, should pass off through the pores of the skin - seven millions in number - and that this escape is most rapid during the night, while warm in bed. At least one-half of the waste and putrid matter - from twenty to thirty ounces in the night - it must be- come more or less tangled in the bedding, of course soding, and a part of this may become reabsorbed by the skin, if it is allowed to come in contact with it on the next night, as it must, if the bedding is not exposed for a few hours in the light. We may well imitate the Dutch example of placing such bedding on two chairs, near the win- dow in the sunlight, or in the window, that the light of the sun - the best purifier known - may dissipate their impurities, or neutralize them. At least three hours, on the average, is as short exposure as is compatible with neatness.

Bed-Bug - remedy. - Blue ointment and kerosene, mixed in equal proportions, and applied to the bedsteads, is an unfailing bed-bug remedy; and a coat of whitewash is ditto for wooden walls.

Beds - to heat. - To heat a bed at a moment's notice, throw a little salt into the warming-pan and suffer it to burn for a minute previous to use.

Bed - to ascertain vw^hen it is aired. - Introduce a glass goblet be- tween the sheets for a minute or two, just when the warming-pan is taken out; if the bed be dry, there will only be a slight cloudy appear- ance on the glass, but if not, the damp on the bed will assume the more formidable appearance of drops, the warning of danger.

Bed-Sores - to prevent. - The patient being often obliged to lie in one position, bed-sores occur - being due to long continued pressure on parts whose general vitality is weakened. They usually form at the lower end of the backbone. Much may be done to prevent them by keeping the under sheet perfectly smooth, clean, and dry. Pres- sure on any one point may be avoided by changing the position fre- quently. The parts of the body resting most heavily on the bed, when the skin is not broken, should be sponged three or four times daily with alcohol or whisky and water. Air cushions, so made as to remove all pressure from the lower end of the backbone, are use- ful.

Beef - to corn. - Put six gallons of pure water in a large wash ket- tle, and add thereto six pounds of saltpeter, and set down to boiling. When the saltpeter is fully dissolved and the water boiling, immerse

20 WHA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO W.

your beef, previously, cut into convenient pieces for family use, in the boiling saltpeter water. It can be held so in the water on a large flesh fork, or long hook. Let it remain immersed while you count ten, slowly. Take out, let it get quite cold, and then pack closely and firmly in the cask or barrel. To your boiling saltpeter water now add nine pounds of fine salt, three pounds of pure, dry sugar, one quart of best molasses, and one of pearlash. Boil slowly, and as the impurities arise, skim off. If your water should have been long boil- ing, while immersing the beef, add half a gallon more to supply loss by evaporation. When this pickle is perfectly cold, pour over the beef and hold down by heavy weight. The scalding of the beef in the saltpeter water closes the pores, prevents the juice of the meat going out into the pickle, and instead of the strong, tough, juiceless and salty stuff usually sold as corned beef, you have a juicy, com- pact, tender piece of beef, as inviting as the rump roast of a stall-fed ox, and deliciously flavored.

Beef (good) - to choose. - The grain of ox beef, when good, is loose, the meat red, and the fat inclining to yellow. Cow beef, on the contrary, has a closer grain, a whiter fat, but meat scarcely as red as that of ox beef. Inferior beef, which is meat obtained from ill-fed animals, oi from those which had become too old for food, may be known by a hard, skinny fat, a dark red lean, and, in old animals, a line of horny texture running through the meat of the ribs. When meat pressed by the finger rises up quickly, it may be considered as that of an animal which was in its prime; when the dent made by pressure returns slowly, or remains visible, the animal had probably passed its prime, and the meat consequently must be of inferior qual- ity.

Beef - spiced. - Boil a chine of ten or twelve pounds until the meat falls from the bone, pick the meat to pieces, mash the gristle fine, rejecting all parts too hard to mash. Cool the liquor and take off all the fat, boil it down to one and one-half pints, then return the meat, and while hot add salt and pepper to taste, and if relished, a little nutmeg, sage and one-half teaspoonful of cloves, and same of cassia. Let it boil up once and put it in a mould, pan, or deep dish to cool. Slice as wanted.

Beef - to cure quickly. - To cure fresh beef, hams, or shoulders, in a short time, put one or two pounds of good salt in a kettle or spider, and heat it over the stove until all the moisture is expelled and the salt is so hot that it will hiss when a drop of water is dropped in. It will take about two pounds of salt to one hundred pounds of meat. Just before removing from the fire, where it must be con- stantly stirred, add one ounce of pulverized saltpeter to each pound of salt, or in that proportion. Have the meat ready; if hams, lay them on the skin-side, and over all parts where the flesh is exposed rul) thickly with brovv'n sugar; then with a large iron spoon apply the hot salt, which will penetrate the meat and take the sugar with it. Cover well with this salt, and lay in a- boi' on a shelf in the same

WHAT EVERY ONE SHOULD KNOIV. 21

position for two days, when the hams can be smoked if desired, and they will have all the flavor of sugar-cured hams. Treat beef in the sanie way, one side at a time, and after two of three days hang up to dry. I have prepared the finest dried beef I ever saw in this way.

Beef - to keep. - To keep fresh beef, mutton or fish, in warm weather without salt, dissolve borax in water at the rate of one-quar- ter or a pound of borax to one gallon of water. Cool the meat, and then cover with this liquid in a clean jar or barrel. It can be kept for weeks in this way. Salt can be added to season, if desired.

Beef - to boil. - The round is the best boiling piece. Put the meat in the pot, with water enough to cover it; let it boil very slow at first. This is the great secret of making it tender. Take off the scum as it rises. From two to three hours, according to size, is the time for boiling.

Beef - to roast. - The nicest pieces for roasting are the sirloin and rib pieces; the " middle or second cut ribs" are considered the best, but the " first cut ribs " are the smallest and most suitable for a small family. Ask your butcher to remove the bone, roll the meat into a round shape, and tie securely with a stout string. Then, before send- ing it to the table, you can remove the string and insert one or two steel skewers. Before placing the meat to roast dredge all over with flour, seasoned with salt; then place it upon a grating in your drip- ping-pan and put it in a very hot oven; baste frequently; if the meat is very fat you will need no water in your pan; if not, you had bet- ter pour a small cup of boiling water into the pan after it has been in the oven fifteen minutes. A piece weighing eight or nine pounds will cook in an hour, that is, if you like your meat rare. Remove the meat when done to a heated dish, skim the drippings, add a little boiling water (a little browned flour if you wish), and boil up once ; then strain it and send to table in a gravy-boat.

Beef - balls. - Any piece of cold beef or other meat may be chop- ped fine, mixed Avith cold potato also chopped, bread-crumbs, and chopped hard-boiled eggs. Season well with salt and pepper, make into flat balls, and fry as you would codfish balls. They are excel- lent.

Beef^frizzled. - Chip the beef as thin as paper with a very sharp knife. Melt in a frying-pan butter the size of an ^^%, stir the beef about in it for two or three minutes, dust in a little flour, add half a teacupful of rich cream, boil and serve in a covered dish.

Beef Tea (frozen). - For children and invalids it has been found to be a successful method to freeze beef tea, and to administer it in lumps to children or patients to suck. They will take it in this form rather than any other kind of food.

Bees - how to manage. - The great secret, or charm, as many peo- ple suppose it to be, can all be summed up in one word - "smoke," One can handle them just as well as another, if they have the nerve and determined will to do so; and this knowledge and the bee-smoker are the first requisites. The bee-smoker is a small bellows with a tin

22 'WHA T E VER Y ONE SIIO ULD KNO W.

fire-box attached for burning rotten wood or cotten rags, or, in fact, anything that will burn and make a good smoke. There are now a half dozen or more kinds in the market that sell for from seventy- five cents to two dollars, so that no one who keeps even a single hive of bees need have any excuse for being without one. I will say, em- phatically, never goto a hiveof bees to do anything with them without your smoker trimmed and burning. The first thing before disturbing the hive in any way, puff a few whiffs of smoke in at the entrance; this will generaly drive in the sentinels, and also prevent any from coming out. If they are Italians, this will almost always be sufficent; but if they are crosser kinds, it had better be repeated a few times. This will frighten and excite them, and they will at once fill themselves with honey, which makes them very docile, unless they are accident- ally pinched. After waiting a few minutes, the lid or cover to the hive may be raised, but do it gently; in fact, always do every thing gently about them, as all quick motions or jars of the hive tend to exasper- ate them. As soon as you raise the lid a little, send in more smoke, and enough if necessary, to drive them down and out of the way; then proceed to put on or take off boxes, or do all the work necessary. If they begin to come up or to dispute your right, use more smoke to convince them you are master of the situation. But from the very start just make up j'our mind that you can and 7vill, and that is half the battle. With Italians, after the first few puffs of smoke, they can often be handled for an hour or two without any more smoke, but with blacks or hybrids it may be necessary to repeat the dose every few minutes. Smoke does not injure them at all.

Bee-Hive Covers - to prevent leaking. - To prevent bee-hive cov- ers from leaking, tack on flour sacks and give them two good coats of paint, and they will stand out doors for years and not leak a drop.

Bee Stings - cure for. - Take a pinch in the finger of common salt, put on the place stung and dissolve with water, rub with the finger. If not relieved in one minute wet the place with aqua ammonia. Care should be taken not to get the ammonia into the eye. I have used this remedy for several years and it has never failed with me. It has always arrested the poison and prevented swelling.

Beeswax - to render. - To render beeswax, put the wax into a thin muslin bag, and add some pebbles to make it sink into a wash- boiler containing water. Let it boil, then press out the wax with a pair of squeezers (i. e. two narrow boards fastened together at the end with a cord). Then skim and pour ifito a bucket partly filled with warm water, and set away to cool.

Beer (Ginger), - i. To a pail half-filled with boiling water add one pint of molasses and two spoonfuls of ginger; when well stirred, fill the pail with cold water, leaving room for one pint of yeast, which must not be put in until the preparation becomes lukewarm. Place it on a warm hearth for the night and bottle in the morning.

2. White sugar, twenty pounds; lemon juice, eighteen ounces; honey, one pound; bruised ginger, seventeen ounces; v.'ater, eighteen

WHA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO W. 23

gallons; boil the ginger in three gallons of the water for half an hour; then add the sugar, the juice, and the honey, with the remainder of the water, and strain through a cloth; when cold add the white of an egg and half an ounce of the essence ol lemon; after standing four days, bottle. This beverage will keep for many months.

Beer (Hop). - Mix fourteen pounds of molasses and eleven gallons of water well together, and boil them for two hours with eleven ounces of hops. When quite cold add a cupful of yeast, and let the mixture ferment for sixteen hours in a tub covered with a sack. Then put it in a cask and keep it filled. Bung it down in two days, and in seven days it will be fit to drink, and will be stronger than London porter.

Beer (Root). - Mix together a small amount of sweet fern, sarsa- parilla, winter-green, sassafras, princesspine, and spicewood. Boil them .with two or three ounces of hops and two or three raw potatoes, pared and sliced in three or four gallons of water. After boiling five or six hours, strain off the liquor, and add to it common molasses in the proportion of one quart to three gallons of the beer. If it is too thick, dilute it with water. A half pound of browned bread added to the liquor, will increase its richness.

Beer (White Spruce). - Mix together three pounds of loaf sugar, five gallons of water, a cup of good yeast, adding a small piece of lemon-peel, and enough of the essence of spruce to give it flavor. When fermented, preserve in close bottles. Molasses or common brown sugar can be used, if necessary, instead of loaf, and the lemon- peel left out. Sometimes, when unable to obtain the essence of spruce, we have boiled down the twigs. This will be found a delightful home drink.

Belladonna Mixture. - To be taken as a preventive when fevers or any infectious complaints are prevalent. Extract Belladonna, five ounces; Aquae Cinnamomi, two ounces. Take fifteen drops of the above in a tablespoonful of water every morning for ten or twelve days. Children to have as many drops as they are years old.

Belting - ways to manage, etc. - Leather belts will last double the usual time if treated with castor oil, will be rat proof, will always remain flexible and will not crack. A belt four inches wide will be equal to one six inches wide without it. It requires about twenty- four hours to penetrate the leather; if used sooner the greasiness will cause it to slip. A leather belt should have a speed of one thousand three hundred feet per minute, and not more than one thousand eight hundred feet or it will not last long. Leather belts, with grain side to pulley will drive thirty-five per cent, more than the flesh side, because it is less porous, thus admitting less air between the surfaces. Pulleys covered with leather will evolve full fifty per cent, more power than the naked pulley. To increase the power of rubber belting, use red lead, French yellow and litharge, equal parts; mix with boiled linseed oil and japan suflEicient to make it dry quick. This will produce a highly polished surface. Experiments without lubricants resulted in showing the following co-efficients: Oak upon oak, sixty-two; wrought

24 WHAT EVERY ONE SHOULD KXOW.

iron on oak, forty-nine to sixty-two; cast iron on oak, sixty-five; Avroughit iron on cast, nineteen; cast iron on cast, sixteen; cast iron axles on lignum-vitte bear.ngs, eighteen; copper on oak, sixty-two; iron on elm, twenty-five; pear tree on cast iron, forty-four; iron axles on lignum-vitse bearings (with oil), eleven; iron axles with brass bear- ings (with oil), seven. A belt five inch wide, velocity one thousand feet per minute, on leather covered pulleys, Vv'ill yield five horse power; double the speed and it will evolve double the power.

Bengal Lights - to make. - Take of nitrate of potassa (saltpeter), eight parts; sublimed sulphur, four parts; and antimony, one part; let them be well mixed in powder and beat firmly into a stout iron cup, and set on fire; if a little camphor be added it is still more brilliant. Such lights are made use of for communicating at a great distance by sea at night.

Benzine - uses of, - Benzine dissolve fats and oils, resins, varnish- es, paint, etc., so readily, that it is largely used for the purpose of clean- ing clothing and other fabrics. It is within the recollection of many that benzine was once rather costly, and could only be purchased in small bottles at a high price. Now it is cheap; the makers of kerosene produce so much more benzine than there is a demand for, that, at wholesale at least, it bears but a nominal price. Benzine, in careless hands, is a very dangerous article, and no one should use it without understanding its properties, that accidents may be guarded against. It boils at one hundred and forty ^F., and at all ordinary temperatures rapidly evaporates. When this vapor is mingled with the air, the two form a mixture which, in contact with a flame, will explode violently. The vapor of the benzine, when not mixed with air to form an explosive mixture, will readily take fire and burn rapidly. A bottle partly filled, in a warm room, will give off the vapor so freely, that it Avill take fire even when at a distance of several inches from a lamp. In working with benzine, always use it by daylight, and in a room without a fire, or so far from a fire that there can be no danger. These facts can not be too thoroughly impressed upon all who have occasion to use this liquid for any purpose. In using benzine and other solvents for removing grease or other spots from fabrics, a mere wetting often is given, and after the benzine has evaporated, the place looks worse than before. By applying a little benzine, the grease or other substance is dissolved, and this solution spreads to the surround- ing portions of the cloth, and the evil is increased. We must use the liquid in such a manner as to dissolve the grease, and then to carry away the solution - w'e must, in fact, wash out the spot with benzine. To do this, it is not necessary to immerse the article or a large portion of it. In removing a spot, first fold some old woolen cloths, or even porous newspapers, to form a thick pad. Place this pad under the article, and wet the spot with benzine. Use a sponge or a roll of v.-oolen cloth, and rub the spot, adding more benzine as it is taken up by the pad below. In this manner the benzine holding the grease, etc., in solution, is absorbed by the pad, and the solution is washed ou:j

WIIA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 25

of the cloth by successive quantities of benzine, to be also carried down into the pad. Success depends upon using sufficient benzine; it is cheap, and one need not be sparing of it. Gloves are cleaned by immersing them in benzine in a wide-mouthed glass-stoppered bottle. The gloves are shaken up with the liquid for a few minutes, taken out, squeezed, and hung under a chimney to dry. If any spots are left, these are rubbed with a rag wet with benzine. If the gloves retain any odor, they are placed on a plate, covered by another, and whole set upon a kettle of boiling water. The heat will soon drive off the odor.

Billiousness - remedy for. - If the victim of this diseased condition will exercise due care they need not ransack creation for " anti-bilious pills." The bile does not belong in the stomach, but reaches there in consequence of improper food, too much of the oily, as butter, pork, lard, etc. The bile is nature's grand cathartic medicine, passing from the liver in a direction to indicate that it is to pass on into the bowels, there to perform its important mission. When the liver is overtaxed by too much labor, or by the presence of too much greasy food, diges- tion is impaired and the whole system becomes out of order. If one would avoid biliousness, let him fast, passing over one or more meals. As soon as the "mouth tastes bad," the tongue is coat- ed, the appetite flags - the best possible evidence that too much food has been taken - thus allowing nature to rally, the accumulated food to pass off, and the system be relieved. In nine cases out of ten, this fasting will remove the difficulty, save a fit of sickness, and cheat the doctor! Any quack nostrum that will do as much as fasting, would yield a fortune to the inventor. Many of them, however, if not most, increase disease, rather than improve health.

Bird Lime. - Take any quantity of the middle bark of the holly. Boil it in water for several hours, until it becomes quite soft. Drain off the water, and place the holly bark in a hole in the earth, surround- ed with stones; here let it remain to ferment; and water it, if necessary, until it passes into a mucilagmous state. Then pound it well, and wash it in several waters. Drain it and leave it for four or five days to ferment and purify.

Birds - to preserve. - Small birds may be preserved as follows: - Take out the entrails, open a passage to the brain, which should be scooped out through the mouth; introduce into the cavities of the skull and the whole body some of the mixture of salt, alum, and pep- per, putting some through the gullet and whole length of the neck; then hang the bird in a cool, airy place, first by the feet that the body may be impregnated by the salts, and afterwards by a tjiread through the under mandible of the bill, till it appears to be sweet then hang it in the sun, or near a fire; after it is well dried, clean out what remains loose of the mixture, and fill the cavity of the body with wool, oakum, or any soft substance, and pack it smooth in paper.

Biscuit (Tea). - To one quart of sifted flour add two teaspoonfuls of baking powder and one teaspoonful of salt. Mix these together

26

and pass them through a sieve in order to thoroughly blend them. Now add sufficient sweet milk to make a batter, then heat your gem pans hot, and fill them half-full of the batter and bake in a hot oven. These are a delicious little biscuit, applicable to either breakfast or tea, and can be made and baked in ten or fifteen minutes.

Biscuit (Milk). - To a quart of flour put one cup of buttermilk, or clabber, one heaping tablespoonful of salt; work up very slightly and set the dough in a warm place for four or five hours; then add a half teaspoonful of soda; knead smoothly, and bake in a moderate oven.

Biscuit (Sour Milk). - Biscuits made with sour milk or cream of tartar should be handled as little as possible and put as soon as made into a hot oven. A warm oven makes soggy biscuit. The colder the milk or water used in making them, the lighter and more tender they will be.

Bites and Stings - cure for. - Apply instantly with a soft rag, most freely, spirits of hartshorn. The venom of stings being an acid, the alkali nullifies them. Fresh wood ashes, moistened with water, and made into a poultice, frenquently renewed, is an excellent substitute, or soda or saleratus, all being alkalies.

Bites (of snakes and dogs) - treatment. - i. Apply immediately strong hartshorn, and take it internally; also give sweet oil and stimu- lants freely; apply a ligature right above the part bitten, and then apply a cupping-glass.

2. In case of a bite of a venomous serpent the old historic method of sucking the wound with the lips is one of the first things to be resorted to. If the poison is in the circulation the use of strong brandy or whisky, in quantites powerful enough to produce intoxication, must be resorted to. The bite of a mad dog should be cauterized at once by a pencil of lunar-caustic, or by application of irons heated white. The peculiarity of hydrophobic poison is that it remains in the spot where the bite occurs, for several days or weeks; and not until this poison ferments does it become dangerous. Dr. Hewett, a surgeon of London, allowed himself to be bitten no less then eighty times by rabid dogs, each time successfully cauterizing the wound. He fell a victim to his temerity, however, for one day he was found dead with a pistol-shot from his own hand. A statement was left in his papers that he had neglected the cauterization too long, and feeling the first symptoms of hydrophobia, he preferred to die without the long agony.

3. Pliny affirms that the mustard plant is a sovereign remedy against the bite of most venomous serpents; it is only necessary to apply it to the wound.

Bitters (Stomach). - Gentian root, six ounces; oi-ange peel, ten ounces; cinnamon, one ounce; anise seed, two ounces; coriander seed, two ounces, cardamon seed, one-half ounce; Peruvian bark unground, two ounces; bruise all the articles and add one ounce gum kino, put in two quarts alcohol and two quarts pure spirit, or good whisky may

WHA T E VER V ONE S/IO ULD k'NO IV. 27

be used instead of pure spirit; shake occasionally for tei\ days, and filter through three thicknesses of woolen; then one-half pint of this may be added to a gallon of whisky, more or less as desired.

Bitters (Stoughton). - Three-fcurths of an ounce Peruvian bark, one ounce wild cherrybark, two ounces gentian root bruised, one ounce dried orange peel, one ounce cardamon seed bruised; keep in one gallon spirits two or three weeks. Cures dyspepsia, etc.

Blackberry Tea. - The " blackberry tea " so much used in domes- tic practice in various parts of the country, is made not from the ber- ries, but from the root. The root is not only employed as a family remedy, but our most skilled physicians find that, in chronic cases, it is most useful, and agrees with the stomach when other medicfnes will not be retained. We have known obstinate cases of the "army diarrhoea "to yield to this simple remedy when other medicines had failed. Those who wish to avail themselves of the remedial proper- ties of the blackberry, should make use of the root. It does not ap- pear that there is any perceptible difference in the roots of the several species; those of the running and bush forms of the blackberry have the same properties. As one or more species is to be found in every part of the country, a useful and inexpensive remedy is everywhere at hand. The usual method of preparing it is to add an ounce of root to a pint and a half of water, and simmer slowly until reduced to a pint, and strain. A dose of this tea for an adult is a wineglassful; for a child, one to three teaspoonfuls. While it is preparing, bits of orange-peel may be added, to give a pleasant flavor. This tea was much used by the surgeons of both armies in the late war with great success, and it is now much employed by physicians.

Blackberry Syrup. - Blackberry syrup may be prepared, to be kept at hand for use, in the following manner: Four ounces of black- berry root and one dram each of cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg, are gently simmered for an hour in a quart of water. The liquid is then strained oif, and two pounds of sugar added. When cold, add a wineglassful of brandy, and bottle for use. The dose for a child is a teaspoonful, and for an adult a tablespoonful.

Blackberry Wine - to make. - Blackberry wine, the usual pro- cess for other fruit juices may be followed. To a gallon of the berries, well bruised, add a quart of boiling water. Allow these to stand for twenty-four hours, stirring occasionally. Then strain and press out the juice, and add two pounds of sugar to each gallon. Place the liquid in a jug to ferment. The jug must be kept full by adding from time to time some of the juice kept for the purpose. When fermentation ceases, cork the jug, and keep in a cool place three or four months, after which the wine may be bottled, carefully pouring it off from the sediment. Of course larger quantities may be made with the same proportions, in a cask.

Blackberry Brandy. - Take ten gallons of brandy, and use five quarts nice rich blackberries, mashed; macerate the berries in the liquor for ten days, then strain off, and add one ounce sugar to each

28 WHA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO W.

gallon. If strawberries are used, work the same proportions with only half the quantity of sugar.

Blackbirds - food of. - The natural food of the blackbird is berries, worms, insects, shelled-snails, cherries and other similar fruit; audits artificial food, lean fresh meat, cut very small, and mixed with bread or German paste.

Blacking - for harness. - Melt four ounces of mutton suet with twelve ounces of beeswax, add twelve ounces of sugar candy, four ounces of soft soap dissolved in water, and two ounces of indigo finely powdered. When melted and well mixed, add half a pint of turpen- tine. Lay it on the harness with a sponge, and polish off with a brush.

Blacking - for boots and shoes. - Ivory black, two pounds; molas- ses, two pounds; sweet oil, one pound; rub together till well mixed, then add oil vitriol, three-quarters of a pound; add coarse sugar, one- half pound, and dilute wnth beer bottoms. This cannot be excelled. Blacking - for boots and shoes. - Ivory black, one and a half ounces; molasses, one and a half ounces; sperm oil, three drams; strong oil of vitriol, three drams; common vinegar, half a pint. Mix the ivory black, molasses and vinegar together, then mix the sperm oil and oil of vitriol separately, and add them to the other mixture.

Blacking - for leather. - Fill a bottle half full of nails, or rusty bits of iron, then fill with sharp vinegar; shake every few days for awhile; in a few weeks it will be fit for use. It improves with age. When used down, fill up again with vinegar. W^hen boots become red, wet in the blacking and oil them. They will look as good as new. The oil sets the color, and it will neither rub or wash off. It is good for all kinds of leather, and wuU not injure it in the least.

Black Walnut - to polish. - To give black walnut a fine polish, so as to resemble rich old wood, apply a coat of shellac varnish, and then rub it with a smooth piece of pumice-stone until dry. Another coat may be given, and the rubbing repeated. After this, a coat of polish, made of linseed oil, beeswax, and turpentine may be well rubbed in with a dauber, made of a piece of sponge tightly wrapped in a piece of fine flannel several times folded, and moistened with the polish. If this work is not fine enough, it may be smoothed with the finest sandpaper, and the rubbing repeated. In the course of time the walnut becomes very dark and rich in color, and in every way is superior to that which has been varnished.

Black Clothes - to restore. - Boil three ounces of logwood in a quart of vinegar, and when the color is extracted, drop in a piece of carbonate of iron the size of a large chestnut. Let it boil five min- utes. Have the article to be dyed sponged with soap and hot water, laying them on the table and sponge them all over with it, taking care to keep them smooth, and brush downward. When completely wet with the dye, dissolve a tcaspoonful of salaratus in a teacup of warm water, and sponge over with this, which sets the color so noth- ing rubs off. They must not be wrung or wrinkled, but carefully

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO IV. 29

hunj; -'P to drain. The brownest cloth may be made a perfect black in this simple manner. So many people have faded garments that this reciepe may be of service in restoring them to a lively color.

Black - to color. - Allow four pounds of woolen material to one- half pound of copperas. Wring the goods very dry out of warm water, and put into the copperas that has been boiling in water an hour. Set aside until cool enough to wring, then wash thoroughly in clear cold water. Boil two pounds of logwood tied in a bag one hour. Allow the articles to remain in this till cool enough to wring, then put them in water that dry clover has been steeped in, for about half an hour to prevent smutting. Dry thoroughly and wash.

Black Tongue - in cattle. - The symptoms are inflammation of the mouth, swelling of the head and face, discharge of bloody saliva, and high fever, marks the first stages. Ulcers soon appear under and on the sides of the tongue. Then the throat and neck swell, and if the disease is not checked gangrene ensues and the animal dies. The disease is said to yield readily to early and proper treatment. The following has proved very successful: The animal should be bled from the neck vein. Give him castor oil, one pint, to be repeated in ten hours if it should not operate. Then use the following: Powder- ed burnt alum, four ounces; chloride of lime, two ounces; corn meal, two quarts. Mix, and with this powder swab the mouth frequently.

Blauc Mange. - Take a handful of Irish moss, wash thoroughly in several waters, add a few pieces of stick cinnamon, and tie up loosely in a piece of mosquito netting. Boil about fifteen minutes in one quart of milk; turn the milk into a mould or bowl previously wet with cold water; let it stand until cold. When ready for use, turn it out upon a dish. If boiled enough, it will keep its form. Eat with sugar and cream.

Blankets - to cleanse. - Put two large teaspoonfuls of borax and a pint bowl of soft soap into a tub of cold water. When dissolved, put in a pair of blankets, and let them remain over night. Next day rub and drain them out, and rinse thoroughly in two waters, and hang them to dry. Do not wring them.

Blankets - to clean.. - When soiled they should be washed, and not scoured. Shake the dust from them, plunge them into plenty of hot soapsuds, let them lie till the hands can be borne in the water, wash quickly, rinse in new clean hot suds, shake thoroughly, stretch well, dry, and they will be as nice as new.

Blankets - to wash. - Take half a cake of soap, cut it into small pieces and dissolve it thoroughly in hot water. Pour this into enough cold v/ater to cover the blankets; add two ounces of borax (pulverized dissolves most readily), and put your blankets to soak all night. In the morning take them out and squeeze most of the water out of them and rinse thoroughly in cold water, in which a little borax has been dissolved; put them through a second rinsing water and then through the blueing water. Do not wring or squeeze them this time, but hang them up to drain and dry. The easiest way is to take them, while in

30 IVHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNC W.

the last v/ater, out under the clothes line, as it is not convenient to carry them when full of water. It is best not to double them over the line, but hang by one end or side. Of course you want a sunny day for drying them nicely, and if you put them to soak at night and the next day is stormy, it will not hurt them to soak longer. If the wool is very greasy, use more soap and borax. Fine flannels and baby's crocheted skirts and sacques ars nice when washed in this way, and if you use cold water they will not shrink. Vary the proportions of soap and borax to suit the quantity of water. I would not advise you to wash colored goods in this way, as they might fade.

Blankets (white wool) - to "wash. - To wash wool blankets, we shoqjd make a suds from nice hard soap, and make it warm enough to be comfortable to the hands and proceed to rub them through two waters, using no soap except that which is dis- solved in the water. Rinse in water of the same temperature as that in which they were washed, shake out and dry smoothly, then fold and press by laying a weight upon them. If white blankets are washed in this way, they will not shrink, and will retain their Avhite- ness for many years.

Blanket (Roman) - to knit. - Five stripes, three of black and two of Roman colors. Stripes are fifty stitches wide, and two hundred and seventy-five ribs long. Knit garter stitch. Take off the first and seam the last stitch in each row. Crochet strips together with four stitches black, four white; and four yellow. Material; Germantown wool sixfold, one and three-eighths pounds of black, one-fourth pound of cherry, one-fourth pound of blue, one-fourth pound pearl white, and two ounces of yellow, shade bordering on orange. For fringe, one thread of yellow with three of black for black stripes, P.o- man colors for Roman stripes. Arrangement of colors: One row of white, one row of blue, one row of cherry, one row of blue, one row of yellow, one row of cherry, one row of white, twelve rows of blue, one row of white, one row of cherry, one row of blue, one row of yellow, one row of white, ono row of cherry, one row of blue, ten rows of white, one row of blue, one row of white, one row of cherry, one row of blue, one row of yellow, one row of cherry, one row of white, sixteen rows of cherry.

Bleeding - irom the nose. - From whatever cause, bleeding from the nose may gcierally be stopped by putting aplug^of lint into the nostrils; if this does not do, apply a cold lotion to the forehead; raise the head, and place both arms over the head , so that it will rest on both hands; dip the lint plug, slightly moistened, into some powdered gum- arabic, and plug the nostrils again; or dip the plug into equal parts of powdered gum-arabic and alum. An easier and simpler method is to place a Diece of writing paper on the gums of the upper jaw, under the upjlcr lip, and let it remain there for a few minutes.

Bleeding - to stop. - If a man is wounded so that blood flows, that flow is either regular, or by jets or spurts. If it flows regularly, a vein has been wounded, and a string should be bound tightly around

IVHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 31

below the wounded part, that is, beyond it from the heart. If the blood comes out by leaps or jets, an artery has been severed, and the person may bleed to death in a few minutes; to prevent which apply the cord above the wound, that is, between the wound and the heart, in case a string orcofd is not at hand, tie the two opposite corners of a handkerchief around the limb, put a stick between and turn it round until the handkerchief is twisted sufficiently tight to stop the bleedmg, and keep it so until a physician can be had.

Bleeding - of a wound. - The following simple remedies may be made use of; Soak some linen rags in strong vinegar, burn it and strew the ashes on the wound, or bruise the tops of stinging-nettles and place them over it, or apply a good dressing of the powder of ripe puff-balls. In certain cases it may be desirable to tie two or three tight ligatures near the lower part of each joint, and slacken them gradually. This will assist in stopping the flow of blood.

Bleeding - to stop the flow. - i Take the fine dust of tea or the scrapings of the inside of tanned leather and bind it close upon the wound, and blood will soon cease to flow. These articles are at all times accessible and easy to be obtained. After the blood has ceased to flow laudanum may be advantageously applied to the wound.

2. For bleeding, take linen or other rags, burn to charcoal and put it in the wound and no more blood will come.

Blister - to dress. - Spread a little blister compound on a piece of common adhesive plaster with the right thumb. It should be put on just thickly enough to conceal the appearance of the plaster beneath. The part from which a blister has been taken should be covered over till it heals with soft linen rags smeared with lard.

Blistered Hands or Feet. - When the hands are blistered from rowing, or the feet from walking or other causes, be careful not to allow the blisters to break, if possible. Some persons are in the babit, by means of a needle and piece of worsted, of placing a seton into blisters to draw off the water; but in our opinion this is a great mistake and retards the healing. Bathe the blisters frequently in warm water, or, if they are very severe, make a salve of tallow, drop- ped from a lighted candle into a little gin and worked up to a proper consistence, and on going to bed cover the blisters with this salve and place a piece of clean soft rag over them.

Blood Blister - to treat. - When a finger is bruised so as to cause a blood-blister under the nail, it should immediately be drilled with a knife 01 other sharp-pointed instrument, and the blood allowed to escape. This affords instant relief to an injury which may other- wise become exceedingly painful.

Blood Purifier. - Mix half an ounce sulphate of magnesia with one pint water. Dose, a wineglassful three times a day. This can be used in the place of iron tonic, or in connection with it.

Blueing - for clothes. - Take one ounce of soft Prussian blue, powder it and put it in a bottle with one quart of clear rain water,

32 WHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO IV.

and add one-half ounce of pulverized oxalic acid. A tablespoonful is sufficient for a large washing.

Boils - treatment of. - These should be brought to a head by- warm poultices of camomile flowers; or boiled white lily root, or onion root by fermentation with hot water, or by stimulating plasters. When ripe they should be destroyed by a needle or lancet; but this should not be attempted until they are fully proved.

Boiled Flour - useful in cases of very relaxed bowels. - Tie up half a pound or a pound of flour in a cloth quite tight, boil it for twelve hours, then let it cool out of the water. When cool reduce it to powder, and give a teaspoonful at a time as a dose. It may be taken dry or moistened with a little milk or weak brandy and water.

Boots (Rubber) - to mend. - Procure some pure gum, which can be bought at any wholesale rubber house, or you can have your drug- gist order it for you at a cost of about five cents per ounce. At the same time order patching, and it is well to have two thicknesses for mending different goods. Put an ounce or two of gum into three or four times its bulk of benzine, cork tightly and allow it to stand four or five days, when it will be dissolved. Wet the boots with benzine for an inch or more around the hole and scrape Avith a knife. Repeat this wetting with benzine and scraping several times until thoroughly cleaned, and a new surface exposed. Wet the cloth side of the patch- ing with benzine and give one light scraping, then apply with a knife a good coating of the dissolved rubber, both to the boot and patch, and allow it to dry until it will not stick to your fingers, then apply the two surfaces and press or lightly hammer into as perfect compact as possible, and set away for a day or two, if possible, be- fore using.

Boots (Wet) - treatment of. - When boots are wet through, do not dry them, by the fire. As soon as they are taken off, fill them quite full with dry oats. This grain will rapidly absorb every vestige of damp from the wet leather. As it takes up the moisture it swells and fills the boot like a tightly fitting last, keeping its form good, and drying the leather without hardening it. In the morning shake out the oats and hang them in a bag near the fire to dry, ready for use on another occasion.

Boot and Shoe Preservative. - It is said two parts tallow and one of resin, melted together and applied to the soles of new boots or shoes, as much as the leather will absorb, will double their wear.

Borax - substitute for. - Alum two ounces, dilute with water and mix with two ounces potash, boil in pot half an hour over a gentle fire, take it out of the water, add two ounces gem salt in powder, as much of alkaline salt, three pounds honey, and one of cow's milk, mix all together, set it in the sun for three days, and the borax is ready for use. This \\'\\\ go twice as far in a blacksmith's shop as common borax.

Borax - uses of. - It may be interesting to some to knov/ that a weak solution of borax-water snuffed up the nostrils, causing it to

WIIA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 33

pass through the nasal passage to the throat, then ejecting it from the mouth, will greatly relieve catarrh, and in cases not too obstinate or long standing, will, if persevered in, effect a permanent cure. It is also of great value in case of inflamed or weak eyes. Make a solu- tion (not too strong), and bathe the eye by opening and shutting it two or three times in the water. This can be done by means of an eye-cup, or equally well by holding a handful of the water to the eye. Another difficulty, with which many persons are afflicted, is an irrita- tion or inflammation of the membrane lining the cavities of the nose, which becomes aggravated by the slightest coid, often causing great pain. This can be greatly relieved, if not entirely cured, by snuffing borax-water up the nostrils two or three times a day. The most diffi- cult cases of sore throat may be cured by using it simply as a gargle. As a wash for the head it not only leaves the scalp very white and clean, but renders the hair soft and glossy. It has also been found by many to be of invaluable service in case of nervous headache. If applied in the same manner as in washing the hair; the result is won- derful. It may be used quite strong, after which rinse the hair care- fully with clear water; let the person thus suffering remain in a quiet, well-ventilated room, until the hair is nearly or quite dry, and if pos- sible, indulge in a short sleep, and there will hardly remain a trace of the headache. If clergymen, teachers, and others, who have an undue amount of brain work for the kind and quality of physical ex- ercise usually taken, would shampoo the head in this manner about once a week, and then undertake no more brain work until the follow- ing morning, they would be surprised to find how clear and strong the faculties had become, and there is reason to hope there would be much less premature decay of the mental faculties. As a toilet requisite it is quite indispensible. If used to rinse the mouth each time after cleaning the teeth it will prevent the gums from becoming diseased or uncleanly. In short, in all cases of allaying inflammation there is probably nothing better in materia medica. The average strength of the solution should be a small teaspoonful to a toilet-glass of water.

Bots in Horses - cure for. - Give the horse, first, two quarts of new milk and one quart molasses; fifteen minutes afterwards give two quarts very strong sage tea; thirty minutes after the tea, give three*' pints (or enough to operate as physic), of curriers' oil. The molasses and milk cause the bots to let go their hold, the tea puckers them up, and the oil carries them completely away. Cure, certain, in the worst cases.

Bouilli (French). - The most common disht hroughout France is a piece of plainly boiled fresh beef, from which the soup has been partly made, and which is separately served up as bouilli, accom- panied by strong gravy and minced vegetables or stewed cabbage. Now this, as dressed in the French mode, is ever delicate, both in fibre and flavor; while, in the usual manner of boiling it, it is almost always hard and insipid. The reason, says that celebrated cook

34 WHAT EVERY OXE SHOULD KNOIV.

Careme, is this: " The meat is put in the pot with the usual quantity of cold water, and placed at the corner of the fireplace, where, slowly becoming hot, the heat gradually swells the muscular fibres of the beef, dissolving the gelatinous substance therein contained, and dis- engaging that portion which chemists term " osraazone," and v.-hich imparts savor to the flesh - thus both rendering the meat tender and palatable, and the broth relishing and nutritive; while, on the con- trary, if the pot be inconsiderately put upon too quick a fire, the boil- ing is precipitated, the fibre coagulates and hardens, the osmazone is hindered from disengaging itself, and thus nothing is obtained but a piece of tough meat, and a broth without taste or succulence."

Borers - to protect trees from.^An Ohio farmer washes his apple trees every spring and fall with a strong lye that will float an (^gg, and finds it to be sure death to the borers. He claims that he has not lost a tree since beginning this practice, although he had lost several previously.

Box Measures. - Farmers and market gardeners will find a series of box measures very useful- and they can be readily made by any one who understands the two-foot rule, and can handle the saw and the hammer. A box sixteen by sixteen and one-eighth inches square and eight inches deep, will contain a bushel, or 2150.4 cubic inches, each inch in depth holding one gallon.

A box twenty-four by eleven and one-fifth inches square and eight inches deep will also contain a bushel, or 2150.4 cubic inches, each inch in depth holding one gallon.

A box twelve by eleven and one-fifth inches square and eight inches deep will contain half a bushel, or 1075.2 cubic inches, each inch in depth holding half a gallon.

A box eight by eight and one-fourth inches square and eight inches deep will contain half a peck, or 298.8 cubic inches. The gallon dry measure.

A box four by four inches square and four and one-fifth inches deep will contain one quart, or 67.2 cubic inches.

Brains - to cook, - To a cultivated appetite these are among the choicest parts of any animal. Brains should be soaked in v/ater to remove all the blood from them; then they may be fried in butter till well done, A nice way of preparing them is to boil them in milk for r.bout twenty minutes, pour off the milk and pour over them vinegar. Cooked in this way they are as nice as pickled oysters, from which liiey can scarcely be told.

Brain Stimulant. - The best possible thing for a man to do when ho leels too weak to carry anything through, is to go to bed and sleep as long as he can. This is tlie only recuperation of brain power, the only actual recuperation of brain force;. because during sleep the brain is in a state of rest, in a condition to receive and appropriate particles of nutriment from the blood, which take the place of those which have been consumed by previous labor, since the very act of thinking burns

WHA T E VER V ONE SHOULD KNO W. 35

up solid particles, as every turn of the wheel or screw of the steamer is the result of consumption by fire of the fuel in the furnace.

Brain - enlargement of. - This chiefly effects children, and consists in ;in unnatural growth of the brain. The skull may grow v/ith it, and there be no symtoms of disease, though children witli this large brain are apt to die of some brain disease. The symptoms of enlarge- ment of the brain are, dullness of intellect, indifference to external objects, irritable temper, inordinate appetite, giddiness, and habitual headache. Sometimes there are convulsions, epileptic fits, and idiocy. There is also a pecular projection of the parietal bones in this disease.

Treatment. - As much as possible, repress all exercise of the mind. Do not suffer the child to go to school; but put it to the most active and muscular exercise in the open air. The moment there is any heat in the top of the head, apply cold water, ice, or cold evaporating lotions. The diet should be very simple, bread and milk only, if, as the child grows up, the signs of the disease increase.

Brandy (Cherry) - to make. - Good whisky, ten gallons; wild black cherries, five quarts, well bruised with stones broken; common al- monds shelled, one pound; white sugar, cinnamon, cloves and nut- meg, well bruised, of each one-half ounce. Mix and Let stand twelve days, and draw off. This, with the addition of two gallons brandy, makes the m.ost superior cherrv brandy.

Brandy (Cognac). - To every ten gallons of pure spirits add two quarts New England rum, or one quart Jamaica rum, and from thirty to forty drops oil cognac, cut in one-half pint alcohol, and color with burnt sugar to suit.

Brass or Silver - to clean. - To clean brass and silver, and polish the same, use aqua ammonia and rotten-stone, followed by rouge, applied with soft leather.

Brass or Copper - several ways to clean and polish. - i. First remove all the stains, by rubbing the brass with a flannel dipped in vinegar; then polish with a leather and dry rotton-stone.

2. Rub the surface of the metal with rotton-stone and sweet oil, then rub off with a piece of cotton flannel, and polish with a piece of soft leather. A solution of oxalic acid rubbed over brass soon re- moves the tarnish, rendering the metal bright. The acid must be washed off Vv'ith water, and the brass rubbed v.'ith whiting and soft leather. A mixture of muriatic acid and alum dissolved in water im- parts a golden color to brass articles that are steeped in it for a few seconds.

3. Brass ornaments should be first washed with a strong lye made of rock alum, in the proportion of one ounce of alum to a pint of water. When dry, rub Vv'ith leather and fine tripoli. This will give to brass the brilliancy of gold.

4. Copper utensils or brass articles may be as thoroughly cleaned and look as bright by washing them with a solution of salt and vine- gar as by using oxalic acid, and the advantage of running no risk of poisoning eiiher children or careless persons. Use as much salt as

36 IVIIA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD K'XO \V.

the vinegar will disolve, and apply with a woolen rag, rubbing vigor- ously, then polish with pulverized chalk, and the article will look like new, with little labor, as the acid of the vinegar is very efficient in removing all stains from either copper or brass.

5. The quickest and easiest way to brighten copper or brass, is to wet a cloth in a t.trong solution of oxalic acid, and rub till it is clear, then dip a dry llannel into tripoli or prepared chalk, and rub it well.

6. A good paste for cleaning brass may be made by mixing one part oxalic acid and six parts rotten-stone, with equal parts of train oil and spirits of turpentine, making a thick paste of the whole.

7. Clean brass with a solution made by dissolving one tablespoon- ful oxalic acid and two tablespoonfuls tripoli in a half pint of soft water. Apply with a woolen rag, and after a few minutes wipe dry and polish.

8. Wash with warm water to remove grease, then rub with a mix- ture of rotten stone, soft soap, and oil of turpentine, mixed to the consistence of stitf putty. The stone should be powdered very fine and sifted; and a quantity of the mixture may be made sufficient to last for a long time. A little of the above mixture should be mixed with water, rubbed over the metal, then rubbed briskly with a dry clean rag or leather, and a beautiful polish will be obtained.

Bread - to make. - My yeast is made of a pint of pared, boiled and mashed potatoes; put a half pint of tlcuir in with them, then pour on about a pint of the water in which they were boiled, stir this together and then add a pint of warm water, if the weather is cold, and one pint of yeast. Keep it in a warm place to rise; take one pint of this with flour enough to make a sponge, or rising, as some people call it; it will rise in about two hours, and this much will make up six pints of Hour; make it up tolerably stitf, knead it well, and you will have good bread if it is baked properly

Bread (^Graham). - Prepare a sponge as for white bread; put into your baking-pan the next morning a proportionate quantity of flour, two-thirds Graham and one-third white, to every quart of which you will allow a large handful of Indian meal and a teaspoonful of salt. Make a hole in the center of this and pour in your sponge, with two tablespoonfuls of molasses for each medium sized loaf. The dough must be very sofv. It will take a longer time to rise than white bread; when light knead again, make into loaves, and set in a warm place for a second rising. Bake steadily in a moderate oven for a muck lotiger time than you would allow for wheat bread. Rapid baking will spoil it. In this you must acquire judgment by experience. The most essential point in the making of the dough is to keep it very soft.

Bread (fried). - A good way to use the yolks of eggs when you have them left after making cake with the whites, is to keep them in a cool place; in the morning beat them well, and dip slices of bread in them and fry brown. Stale bread may be used for this.

Bread - to make. - Perplexed housekeepers will find no trouble with the bread sponge not rising during the night, by using the fol-

JVHA T E VER V ONE SIIO ULD KNO W. 37

lowing method: At breakfast time, mix two tablespoonfuls of flour, one of sugar, and one of salt, and scald with one pint of boiling water; when cool, add a yeast cake, or its ec|uivalent in yeast, and set to rise until noon. When putting on the dinner potatoes, add about ten extra ones, and, when boiled and peeled, mash them fine, and scald with three quarts of water. When cool, add to the first mi.xture, and set to rise until night. It is then ready for use, and should be kept in a crock, not too tightly closed, in a comparatively warm place. This will make six loaves of bread, and leave enough to raise the next mixture. In making the bread, use a pint of the mixture to each loaf, sifting in the requisite amount of flour, and kneading to taste, no other ingredients being necessary. Mold at once, and place in the baking-pan. Set to rise near the stove, or over a kettle of warm water if in great haste, and it will be ready to bake in three or four hours.

Bread (Boston brown). - Two quarts of unbolted rye meal well mixed with one quart of yellow corn meal, one teaspoonful salt, one large teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in one cupful of molasses. Work up with cold water, with the hands, to a very stiff loaf, put in a but- tered pan, smooth over the top with the back of a spoon, wet; steam at least four hours, and then dry off for twenty minutes, in the oven. This is always good, and is the genuine article. The steaming is the best part of it, for the longer corn and rye meals are cooked, without drying, the better they are.

Bread (brown). - Four cups of corn meal, three of rye, one of mo- lasses, one large teaspoonful of soda dissolved in warm water. Mix very thin, steam three houis, and bake half an hour. Try it.

Bread (brown) - steamed. - I^'our cups corn meal, two cups flour, one cup molasses, two cups sour milk, two and one-half or three cups of sweet milk or water, (some meal requires more wetting), one tea- spoonful soda, one and one-half teaspoonful salt; steam three and one-half or four hours.

Bread (rye). - Set a sponge over niglit, with one cupful yeiist, six potatoes boiled and mashed fine, with three cupfuls wheat flour, one pint warm water, two tablespoonfuls lard, two tablespoonfuls brown sugar, beat up well and set it aside to rise; in the morning mix with one quart warm milk, one teaspoonful salt, one cupful Indian meal, and enough rye flour to make it into a pliable dough, knead well, and let it rise from five to six hours, then work over again; divide into loaves, putting these into well greased deep pans; this second rising should last an hour; if your ovens are in good condition, one hour should bake the above quantity of bread.

Bread (Scotch short). - One pound flour, one-half pound butter, six ounces sugar, cream butter and sugar together, and add the flour; roll one-half inch thick, bake slowly, don't bake brown.

Bread (salt rising.) - Into a pint of fresh milk pour a pint of scald- ing water. Stir in smoothly, flour enough to make it a thick batter, keep at a uniform temperature for about six hours, when it will raise

38 IVHA r EVERY ONE SHOULD KNOW.

and should be at once used. Sift into a bowl three quarts of flour, pour in the yeast, add warm milk or water to wet up all the flour, salt to taste, knead lightly, put into pans, let it rise and then bake Great care is needed at every stage in making this bread; the yeast should be used iust when it passes from the saccharine to the vinous fermenta- tion, and before it gets the least bit sour. Just at the same point the raised dough must be put into the oven. The dough should be as soft when put into the pans as it can be conveniently handled. Some kinds of flour will not make good salt-rising bread. The dish in which the yeast is stirred must be perfectly sweet or it will sour before it rises. There is no sweeter or more wholesome bread than this when it is skillfully nxade.

Bread - to keep moist. - Have the dough stiff when it is set for the last rising. The larger the proportion of flour to that of moisture in the dough the longer it will keep moist. After the bread is baked and cold, put it in a tin box or an earthen jar with close cover, and keep it covered tightly. Bread thus made, and kept cool, and always from the air, will last and be moist for a week.

Bread (stale) - to freshen. - In order to freshen stale bread pursue the following plan; Dip the loaf wrapped in a clean cloth into boil- ing Avater; let it remain there for half a minute, then take off the cloth, and bake the loaf for ten minutes in a slow oven.

Bread Crumbs - to utilize. - The waste of bits of bread in some families is unpardonable. Every fragment of clean bread, if no bigger than a pea, should be saved and used. If attention be given to this, the quantity of crumbs that would otherwise be wasted, will astonish one who tries it. Do not allow the crumbs to mould; place them on a plate in the stove oven with the door open, until they are quite dry. Then roll the crumbs, until they are as fine as meal, and keep in a carefully closed vessel; a fruit can is excellent. Crumbs prepared in this wav, are useful to bread chops or cutlets, oysters for broiling, egg-plant for frying; they make the most perfect of bread puddings, and are unequaled for stuffings.

Breakfast Dish. - A good breakfast dish can be prepared from the remains of yesterday's dinner, providing that consisted in part of roast mutton. Chop it fine and put it in a saucepan with a cup of of gravy or of soup stock; season with pepper and salt, and scatter over it, stirring all the time a tablespconful of flour; let the meat heat gradual- ly and, w^hen " boiling hot," set the pan on the back part of the stove, and poach some eggs to serve with the meat, when the eggs are done put the meat on a platter, and lay the eggs around the edge. With fried potatoes, muflins, and good coffee, a wholesome breakfast may be provided at small expense.

Breakfast Hints. - The housekeeper should study variety in the breakfasts she offers her family, not only from day to day, but chang- ing them as much as possible with the seasons. The things which are the most suggestive of comfort on a cold winter's morning are by no means tempting in July, when we need not only lighter clothing,

39

but lighter food. Too often the meal loses all character in a con- tinual round of steak or chops, the year through, and dainty dishes which are really less expensive are ignored. Cold meats and chicken can easily be made into croquettes, or minced and Avell seasoned and served on slices of water toast. Eggs can be cooked in such a variety of ways that one need never tire of them, and the same may be said of potatoes. In their season, tomatoes sliced and served with Mayon- aise dressing, or a simple dressing of oil and vinegar, are very nice for breakfast. There is no more wholesome or tempting addition to the morning meal than fruit served as a first course. Gat meal por- ridge, too, is so healthful an article of food that it should be used universally. If it is necessary in order to economize time in the morn- ing to set the breakfast table the night before, it should be covered with an old linen tablecloth, or something of the kind kept for the purpose. The tea or coffee service should be placed in a line at one end of the table before the hostess; it is no longer customary to stand them on a tray. Mats, which are prettiest if they are pure and white, are put at the opposite end of the table for one or more substantial dishes, and at the sides for vegetables. A table set in this way looks much ijetter than when the host and hostess set opposite each other at the sides of the table, as in that case all the larger dishes are crowded in the center. A fork should be placed at the left of each plate and a knife and spoon at the right. The tablespoons and pep- per and salt stands are arranged at the corners of the table. If fruit which requires handling is to form the first course, as oranges or peaches, a plate upon which is a doily, finger bowl, fork and fruit knife, may be set at each place. After the fruit has been removed the more substantial part of the breakfast is brought on. The pot in which the coffee is made should be of a kind which is presentable at table, as the coffee is not so good if it is poured off the grounds into an urn. If it is not possible to have cream for it, boiled milk with a spoonful of condensed milk in each cup to make it richer is the best substitute. Cakes to be eaten wuth syrup should be served at the last of the meal, and the plates and knives and forks changed for them. It is well to have all plates which will be needed ready for use on the buffet, except in winter, when they may be consigned to the plate- warmer.

Brewis. - There is an old-fashioned dish made of brown bread crusts and pieces called brewis, which is very nice. Put the slices of bread, the crusts and broken pieces into a hot oven until they are well browned, then break them and put into a sauce pan with enough boiling milk well seasoned with salt and butter to cover the bread. Simmer slowly for an hour or two, adding milk as it boils away or is absorbed by the bread. Serve hot, and you will have a wholesome and palatable dish.

Britannia Metal - to clean. - i. Rub the article with a piece of flannel moistened with sweet oil; then apply a little pounded rotten- stone or polishing paste with the finger till the polish is produced,

40 WJ/A T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

then wash the article with soap and hot water, and when dry, rub with soft wash leather, and a little fine whiting.

2, To clean britannia metal, use finely powdered whiting, two tablespoonfuls of sweet oil and a little 5'ellow soap. INIix with spirits of wine to a cream. Rub on with a sponge, wipe off with a soft cloth and polish with a chamois skin.

Broadcloth - to remove stains from. - Take one ounce of pipe- clay that has been ground fine, and mix it with twelve drops of alco- hol, and the same quantity of spirts of turpentine. Moisten a little of this mixture with alcohol, and rub it on the spots. Let it remain till dry, then rub it oft' with a woolen cloth, and the spots will disap- per.

Bronchitis and Asthma Specific. - An unfailing source of relief from the agonies 01 bronchitis and spasmodic asthma will be found in the following specific; The juice qf two lemons, which have been warmed in the oven to dry the skins, four ounces of the best honey, two spoonfuls of the very finest Florence oil. Mix carefully, put in an earthen jar, which keep covered, and swallow a spoonful when you feel the fit coming on.

Bronze for Brass. - Take one ounce of muriate of ammonia, half an ounce of alum, and a quarter of an ounce of arsenic, dissolved in a pint of strong vinegar. This will make a good bronze for brass work.

Brooms - care of. - A large picture ring screwed into the top of the handle, is the nicest thing made by which to hangup a broom. A strong screw, with a small head, should be placed in the wall at a proper height to receive it.

Brooms - to toughen. - If brooms are wet in boiling suds once a week they will become very tough, Avill not cut a carpet, will last much longer, and always sweep like a new broom.

Bronchocele - to cure. - Iodide of potasium (often called hydrio- date of potash), two drams; iodine, one dram; water, two and a half ounces; mix and shake a few minutes, and pour a little intp a phial for internal use. Dose, five to ten drops before each meal, to be taken in a little w^ater. External application: With a feather, wet the en- larged neck, from the other bottle, night and morning, until well. It will cause the scarf skin to peel off several times before the cure is perfect, leaving it tender; but do not omit the application more than one day at most, and you may rest assured of a cure, if a cure can be performed by any means whatever.

Bugs - to drive from vines. - Ashes moistened with kerosene are recommended for keeping striped bugs from cucumbers, melon and squash vines.

Bulbs - to hasten the blooming of. - Dissolve twelve ounces of nitrate of potash, four ounces of common salt, three ounces of pearl- ash, five ounces of moist sugar in one quart of rainwater, and put a desert-spoonful of this liquid into the flower-glass, which should be filled with soft water so as not quite to touch the bulb. Change the

41

water, and add some more of the liquid every nine days. In chang- i ig the water no not remove the bulb, but merely tilt the glass on one side.

Bulbs - manure for. - An ounce of nitrate of soda dissolved in four gallons of water is a quick and good stimulant for bulbs, to be ap- plied twice a week after the pots are filled with roots, and the flower cpikes are fairly visible. A large handful of soot, or about a pint, tied up in a piece of old canvas, and immersed in the same quantity of water for a day or two, will furnish a safe and excellent stimulant; also good and safe is a quarter of a pound of eow manure mixed in a large garden pot of water, and used as required. Any of these stim- ulants will do good, or the whole of them applied alternately will benefit bulbs that need more sustenance than the soil affords.

Bunion Remedy. - Bunions may be checked in their early devel- opment by binding the joint with adhesive plaster, and keeping it on as long as any uneasiness is felt. The bandaging should be perfect, and it might be well to extend it round the foot. An inflamed bunion should be poulticed, and larger shoes be worn. Iodine, twelve grains; lard or spermaceti ointment, half an ounce, makes a capital ointment for bunions. It should be rubbed on gently twice or three times a day.

Bunion Cure. - Bunions may be cured by applying iodine, freely, twice a day, with a feather. For cure of corns or chilblains the same is recommended.

Burns and Scalds. - The following has been tested in the severest cases of burning and scalding from railway and steamboat accidents: Glycerine, five ounces; white of ^%Z' four ounces; tincture of arnica, three ounces; mix the glycerine and white of egg thoroughly in a mortar and gradually add the arnica. Apply freely on linen rags night and morning, previously washing with warm castile soap-suds. In urgent cases, if nothing better can he had, clap on a mud poultice, a favorite and very effectual remedy with schoolboys who are stung while making war on hornets' nests.

Burns - general remedies for. - i. Some few years since I acci- denally found that a poultice of tea leaves, applied to small burns and scalds, afforded immediate relief, and I determined to give it a more extensive trial when opportunity should present, which soon occurred. It was in a case of a child fourteen months old. Upon examination I found the anterior portion of the body, arms and legs blistered and deeply burned from a kettle of hot water which the child had upset upon itself. The case, to say the least, v\ras unfavorable for the suc- cess of any remedy. I prepared a large poultice, softening the leaves with hot water, and, while yet quite warm, applied it upon cotton wool over the entire burned surface. Almost like magic the suffer- ing abated and, without the use of any other anodyne, the child soon fell into a quiet sleep. In a few hours I removed the application, and re-applied it where it v/as necessary. I found the parts dis- colored and apparently tanned. The acute sensibility and tenderness

42 IV/-/A r E VER V ONE SHOULD KNO W.

had nearly disappeared, and the little patient passed through the second and third stages under far more favorable circumstances (symptoms) than was at first anticipated, making a recovery in about two weeks.

2. Gather some large, white lilies, take the white leaves or petals of the flower, and put them in a jar containing olive oil; close it, and keep it for use. It is better old, and it will keep for years. When wanted, take a leaf or two, according to the size of the burn, and put it, well covered with the oil, on the burn; renew, at first often, as the oil is soon absorbed; then at longer intervals till healed.

3. A piece of vegetable charcoal laid on a burn at once sooths the pain, and if kept applied for an hour cures it completely.

4. Sulphate of iron has been tried by M. Joel, in the children's hos- pital, Lousanne, France. In this case a child, four years of age, had been extensively burnt; suppuration was abundant, and so offensive, that tiiey ordered the child a tepid bath, containing a couple of pinches of sulphate of iron. This gave immediate relief to the pain, and be- ing repeated tv^rice a day - twenty minutes each bath - the suppuration decreased, lost its odor, and the child was soon convalescent.

5. A deep or a superficial burn extending over a large surface, should be bathed with sweet oil, or equal parts of sweet oil and lime water or cream. A simple burn may be treated with cloths wrung out in warm soda water. Dry applications may be made, if more convenient, of flour powdered starch or fuller's-earth. In any case let the dressings remain until the burn heals, unless it is absolutely necessary to remove them.

6. Bicarbonate of soda - which is simply the cooking soda found in every kitchen - is a new remedy for burns and scalds. The injured part should be moistened, dry powdered soda sprinkled on it, and the whole wrapped in a damp cloth. The relief is often instantaneous.

7. For burns and scalds nothing is more soothing than the white of an ^g^. which may be poured over the wound. It is softer as a varnish for a bum than collodion, and being always at hand can be applied immediately. It is also more cooling than the sweet oil and cotton which was formerly supposed to be the surest application to allay the smarting pain. It is the contact with the air which gives the extreme discomfort experienced from the ordinary accident of, this kind, and anything which excludes the air and prevents inflam- mation is the thing to be applied.

8. When cooking, you often burn your fingers or arms, and there is not time to turn to tie them up. Take a piece of hard soap, and dipping it in water, rub it over the spot. Continue to do this two or three times until the surface is thoroughly covered. It will be found to afford great relief. Or you may dip your burned hand in the soft- soap bucket and hold it there a few minutes, and you will experi ence the same relief

9. The true physiological way of treating Durns or scalds is to at

VFHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 43

once e^xlude the air with cotton batting, flour, scraped potato, or any- thing that is handiest.

Burning Oil - test for. - Heat water in a pot on the fire to one hundred and twenty degrees Fahrenheit. Take a tin and put in it a tablespoonful of the oil you wish to test, place the tin containing the oil in the hot water, let it cool down to one hundred and twelve de- grees Fahrenheit, when at this point, approach a light very cautiously toward the oil, and if it takes fire before the light touches it you will be safe in rejecting it.

Business Information. - Demand notes are payable on presentation without grace, and bear legal interest, after a demand has been made, if not so written. The presentation or demand must be made at the place where the note is payable, if stated; if not stated, at the maker's place of business, within business hours; should he have no place of business, then at his residence.

An endorser on a demand note is holden only for a limited time, variable in different states.

If time or payment is not stated in a note, it is held payable on de- mand.

A negotiable note must be made payable either to bearer, or be properly endorsed by the person to whose order it is made. If the endorser wishes to avoid responsibility, he can endorse "without re- course."

A joint note is one signed by two or more persons, who each be- come liable for the whole amount.

Three days' grace are allowed on all time notes., after the time for payment expires; if not then paid, the endorser, if any, should be le- gally notified, to be holden.

Notes falling due Sunday, or on a legal holiday, must be paid the day previous.

Notes dated Sunday are void.

Notes given by minors are void.

Altering a note in any manner by the holder makes it void.

The maker of a note that is lost or stolen is not released from pay- ment ii the amount and consideration can be proven.

Notes obtained by fraud, or given by an intoxicated person, cannot be collected.

An endorser has a right of action against all whose names were previously on a note endorsed by him.

Butter Jar - to cleanse. - Take clabber milk and beat it; then use the hot whey. There will be no need of soap, as the whey kills the grease. Afterward wash in water.

Butter - how to make. - Be sure the pasture is of the best, and that it contains a variety of the sweetest grasses. Do not change from winter food to spring pasture too suddenly, and, particularly, do not turn out your cows too early to shift for themselves.

Let the milking be done by quiet persons, whether male or female,

44 ^^'I^A T E VER Y OXE SHO ULD KNO IK

at regular times morning or evening, knowing always that the milk, ng is conducted as cleanly as it is quietly.

Know that the utensils for holding the milk are of the best descrip- tion and always scrupulously clean.

See that the milk is perfectly cooled to free it of animal odor. A thermometer is an absolute necessity in all well regulated dairies.

Be sure the room for setting milk is cool, and so it may be dark- ened at will. Thorough ventilation is one of the golden rules in dairying. The temperature of the dair}'^ room should never be more than sixty degrees, nor less than forty degrees.

Skim the milk as soon as the first indication of getting thick from lopper are shown. Turn the cream slowly into the jar, and stir thoroughly when more cream is added. Keep the receptacle for the cream cool, from fifty to sixty degrees, and cover with some fabrics that will keep out minute insects, and at the same time allow access of air.

Churn when the cream is ripe, that is, when the cream is sour,

every day in spring, and every day in summer. Do not allow the

. cream in the churn to rise much above sixty degrees. Do not churn

too fast. There is nothing gained by seeking to bring the butter in a

few minutes. From twenty to thirty minutes is about right.

Good grass will make nice colored butter. At such seasons, when the color of butter is pale, use coloring carefully. It is better that butter be rather light than a dark yellow.

When the butter comes in granules, stop churning. Wash with cold water or cold brine; work only enough to bring it to a firm uni- form mass. Do not salt heavily; from three-quarters to one ounce of salt to a pound of butter is enough.

Pack in tight, clean, sweet packages; fill to within a half inch of the top, cover with a clean cloth, and add brine to fill until sold. Keep it in the coolest place you have, and there is no reason why you should not get the top price for your butter.

Butter - to color. - As a rule, it is absolutely essential in the winter to color butter in order to make it marketable, or at all attractive as an article of table use at home. There may be a possible exception to this rule, in cases where cows are fed largely upon yellow corn, pumpkins, carrots, etc., but this does not lessen the importance of th; rule. Of the various substances used in coloring butter, we think tha carrots (of the deep yellow variety) give the most natural color am most agreeable tlavor. Annatto, however, is principally used, and most satisfactory results. If carrots are used, take two large-sized ones, clean them thoroughly, and then with a knife scrape off the yellow exterior, leaving the white pith; soak the yellow part in boil- ing milk for ten or fifteen minutes. Strain boiling hot into the cream; tliis gives the cream the desired temperature, colors it nicely, and adds to the sweetness of the butter.

Butter and Eggs - to preserve. - To three gallons of brine, strong cnougli to bear an egg, add a quarter of a pound of nice white sugar

WHA r E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 45

and one tablespoonful of saltpeter. Boil the brine and strain carefully. Make your butter in rolls and wrap each in a clean muslin, tying up with a string, pack in a jar, weight down, and pour on the brine. In this way butter will keep a year. Eggs I keep till I get three or four dozen, put them in a wire pail (such as I use for cooking potatoes), dip it in and out of boiling water three times, lay them on the table on a cloth for an hour or two, the pack in a box in bran. If there are any thin shelled ones they will crack when you dip them in the water; those i put aside for early use.

Butter - without ice. - In families where the dairy is small, a good plan to have the butter cool and firm without ice is by the process of evaporation, as practiced in India and other warm countries. A cheap plan is to get a very large-sized, porous, earthen fiov/er-pot, with a large saucer. Half fill the saucer with water, set it in a trivet or light stand - such as is used for holding hot irons will do; upon this set your butter; over the whole invert the flower-pot, letting the top rim of it rest in and be covered by the water; then close the hole in the boltom of the flower-pot with a cork; then dash water over the flower-pot, and repeat the process several times a day, or whenever it looks dry. If set in a cool place, or where the wind can blow on it, it will readily evaporate the water from the pot, and the butter will be as firm and cool as if from an ice-house. ,

Butter - to cure. - Take two parts of fine salt, one part loaf sugar, one part saltpeter; mix completel)^ Use one ounce of this mixture to each pound of butter; work well. Bury your butter firkins in the earth in your cellar bottoms, tops nearly leveled with the ground, or store away in a very cool place, covering the butter with a clean cloth and a strong brine on top, and it will keep two years if desired.

Butter - hard in hot weather. - A simple mode of keeping butter in warm weather is to invert a large crock of earthen, or a flower-pot if need be, (varying with the size of the vessel containing the butter,) over the dish or firkin in which the butter is held. The porousness of the earthenware will keep the butter cool, and all the more so if the pot be wrapped in a wet cloth, with a little water in the dish with the butter. Not the porosity of the earthenware, but the rapid absorption of heat by external evaporation causes the butter to become hard.

Butter, Cream, Milk - to preserve. - Butter, cream, milk and flour are peculiarly liable to absorb effluvia, and should, therefore, never be kept in mouldy rooms, or placed where there are sour liquids, aromatic vegetables such as onions, cabbage, and turnips. or smoked fish or bacon, or, indeed, any kind of food or those of strong odor, lest they lose their flavor. But, alas, how much more essential is it, that the utmost care be used in the prohibition of bed- side food and drink in the nursery and the sickroom; a practice fraught with constant danger to the sick, and of spreading disease to the well.

Buttermilk - uses of. - Buttermilk is good, especially in fever, as

46

an article of diet, A cup of fresh buttermilk every day is a cure for liver complaint.

Butterscotch. - Take one pound of sugar, three-quarters of a pint of water, and set over a slow fire; when done, add one and a half tablespoonfuls of butter and lemon-juice to flavor.

Butterfly - to take the impression of. - Having taken a butterfly, kill it without spoiling its wings, which contrive to spread out as regu- larly as possible in a flying position. Then with a small brush or pencil, take a piece of white paper, wash a part of it with gum-water a little thicker than ordinary, so that it may easily dry. Afterward, laying your butterfly on the paper, cut off the body close to the wings, and, throwing it away, lay the paper on a smooth board, with the fly upward; and laying another paper over that, put the whole prep- aration into a screw press and screw down very hard, letting it re- main under that pressure for half an hour. Afterward take off the wings of the butterfly, and you will find a perfect impression of them, with all their various colors marked distinctly, remaining on the pa- per. When this is done, draw between the wings of your impression the body of the butterfly, and color it after the insect itself.

Bronchitis - treatment of. - Get from the' druggist's a little good wood creosote. Put two drops of it into a bottle holding a pint or so. Pour in a little more than half a pint of clear water, and shake it well; shake well always before using it. Take a mouthful of this, throw the head back, gurgle it some time in the throat, and then swallow it. Repeat this every two hours, more or less, so as to use up the liquid within twenty-four hours. For each subsequent twenty-four hours, use three drops of the creosote in three to four gills of water. This three drops a day may be continued as long as any bronchitis appears. Two to four days is usually enough, though it may be continued indefinifely without harm.

Cabbage Grubs - to destroy. - White grubs at the root of cabbages may be destroyed as follows: Loosen the earth close to the root with a hoe, even so much as to disturb the plant a little. Make a solution of one quart of soft soap to twelve of soft water, and pour about the root in close contact with the plant. One-fourth of a pint of this so- lution to a plant two or three times during the season is sufficient. Weaker suds poured on the top would destroy the green worm.

Cabbage - made digestible. - Cabbage is made digestible by first slicing, and then putting in boiling water, with a pinch of soda and some salt, and boiling just fifteen minutes.

Cabbage - fertilizer for. - "I am convinced after several years' trial, that cabbage requires rich manure, and it pays when stable or barn-yard manure is rich in itself to add some such material as bone- dust or superphosphate to get more nitrogen aud phosphoric acid. Early kinds of cabbage, I also think, requires richer soil than later sorts.

Cabbage (Red) - to pickle. - Strip off the outer leaves, wipe and slice a fine sound cabbage or two extremely thin, sprinkle plenty of

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 47

salt over them, and let them drain in a sieve, or on a strainer for twelve hours or more; shake or press the moisture from them, put them into clean stone jars, and cover them well with cold vinegar, in which an ounce of black pepper to the quart has been boiled. Some people merely cover the vegetable with strong, unboiled vinegar, but this is not so well.

Cabbage - to preserve. - Generally a cellar is a very poor place in which to Vv^inter cabbage. In most cases cellars are either too damp or too warm to secure just the conditions needed, and consequently the cabbages soon decay, or become flabby and wilted - thereby being very poor in flavor. Make a frame of boards, like a hot-bed frame, banking up earth on the outside, having it six feet wide and of any length necessary, and into this transplant the cabbages about the last of October, in our northern New England climate. Cover this v^rith boards, and over the whole pack straw or leaves, keeping it in place by means of strips of joice or stakes. Another method is to open a trench a foot deep and a foot wide, into which place the cabbage, heads downward, and cover the earth well over them. Over the earth heap leaves, litter or straw, and from both positions the cabbages may be removed during early winter as wanted for use, or they can be kept in either position until April or May, when they may be had for spring use. Cabbages thus kept will winter firm and solid, of good fla- vor, and when taken out will be in good condition for cooking, by first placing them in cold water for an hour or two before cooking.

Cabbage - to pickle. - Cut the cabbage very fine, and for a six gallon jar take a pint cup nearly full of salt, the same amount of horseradish (cut up in small pieces) and two heaping tablespoonfuls of white mustard seed. Sprinkle a little salt in the bottom of the jar, then put in a layer of cabbage and with a potato masher pound the cab- bage down firmly. Then sprinkle on some salt, radish and mustard seed. Then put in another layer of cabbage and proceed as before. Be sure to give ever^layer of cabbage a good thorough pounding. When your jar is full put an inverted plate on the cabbage, and on that put a twenty pound weight. Let it stand until next morning, then drain off every bit of the brine that has formed (the amount of brine will supprise you), and pour over the cabbage cider vinegar, boiling hot. Right here, let me say, that it spoils vinegar to heat it in iron; use a porcelain kettle or a stone milk crock. Leave the plate on the cabbage to keep it from floating, for it must be kept under tl:c vinegar. Tie several thicknesses of cloth over the top of the jar, then cover closely and set away in a cool place. Some place in tlie cellar that is just above the freezing point is best for it.

Cake Baking Hints. - When cakes are made without yeast or eggs, soda and powder being the substitutes, they require quick baking in a moderately hot oven, and should be drawn directly when they are done, or they get dry and tasteless. For a plain cake, made with one pound of flour, etc., the time to be allowed in baking would be from forty to fifty minutes, at the outside not more than an

48 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO IV.

hour. Yeast cakes take longer - say from ten to fifteen minutes - and will bear to be left in the oven rather over the time without much in- jury. Very rich cakes, in which butter and eggs predominate, take, of course, a much longer time to cook; pound cake taking from an hour and a half to two hour?, and bride cake three and a half. On no account should the oven be too hot when the cakes are put in - that is, not hot enough to brown at once; if so, in five minutes the whole outside will be burned, and the interior will stand little chance of being cooked. The old plan of feeling the handle of the oven door to test the heat is not successful; it is better to sprinkle a little flour inside, and shut the door for about three minutes; if at the end of that time it is of a rich, light brown, the cake may be put in, but if burned, the heat must first be lessened. In making cake in cold weather, heat the mixing bowl in hot water, and then beat the butter to a cream; add the sugar and then the eggs, which have been well beaten; add the other ingredients excepting the flour; add the flour last, sifting it over the mixture. In everything excepting pound cake beat the eggs whole; in pound cake beat the whites and yolks separately. Miss Parloa always uses pastry flour for cake. If any flavoring is to be added it should be put in when the butter and sugar are put together. The more stirring given the mixture the lighter it will be, as it will contain more air. Cake is apt to be tough if it is stirred much after the flour is added.

Cake (Coffee). - Mix well together one cup sugar, one cup molasses, one cup butter, one cup of strong coffee as ready for the table, four well beaten eggs; stir into this five cups of flour, in whichateaspoon- ful of soda has been incorporated, and finally a cup of chopped raisins or English currants, aud bake in one or two pans in a hot oven.

Cake (Chocolate). - Take eight eggs, one pound of sugar, half a pound of flour, the grated rind and juice of a lemon, and a quarter of a pound of butter. Beat the w^hites of the egg^to a stiff froth, cream the butter with half the sugar; when the yolks are beaten light, with the rest of the sugar, add the butter, then the stiff whites, and finally stir the flour in slowly; season, and bake in round, shallow tin, called jelly-cake pans. Now for the caramel. Half a pound of chocolate, one and a half pounds of sugar, quarter of a pound of butter, one teacupful of cream, or rich milk; boil ten or twelve minutes; add a teaspoonful of vanilla. When nearly cold, spread between layers of the cake, as you would jelly, sift powdered Avhite sugar over the top, and it is done. It surpasses fruit cake, equals cocoa-nut cake, and puts pound cake to the blush.

Cake (Cocoa-nutj. - Take two cupfuls of sugar, four eggs, two tablespoonfuls of butter, half a cupful of svvcet milk, one teaspoonful of soda, two of cream tartar, and two cupfuls of flour. Beat yolks, sugar and butter to a cream; beat the whites of the eggs, and add the last thing before baking. Bake in five layers. Take one tablespoon- ful of corn starch, make as for starch by pouring on boiling water.

WHA T E VER Y ONE SIIO ULD KNO PV. 49

tintil it thickens; sweeten, flavor, spread between the layers when cold, and sprinkle on cocoa-nut; also spread over the top of the cake.

Cake (Buffalo Cream). - One cup of sugar, one tablespoonful of butter, one egg, two-thirds cup of sweet milk, one and two-thirds of flour, and two teaspoonfuls of baking powder.

Cream for Cake, - Half a pint of sweet milk, tv/o eggs, two table- spoonfuls of sugar, one teaspoonful of starch, two tablespoonfuls of flour and flavor to taste, Scald the milk, beat the eggs (yolks and whites separately), sugar, starch and flour together, boil until it forms a custard, and spread between the layers.

Cake (Cup). - One cupful of butter, two of sugar, three and a half of flour, one of milk, five eggs - the whites of two being left out - one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, and one-half a teaspoonful of soda or one-half of baking powder. Beat the butter to a cream. Add the sugar, gradually, then the eggs, well beaten, the milk, next the flour, in which the soda and cream of tartar have been mixed. Bake in two sheets for thirty minutes in a moderate oven. The frosting is made of the white of one tg^, one teaspoonful of powdered sugar, one tablespoonful of lemon juice. Put the white of an egg in a bowl, add the sugar by degrees, beating with a spoon; When all has been added, stir in the lemon juice. If the egg is large use a full cup of sugar, and if small, a scant cupful.

Cake (Cream). - Two eggs, two tablespoonfuls of water, two tea- spoonfuls of baking powder stirred in a cup of flour, stir two-thirds of a cup of sugar into the well beaten yolks and add water and flour, then whites beaten stiff, bake in two pie tins eight or ten minutes. This never fails, and is excellent for jelly cake.

Cream. - One Qgg, one-half cup of sugar, small piece of butter, one- half pint of milk, when boiling add one tablespoonful of corn starch previously stirred in cold milk, stir till free from lumps. Be careful not to scorch. When cool, flavor and spread between the layers. Set in a damp, cool place.

Cake (Sponge). - Beat two eggs in a coffee cup until light, and then fill the cup with sweet cream; add one cup of sugar, one-half tea- spoonful of soda, one of cream of tartar, and one and one-half cup of flour. Should sour cream be used, omit the cream of tartar.

Cake (Corn Starch). - One cup of sugar, one and one-fourth of a cup of butter, beat to a cream, add two eggs, one-half cupful of corn starch, two teaspoonfuls of baking powder, a half cupful of milk, one cupful of flour.

Cake (Every Day). - One-half cup of butter beaten with one cup of (brown or white) sugar, add one cup of sour or buttermilk, one tea- spoonful of soda stirred in the milk, one teaspoonful of cassia and nutmeg, two cups of flour, and one large cup of raisins chopped and rolled in flour. Bake slowly.

Cake - without eggs. - Two-thirds cup of sugar, one-third cup of butter, two-thirds cup of sweet milk two cups of flour, one teaspoon-

50 U^HA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

ful of cream of tartar, and one-half teaspoonful of soda. Flavor to taste. This does very well when eggs are forty cents a dozen, and not to be found at that.

Cake (Fig). - Three-quarters cup Of butter, two cups of sugar, one- half cup of milk, three cups of pastry flour, the whites of six eggs, one teaspoonful of baking powder, one of the essence of lemon. Mix in the usual way and bake in the sheets the same as for Washington pies. The filling is made of one cupful of stoned raisins chopped^ very fine, one pound of figs boiled half an hour and chopped with the raisins, one large cup of sugar, the juice of one lemon. This well mixed is to be spread between the sheets of cake. Before stoning the raisins, scald them, and they will stone much easier. If there is any water left after boiling the figs use it in chopping them.

Cake (Fruit). - Two cups of brown sugar, two cups molasses, one and a half cups of butter, one cup of milk, one and a half cups of currants, half cup of citron, six cups flour, one tablespoonful of cloves, one tablespoonful of cinnamon, one nutmeg, one tablespoon- ful of brandy, half a teaspoonful of soda, five eggs.

Cake (Hickory-nut). - One and a half cups of sugar, three eggs, one cup of raisins, one cup of hickory-nut meats, one teaspoonful of soda, two of cream tartar, and enough flour to make stiff batter.

Cake (Imperial). - One pound of flour, one pound of butter, one pound of sugar, one pound of raisins, one pound of almonds, bleached, three quarters of a pound of citron, one glass of brandy, one table- spoonful of mace, eight eggs.

Cake (Lemon-jelly). - Take one potato, boil and mash perfectly smooth, add to it two large spoonfuls of butter, one teacupful of sugar, the beaten yolks of eight eggs, flavor with lemon; line small patty pans with pastry, fill with a large spoonful of above mixture, and bake.

Cake (Marble). - Light part. - Whites of three eggs, one-half cup of butter, one-half cup of sugar, one-half cup of milk, two cups of flour, one-half teaspoonful of soda, one teaspoonful of cream of tartar.

Dark part. - Yolks of three eggs, one cup of molasses, one-half cup of butter, two cups of flour, one teaspoonful of soda, one-third cup of milk, and flavor with mixed spices, cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg. Butter the tin and put in the pan alternate layers of light and dark parts, having the light part on top.

Cake (Sponge). - Materials; four eggs, two even cups of sugar, three-fourths cup of hot water, one and three-fourth cups of flour, even measure, tAvo teaspoonfuls of baking powder, salt, flavor with lemon. Beat the eggs separately. To the yolks gradually add the sugar. Mix well. Then add hot water. Mix the baking powder with the flour and add part of the flour, then part of the well beaten whites and so on until all is used. Flavor. It will be thin but do not add any more flour, lor it is all right. Bake in a moderately quick oven. When just right this is equal to any dozen-egg sponge cake I

WHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO VV. 5 1

ever eat. To please the children bake some of the sponge cake very thin, cut in shape like dominoes, frost and mark the line and dots with a camel's hair brush dipped in chocolate. Another notion is to v/rite their names on little frosted cakes with a brush dipped in the yolk of an ^^^.

Cakes (Sugar). - One pint dry flour, one-half pint of butter, one-

\ half of sugar, mix the flour and sugar, rub in the butter, add an egg

beaten with enough milk to moisten the whole; roll thin and bake in

a quick oven. This recipe is for those who have few eggs or none.

Cakes (Scotch). - Scotch cakes are economical so far as eggs are concerned, and, if made with care, will melt in the mouths of chil- dren. To one pound of flour allow half a pound of butter, and a quarter of a pound of sugar; let the butter stand in a basin near the fire to soften, but not melt; when soft, rub it and the flour together; then knead in the sugar. Roll out in a sheet half an inch thick; cut out cakes about two inches square; bake until they are of light brown. Put them away in a stone jar, and they will in a day or two gather moisture enough to be soft.

Cake (Spice). - One and one-half cup of sugar, two-thirds cup but- ter, one cup raisins seeded, two-thirds cup sweet milk, three cups flour, two eggs, one heaping teaspoonful cream tartar, one-half even spoonful soda, or two teaspoonfuls baking powder, cinnamon, nut- meg, and cloves to taste.

Cakes (Tea.) - The following recipe for tea cakes is highly prized by New England housekeepers of "ye olden time: " One and a half pounds of sugar, half a pound of butter, one pound of flour, half a grated nutmeg, half a pint of milk, one teaspoonful saleratus. Rub the butter and sugar to a rich cream and work in a little of the flour and the nutmeg and beat it smooth. Dissolve the saleratus in the milk and strain it into the above. Add the rest of the flour and work to a dough stiff enough to roll out. If too thin, add flour; if too thick, use more milk. Roll half an inch thick, cut into round cakes, place them on buttered tins and bake in a very quick oven.

Cakes (Rye Tea). - One pint of sweet milk, two eggs, a teaspoonful of light brown sugar, a ealtspoonful of salt, and two tablespoonfuls of baking powder. Add to these sufficient rye flour to form a batter about the consistence of ordinary griddle cake batter. Bake in but- tered gem-pans in a quick oven.

Cakes (Rice.) - Cook the rice thoroughly in a farina kettle, and while still quite warm, mould it into round cakes flattened; this to be done the previous day or evening. In the morning dip them into beaten egg, and fry in hot lard or drippings, until of a delicate brown. They are very palatable to eat with meats, or with sugar and cream if thus preferred. The coating of ^g^ keeps them firm, pre- vents too much fat penetrating, and adds to their good taste and nu- tritiousness.

Cake (Walnut). - One coffee cupful of sugar, one cupful and a half of flour, two cupfuls of raisins, one cupful of walnut meats, half a

52 JV^A T E VER Y ONE SffO ULD KNO XV.

cupful of butter, half a cupful sweet milk, three eggs, half a nutn\eg, half a teaspoonful of soda or two teaspoonfuls of baking powder; flavor with lemon or vanilla.

Cake (Pork). - One pound of salt fat pork chopped very fine, pour over this, half a pint of boiling water, when nearly cold add one pound of chopped raisins, one-fourth pound of citron, two cups of sugar, one cup of molasses, one teaspoonful of soda, one nutmeg, two teaspoonfuls of cloves, two teaspoonfuls of cinnamon, flour to make quite stiff, bake slow.

Caked Udder of Cow. - For swollen or caked udder or bag of a cow, wash and rub thoroughly with water as hot as you can bear your hand. Then rub with a dry cloth. Then apply hog's lard, or what is better, grate good yellow carrot fine and simmer it in the lard to an ointment and apply and rub as above.

Calves - treatment of. - The calf is made or marred the first five months. The general practice through the country, after the calf is one or two months old, is to turn it out and let it fight the flies the whole season. The farmer is very busy. He may come in late at night and the calf is forgotten or stunted. Never turn your calf out the first year. Keep it in the stable, and you will find the animal growing satisfactory. Instead of a little yearling, you will have a big, fine two-year-old.

Calves - to make drink. - Let the calf suck the cow two or three days, or until the milk is good. This is better for the cow, and gives the calf a good start, then in the morning with a strap or rope tie it up in some good place, it is now full fed and comfortable; then at night approach the calf quietly, with your pail of milk, back it into a corner, stand by its right side, get your fingers into its mouth, set your pail where you can reach it, and with your right hand pour some milk into the calf 's mouth, it will soon begin to suck your fingers. Continue to pour in milk until it will follow your fingers to the milk in the pail, now with a little care you can keep it from putting its nose to the bottom of the pail and blowing milk from its nostrils. Now you can, by degrees, work your fingers out of its mouth, but if you do so too soon it will probably take up its head and look for a teat, when you will have to give it your fingers and repeat the pro- cess. I have never failed of feeding a calf by this plan, and fre- quently have them drink the second feed without my fingers.

Calico - to v^rash. - Infuse three gills of salt in four quarts of water. Put in the calico while the solution is hot, and leave until the latter is cold. It is said that in this way the colors are rendered permanent and will not fade by subsequent washing.

Callas - treatment of. - For blooming callas, I use the soil from the hennery, and on cold mornings I pour hot water in the saucers; I have had a bloom from every bulb. As my fuchsias never grew very large, I put in fresh soil and then used some fine manure from the hennery, and before spring it covered the window, with every shoot in full bloom.

53

Camphor - and its uses - Camphor is not a very steady stimulant, as its effect is transitory; but in large doses it acts as a narcotic, abating pain, and inducing sleep. In moderate doses it operates as a diaphoretic and anti-spasmodic, increasing the heat of the body, al- laying irritation and spasm.

It is used externally as a liniment when dissolved in oil, alcohol, or acetic acid, being employed to allay rheumatic pains; and it is also useful as an embrocation in sprains, bruises, chilblains, and, when cotTibined with opium, it has been advantageously employed in fl[a,tu- lent colic and severe diarrhoea, being rubbed over the bowels.

When reduced to a fine powder by the addition of a little spirit of wine and friction, it is very usefvd as a local stimulant to indolent ulcers, especially when they discharge a foul kind of matter; a pinch is taken between the finger and thumb and sprinkled into the ulcer, which is then dressed as usual.

When dissolved in oil of turpentine, and a few drops are placed in a hollow tooth and covered with jewellers' wool, or scraped lint, it gives almost instant relief to toothache.

Used internally, it is apt to excite nausea, and even vomiting, especially when given in the solid form.

As a stimulant it is of great service in all low fevers, malignant measles, malignant sore throat, and running small-pox; and when combined with opium and bark, it is extremely useful in checking the progress of malignant ulcers and gangrene.

As a narcotic it is very useful, because it allays pain and irritation, without increasing the pulse very much.

When powdered and sprinkled upon the surface of a blister, it pre- vents the cantharides acting in a peculiar and painful manner upon the bladder.

Combined with senna it increases its purgative properties; audit is also used to correct the nausea produced by squills, and the irritating effects of drastic purgatives and mezereon.

Dose - From four grains to one scruple, repeated at short intervals when used in small doses, and long intervals when employed in large doses.

Caution - When given in an over-dose it acts as a poison, produc- ing vomiting, giddiness, delirium, convulsions, and sometimes death.

Camphor Tablets. - Melt tallow, and add a little powdered cam- phor and glycerine, with a few drops of oil of almonds to scent. Pour in moulds and cool.

Camphor Ice. - Spermaceti, one and one-half ounces; gum cam- phor, three-quarters of an ounce; oil sweet almonds, four table- spoonfuls; set on the stove in an earthen dish till dissolved; heat just enough to dissolve it. When warm pour into small moulds, if de- sired to sell; then paper, and put into tinfoil; used for chaps on hands or lips.

Canaries - care of. - Never put canaries in a painted cage, as ihey will pick the wires and thus imbibe poison. Brass wire cages are

54 ^VHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W,

more cheerful than those made of wood, and can be easily kept clean.

Give them fresh seed, pure water, both for drmking and bathing, cuttlefish, and, in their season; fresh lettuce and chick-weed. Cake is hurtful.

To keep the cage clean, a piece of brown paper covering the bot- tom is a great assistance, as it can be replaced every morning. Newspaper must never be used, because they may pick at the ink.

After bathing take out the bath. If it stands all day it becomes impure; and the birds are better bathers if the dish is furnished at a regular time.

Keep the perches clean, as you can easily do, by rubbing them with sand-paper. Be careful not to frighten the birds in any way. Give them a little fresh sand every day.

Supply fresh air and plenty of sunshine; but guard them from drafts and excess of heat. The noon sunshine should not fall directly on the cage.

Baker's sponge cake dipped in sherry wine is strongly recommend- ed for sick canary birds that have been moulting. The bird will no doubt eat sparingly of it, but the remedy is excellent. It has been known in many instances to restore the voice and health of canaries after shedding eighteen months and two years. Birds often continue moulting from weakness, and a short time feeding them on the cake and sherry, in connection with their seed, soon shows a beneficial effect. I would also advise not to give the bird any greens to eat, nor apples, while in the condition described.

Canaries having asthma are relieved and sometimes cured by giv- ing them a pap made of baker's bread boiled in sweet milk. In very bad cases remove their seed for a few days and let them feed entirely upon it. The following treatment completely restored a fine singer which I had quite despaired of, as he had been sick and silent for months: Leave off seed entirely. Make a paste of sweet milk and bread crumbs, throAV the crumbs into the milk while boiling, and stir until quite smooth; add a pinch of Cayenne pepper, varied occasion- ally by some finely-minced clove or garlic; dissolve in the drinking water a little black currant jelly, a bit of fig, or half a potash lozenge. I used all of these and my bird is well; so to which the preference should be given I know not, though I incline to the jelly. It may take a long time to cure the bird, and if the trouble arises from hard- ness of the tongue, it must be painted daily with strong borax-water. If he sneezes a little olive-oil must be gently put up the nostrils. He should have plenty of tepid water to bathe in, celery, sweet apple, or lettuce. But by no means hang him close to the window, the cold is too severe, even in a moderately warm room, for a bird in delicate health. Paste must be fresh daily.

Canaries - to remove red mites from. - Put into the cage as a perch one or more hollow sticks, with holes cut into them at short distances as in a cane pipe. The insects crawl into these, and can easily be knocked or shaken out, or destroyed by letting hot water

55

run through the sticks. This should be done every day till the bird is relieved. Hang a piece of new white flannel in the cage at night next the perch so that it shades the bird from the light. In the morn- ing you will find the mites on the flannel; wash, or put in a new piece the following night, and continue doing so until they are all remov- ed. It is also well to scald the cage. The perches should be of red cedar wood.

Cancer - cure for. - The following is said to be a sure cure for can- cer: A piece of sticking plaster is put over the cancer, with a circular piece cut oiU of the center, a little larger than the cancer, so that the cancer and a small circular rim of healthy skin next to it is exposed. Then a plaster, made of chloride of zinc, blood root and wheat flour, is spread on a piece of muslin, the size of this circular opening, and applied to the cancer for twenty-four hours. On removing it, the can- cer will be found burned into, and appear of the color and hardness of an old shoe sole, and the circular rim outside of it will appea-r white and parboiled, as if scalded by hot steam. The wound is now dress- ed, and the outside rim soon separates, and the cancer comes out in a hard lump, and the place heals up. The plaster kills the cancer, so that it sloughs like dead flesh, and never grows again. The remedy was discovered by Dr. King, of London, and has been used by him for several years with unfailing success, and not a case has been known of the reappearance of the cancer when this remedy has been applied.

Cancer - cure. - Take the blossoms of red clover and make tea of them, and drink freely. It will cure cancer in the stomach as well as on the surface.

Candied Lemon Peel. - Peel some fine lemons, with all the inner pulp, in halves or quarters; have ready a very strong syrup of white sugar and water; put the peels into it, and keep them boiling lill the syrup is nearly reduced. Take them out and set them to dry with the outer peel downward.

Candied Orange Peel. - Make a vea-y strong syrup of white sugar and water; take off the peels from several oranges in halves or quarters, and boil them in the syrup till it is nearly reduced. After this take them out and set them to dry with the outer skin downward.

Candy (Vanilla). - Three teacups of white or coffee sugar, one and a half teacups unskimmed sweet milk to dissolve it; boil till done, and flavor with vanilla; after it cools a little, stir until hard and eat when you please.

Candy - for colds. - Boil one and one-half pounds of sugar in a half-pint of water, till it begins to candy round the sides; put in eight drops of essence; pour it upon buttered paper, and eat it with a knife.

Candy (Home Made). - All children are fond of candy, and if pure, a moderate amount is not injurious. In these days of adulteration, that made at home is the safest to give them. It is a simple matter to make chocolate caramels; all that is needed is one cup of sweet milk, one cup of molasses, half a cup of sugar, half a cup of grated choco-

56 WHAT EVERY ONE SHOULD KNOW,

late, a piece of butler the size of a walnut; stir constantly and let it boil until it is thick, and turn it out upon buttered plates; when it begins to stiffen mark it in squares so that it will break readily when cold. Cocoanut caramels are made of two cups of grated cocoanut, one cup of sugar, two teaspoonfuls of flour, the whites of three eggs beaten stiff; bake on a buttered paper in a quick oven.

Candy (Almond). - Take one pound of sugar and about half a pint of water; put in part of the white of an egg to clarify the sugar; let this boil a few minutes, and remove any scum that rises. When the sugar begins to candy drop in the dry almonds; first, however, you should blanch the nuts by pouring hot water over them, and letting them stand in it a few minutes; then the skin will slip off readih. . Spread the candy on buttered plates to cool.

Candy (Butter Scotch). - One pound of C sugar, three ounces of butter, put in a stew. pan or kettle, and stir often to prevent burning. Try a little in water; if brittle it is done. Pour out on the top of a buttered pan and mark in squares.

Candy (Cream). - To three pounds of loaf sugar add one-half pint of water, and set it over a slow fire for half an hour; then add a tea- spoonful of gum arable dissolved, and a tablespoonful of vinegar. Boil it till it is brittle, then take it off, and ftavor with vanilla, rose, or orange. Rub the hands with sweet butter, and pull the candy till .t is white; then twist or break it, or stretch it out into thin white strips, and cut it off.

Candy (Fig). - Take one pound of sugar and one pint of water; set over a slow fire. When done add a few drops of vinegar and a lump of butter, and pour into pans in which split figs are laid.

Candy (Raisin). - Raisin candy can be made in the same manner as fig candy, substituting stoned raisins for the figs. Common molasses candy is very nice with all kinds of nuts added.

Candy (Lemon). - Boil a pound and a half of sugar in a half pint of water till it begins to candy round the sides; put in eight drops of essence of lemon. Pour it upon buttered paper and cut it with a knife.

Candy (Molasses). - West India molasses, one gallon; brown sugar, two pounds; boil the molasses and sugar in a preserving kettle over a slow fire; when done enough it will cease boiling; stir fre- quently, and when nearly done, stir in the juice of four lemons or two teaspoonfuls of essence of lemon; afterward butter a pan, and pour out.

Candles (Adamantine). - Melt together ten ounces mutton tallovi^; camphor, one-quarter ounce; beeswax, four ounces; alum, two ounces.

Candles (Lard). - Dissolve one-quarter pound alum and one-quar- ter pound saltpeter in one-half pint water on a slow fire; then take three pounds of lard cut into small pieces, and put into this pot with this solution, stirring it constantly over a very moderate fire until the lard is all dissolved; then let it simmer until all steam ceases to rise

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO U.LD KNO W. 57

and remove it at once from the fire. If you leave it too long it will be discolored. These candles are harder and better than tallow.

Candles (Imitation Wax). - Purify melted tallow by throwing in powdered quick-lime, -then add two parts wax to one of tallow, and a most beautiful article of candle, res^^nbling wax, will be the result. Dip the wicks in lime water and saltpeter on making. To a gallon of water add two ounces saltpeter and one-half pound of lime; it im-/ proves the light, and prevents the tallow from running. J

Candle - to last all night. - When, as in a case of sickness, a dull light is wished, or when m-atches are mislaid, put powdered salt on the candle till it reaches the black part of the wick. In this way a mild and steady light may be kept throughout the night by a small piece of candle.

Cane Chair Bottom - to restore. - Turn the chair bottom upward, and with hot water and sponge wash the cane work well, so that it is well soaked; should it be dirty, use soap; let it dry in the air, and it will be as tight and firm as new, provided none of the canes are broken.

Caramels - to make. - i. Lemon caramels are made by grat- ing the yellow rind of a lemon with a lump of sugar; add to this a few drops of lemon juice, with water enough to dissolve the sugar completely, and stir the whole into a boiled syrup a few minutes be- fore it is taken from the fire.

2. Orange and lime caramels are prepared in the same manner from these respective fruits.

3. Coffee caramels: coffee, two ounces; sugar, one pound. Make an infusion of the coffee, using as little water as possible; strain it through a cloth, and stir it gradually into the boiled syrup a few minutes before taking it from the fire.

4. Chocolate caramels: chocolate, four ounces; sugar, one pound. Dissolve the chocolate in as little water as possible, and add it to the boiled sugar, as in the coffee caramels.

5. Vanilla and orange cream caramels are made by using the re- spective essences of these fruits.

Caramels (Cocoa-nut, etc.) - Cocoa-nut candy is made by taking two pounds of sugar to an ordinary cocoa-nut. Add the milk of the cocoa-nut to the sugar, with a little water if the milk is less than a small teacupful. Stew until it ropes when poured from a spoon, then stir in the cocoa-nut, v/hich you should have already grated, and pour into buttered pans. When cool break into pieces - a process which will be facilitated if, when the candy is cool, but not cold, you score it half through with a knife. Any nut candy can be made in the same manner by substituting nut kernels for the grated cocoanut. For cream candy allow a cupful of rich cream to three pounds of sugar, and stew until the syrup candies when dropped into cold water. Then flavor with vanilla, lemon, or what you like, and pour into buttered pans to cool, or pull the candy as you prefer. Another lecipe for cream candy, without the cream, requires two cups of gran-

58 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W,

ulated sugar, half a cup of water, a piece of butter the size of a wal- nut, two tablespoonfuls of vinegar and two teaspoonfuls of vanilla. Do not stir while boiling. When done pour on buttered plates, and when cold pull it until white.

Card-case for a Watch. - Take two pieces of card ten inches long and three and one-half inches wide, and cut the ends pointed. Cover both pieces with velvet or silk, and embroider a vine of flowers on one end, or if preferred, paint in water colors. Overhand the two pieces together and finish the edge with gilt cord. Make a ring of twisted cord at the top. Bend the card up at three inches to form the rack, and fasten at the sides with cord and tassels. Twist a large hook with gilt wire and sew an inch below the ring at the top, for the watch.

Carminative (Dalby's). - Magnesia, three drams; oil peppermint, three drops; oil nutmeg, seven drops; oil anise, nine drops; tincture of castor, one and one-half drams; tincture of assafoetida, forty-five drops; tincture of opium, eighteen drops; essence pennyroyal, fifty drops; tincture of cardamons, ninety-five drops; peppermint water, seven ounces; mix.

Carnations - from cuttings. - Carnations are easily rooted from slips. Take off the small side shoots when about two inches long. If your plants are in pots, plant them around the edge, pressing the soil very firmly about the portion inserted. Do not water them only when the parent plant requires it. If they are cultivated in the ground, plant them in the same bed, taking the same precaution to make the earth compact about the slips, so they will not dry up in- stead of rooting. If the ground is slightly moist, it is enough for them, but if very dry sprinkle occasionally.

Carpets - to clean. - A few drops of carbonate of ammonia put into a small quantity of warm rain water will prove a safe and easy anti-acid, and will change, if carefully applied, discolored spots upon carpets, and indeed all spots whether produced by acids or alkalies. If you have a carpet injured by whitewash this will immediately re- store it.

Carpets - to put do-wn. - All housekeepers understand the difli- culty of putting down carpets, and especially where they require con- siderable stretching. All people have not carpet stretchers, so I will give you a plan within reach of all, which is far better, as there is no danger of tearing the carpet. Tack one end of the carpet down firmly; then put on a pair of common rubbers, step short, lift your feet as little as possible from the carpet and scuff across to the oppo- site side, and stand still while somebody nails it for you. You will be astonished at the ease and quickness with which your work is ac- complished, no matter how much stretching your carpet requires. See that the rubbers are not worn too smooth upon the bottoms.

Carpets - to cleanse - The following mixture is recommended for taking grease out of carpets: Aqua ammonia, two ounces; soft water, one quart; saltpetre, one teaspoonful; shaving-soap, one ounce, finely

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 59

scraped. Mix well, shake and let it stand a few hours or days before using, to dissolve the soap. When used pour on enough to cover any grease or oil that has been spilled, sponging and rubbing well and applying again if necessary; then wash off with clear cold water. It is a good mixture to have in the house for many things; is sure death to bed-bugs if put in the crevices which they inhabit; will rem-ove paint where oil was used in mixing it, and will not injure the finest fabrics.

Carpets - to remove ink from. - Take up as much as possible with a spoon, pour cold sweet milk upon the spot and take up with a spoon until the milk is only faintly tinged with ink, then wash with cold water and wipe dry. The writer has in this way removed nearly half a pint of ink from a delicate cream-colored carpet without leaving a stain.

Carpet (faded) - to restore. - Dip the carpet in strong salt and water. Blue factory cotton, or silk handkerchiefs will not fade if dipped in salt water while they are new.

Carpets - to renovate. - To one pail of warm water add one pint of ox-gall; dip a soaped flannel into the mixture, and rub well the surface of the carpet, piece by piece, rinsing it as you proceed with clean, cold water, taking care not to make the carpet too wet, and finish off by rubbing with a dry coarse cloth. The carpet, of course, must be well beaten before it is operated upon. This process is simply and surprisingly effective in renovating the colors. The only drawback is the effluvium given off by the gall; but this is soon rem- edied by exposure to the air, or by opening the windows if the carpet be laid down.

Carpet - to patch. - If you have an old carpet badly worn, cut a patch to cover the holes, taking care to match figure or stripe per- fectly, paste it on with flour paste and iron on very tight with a hot iron.

Carpets - to brighten. - A slightly damp cloth rubbed over a dusty carpet brightens it wonderfully and gathers all the dust. This is an excellent way to cleanse the floor of an invalid's room where noise and dust are objectionable. Carpets should be thoroughly beaten on the wrong side first, and then on the right, after v/hich spots may be removed by the use of ox-gall or ammonia and water.

Carpet (Rag) - to make. - While a smooth, tasteful and not too heavy rag carpet is a treasure in the farmhouse dining or sitting- room, if we are to have carpets there at all, the loose, homely, and above all the rough and heavy rag carpet, is an abomination any- where. To insure the former, care must be taken in preparing the rags. First, they must be sorted and washed clean, then cut or torn finely and evenly. Old calico must have most width; old white cot- ton should be a trifle narrower; flannel a little narrower still, while old broadcloth or full cloth must be cut or torn very fine. The rags should all be as nearly as possible of the same size when beaten up.

6o M^HA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

A carpet in which great care is taken in this particular looks much less " rag carpety " than if the rags are carelessly cut or torn.

Next the sewing must be well done, so there will be no loose ends or corners left to fly up in weaving or sweeping, as this makes a carpet exceedingly rough and homely. If there is much thick cloth among the rags, and one desires an extra nice carpet, it is better to clip a bit off from the side of the ends of the thick rags, so as to lessen the bunch where sewed together. The extra work of doing this is not noticeable, and the carpet is much smoother and finer looking when done.

Whether or no the carpet has a pleasing effect to the eye depends greatly on the taste of the maker and weaver in the arrangement of colors. Many a housekeeper who has spent weeks of hard labor upon a carpet has felt greatly disappointed and chagrined when it was brought home from the weaver's, because, after all her labor in cutting, sewing and coloring, it presented so unsatisfactory an ap- pearance, often, indeed, being almost an eyesore from its gaudy look, the inharmonious grouping of colors, or some other similar defect.

Before beginning a carpet one should decide on the general tone of it; that is, what the groundwork of color shall be. If brown, the greater part of the rags should be of various shades of brown ; the warp also being of the same or of some color that will mingle and harmonize pleasantly with the rags. The bright rags must be such as will either harmonize or contrast agreeably with the rest. The warp should be fine, well twisted, laid moderately thick in the reed, or in weaver's phrase, be " thick-sleyed," and be well stretched in weaving. If this is done and the rags are well beaten up, the carpet will be fine and firm, the dust will sweep off instead of sweeping through, and it will sweep easily and wear well.

Carrots - for chickens. - " I feed between twenty and thirty bush- els of carrots and beets to my fowls every winter. The best way to feed them is to boil them until quite soft, mush them in the water they were boiled in, and for laying hens put in enough shorts and wheat bran to make a stiff mass. For fattening fowls thicken with corn and barley meal. Feed the scraggiest old biddy that ever walked on this mixture for two weeks and she will be as plump as an alderman. And where chickens intended for the early sprmg market have not been well fed from the start, ten or twelve days on the car- rot and barley mixture will help them wonderfully. An occasional feed on rav/ carrots is greatly relished by fov/ls during cold weather."

Carrots (Wild) - to destroy. - The carrot is one of the most trouble- some weeds with which the farmer has to contend. It is so hardy and prolific, that, in some of the states, laws have been passed for its suppression. If neglected it will spread over pastures and meadows, and take possession of the roadsides.. They do not show themselves much in the early part of the season, but after the mowing in June and July, they shoot up rapidly, and show their white blossoms in every direction. Som� farmers seek to destroy them by pulling

IVHA T E VER V ONE SHOULD KNO W. 61

them up by the roots, an efifectual, but very expensive process. The plant is biennial, and if it is not permitted to scatter its seeds it can just as surely be eradicated by mowing, while in blossom, or any time before it drops its seeds. There is little danger of leaving it until August or early in September. If cut before seeding, the plants may be left upon the ground. If later, gather into heaps and burn, or put into a compost heap.

Carriages - care of. - On the authority of the Cai-riage Monthly, more injury is done to carriages and wagons by greasing too much, than the reverse. Tallow is the, best lubricant for wood axles, and castor oil for iron. Lard and common grease are apt to penetrate the hub, and work their way out around the tenons of the spokes and spoil the wheel. For common wood axles, just enough grease should be applied to the spindle to give it a light coating. To oil an iron axle, first wipe clean with a cloth wet with turpentine, and then ap- ply a few drop.1 of castor oil near the shoulder and end. One tea- spoonful is enough for the wheels. Carriages are sometimes oiled so much that their appearance is spoiled by having the grease spattered upon their varnished surfaces. When they are washed in that con- dition, the grease is sure to be transferred to the chamois from the wheel, and from thence on to the panels.

Carriage-tops - care of. - Enamel leather tops should be first washed with castile soap and then warm water, then oiled with neat's-foot oil; or sweet oil and a coat of enamel varnish put on, the leather will look like new. Dashes may be cleaned in the same man- ner, but varnish color is not very beneficial to patent leather; how- ever, when old and cracked, it may be colored to improve the ap- pearance.

Cashmere (Black) - to cleanse. - To clean black cashmere, wash in hot suds in which a little borax has been placed. Rinse in bluing water - very blue - and iron while damp. If carefully done the ma- terial will look equal to new.

Cast-iron Vessels - to mend. - Drill a hole at each extreme end of the crack, to prevent its further extension, plug-rivet the holes with copper, and, with fine iron filings saturated with urine, caulk the crack. Four parts of pulverized clay and one part of iron filings made into a paste with boiling linseed oil and applied hot is a good cement for the same purpose.

Castor Oil - to administer. - If it is necessary to administer cas- tor oil to a child there is no need of sickening him by forcing him to take it clear. Put a little cold water in a wine glass, then drop the oil in; it will form one large globule; have the child wet his mouth \w{\\\ v;-ater, and then drink from the wine glass rapidly, keeping his mouth closed for a minute or two after, and he will never know by the taste what he has taken. Even cod-liver oil can be taken in this way, and the patient need never be disturbed by the taste.

Castor Oil - to make palatable. - Boil castor oil with an equal quantity of milk, sweetened with a little sugar. Stir it well and let it

62

cool. Another good way is to beat the castor oil with the white of an egg" until both are thoroughly mixed. In either case the taste of the oil cannot be distinguished.

Castor Oil - to make. - To make common castor oil, take pale vegetable oil, one gallon; castor oil, three gallons; mix. If a less quantity is wanted, use a proportionate amount of each.

Catarrh - cure for. - The smoke of mullein leaves has long been considered as a specific for catarrh. It will doubtless, in many cases, alleviate, if it does not cure. The leaves should be thoroughly dried, and then used as tobacco in a pipe. The smoke should be pressed in the back of the mouth and exhaled through the nose; once or twice a week will suffice, and should be persevered in. If properly cured there will not bean acrid exudation. A little piece of sponge in the bowl of the pipe will prevent the juice from passing to the mouth.

Catarrh - remedy for. - A medical authority asserts that the sever- est catarrh cold can be removed in about ten hours by a mixture of carbolic acid, ten drops; tincture of iodine and chloroform, each fif- teen drops. A few drops of the mixture should be heated over a spirit lamp in a test tube, the end of which should be applied to the nostrils as volatilization is effected. The operation should be re- peated in about two minutes, when, after the patient sneezes a num- ber of times, the troublesome symptoms rapidly disappear.

Catarrh - cure. - A most unfailing remedy for catarrh is to smoke crushed cubeb berries in a clay pipe and swallow the smoke. They can be procured at any drug store, at a moderate cost.

Catarrh - specific. - Take dry bloodroot and reduce it to pow- der; mix it with gum camphor. Use it as a snuff. It is said to be a certain cure.

Catarrh - treatment of - Prepare creosote water, in any amount, at the rate of one drop of wood creosote to one gill of water (four drops to the pint), or a little more water if the creosote be very strong and the water too irritating. Make a fresh mixture once in two or three days, and as much oftener as more is needed. Take a handful of this water, previously well shaken, and snuff it through the nose into the mouth, and eject it. A little going down the throat will do no harm. Do this two or three times, and repeat it at bedtime, in the morning on rising, and, if need be, occasionally during the day. In fact, keep the nasal passages washed out with the creosote water. Its vapor will even penetrate the bony cavities, and also be drawn into the lungs with useful results. It destroys the purulent mucus, and tends to prevent its further secretion. It is useful for any discharges from the nose or lungs produced by colds or general weakness. For bronchitis, and especially for catarrh, good rare cooked beef or other nourishing food, and quinine if needed, to obtain and retain a vigorous system, are capital aids to the creosote or any other medi- cine.

Catsup (Tomato.) - Cut one peck of ripe tomatoes in halves, boil them in a lined saucepan until the pulp is all dissolved, then

IV II A T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO V.^. 63

strain them well through a hair-sieve and set the liquor on to boil, adding one ounce of salt, one ounce of mace, one tablespoonful of blaxk pepper, one teaspoonful of red pepper, one tablespoonful of ground cloves, five of ground mustard; let them all boil together for five or six hours, and stir them most of the time. Let the mixture stand eight or ten hours in a cool place, add one pint of vinegar, and then bottle it; seal the corks and keep in a cool, dark place.

Cattle - salt and water for. - " I often hear advice given to salt cattle often. Now, I believe that cows should have salt at least once a week - ^twice is really not too often - but care should also be taken that they have access to water. My experience is that salt, unless soon followed by water to dilute it, has injurious effects. It produces alone a fever in the stomach, and creates a burning thirst which is bad for the animal."

Cauliflower - to cook. - Pick off the leaves and cut the stalk close to the bottom of the bunch of flowers, and lay in cold water for half an hour. Unless very large do not cut it; if you do, quarter it neatly. Tie a close net of coarse bobbinet lace or tarlatan about it to prevent breaking or bruising; put into boiling water salted, and cooked until tender. Undo and remove the net, and lay the cauliflower in a hot dish. Have ready a large cupful of nice drawn butter and pour over it. Cut with a silver knife and fork in helping it out, and give a little of the sauce to each person. Take it out of the water as soon as it is done, serve quickly, and eat hot. It darkens when standing.

Cauliflower - to pickle. - Choose such as are firm, yet of their full size; cut away all the leaves, and pare the stalk, pull away the flowers by bunches, steep in brine two days, then drain them; wipe them dry and put them into hot pickle; or merely infuse for three days three ounces of curry powder in every quart of vinegar.

Cement (Alabaster). - i. Finely powdered plaster of Paris made into a cream with water. 2. Melt yellow resin, or equal parts of bellow resin and beeswax; then stir it in half as much plaster of Paris, ihe first is used to join and fit together pieces of alabaster or marble, or to mend broken plaster figures. The second is used to join alabas- ter, marble, porphyry and any similar substances that will bear being heated. It must be applied hot, and the stone must be made v.'arm. Many stones may also be joined by heating them sufficiently to melt a lump of sulphur, with which their edges must then be smeared, after which they must be placed together, and held so until cold. Little deficiencies, as chips out of the corners, etc., may be filled up with melted sulphur or bleached shellac, colored to any shade, as re- quired.

Cement (Acid Proof). - How to make paste or cementing material that is proof against acid fumes - like those given off in the prepara- tion of silver nitrate, for instance - is well worth knowing. Finely powdered glass, mixed with soluble silicate of soda, will give a ma- terial of this description.

Cement - for aquaria. - One part, by measure, say a gill of litharge.

64 IVHA r E VER V ONE SHOULD KNO W.

one gill of plaster of Paris, one gill of dry, white sand, one-third of a gill of finely powdered resin. Sift, and keep corked tight until re- quired for use, when it is to be made into a putty by mixing in boiled oil (linseed) with a little patent drier added. Never use it after it has been mixed (that is, with the oil) over fifteen hours. This cement can be used for marine as well as fresh water aquaria, as it resists the action of salt water. The tank can be used immediately, but it is best to give it three or four hours to dry.

Cement - to mend china. - Take a very thick solution of gum arable, and stir into it plaster of Paris, until the mixture is of proper consistency. Apply it with a brush to the fractional edges of the chinaware, and stick them together. In a few^ days it will be impos- sible to break the aiticle in the same place. The whiteness of the cement renders it doubly valuable.

Cement - for joining china or glass. - i. Isinglass, one ounce; distilled vinegar, five and a half ounces; spirit.3 of wine, two ounces; gum ammoniac, one-half ounce; gum mastic, one-half ounce. Mix well and keep in a bottle tightly corked.

2. Soak a little fine isinglass in water until it is quite soft, then dis- solve it in proof spirit, stirring in a little resin varnish,

3. Take rough Russian isinglass, soak in sufficient water to make it soft, then dissolve it in proof spirit, and add a little resin varnish.

Cement - Egyptian. - For mending china, glass or Avoodenware, take one pound of the best white glue, one-half pound dry white lead, one quart soft water, one-half pint alcohol; put the three articles in a dish, and that dish in a pot of boiling water; let it boil until dis- solved, then add the alcohol and let it boil again until mixed. A little camphor should be added to preserve it and disguise its compo- sition.

Cement - to fasten leather on top rollers. - Gum arable, two and three-quarter ounces; isinglass two and three-quarter ounces; dissolve each separately in water, and mix.

Cement (Glycerine). - Professor Hirzel has discovered an impor- tant use of glycerine. When glycerine is mixed with fine and well dried litharge, it j'ields a cement that is capable of a large number of applications. All metals and nearly all solid bodies can be bound together by this cement. It is said to harden under water as readily as in the air, and to resist a temperature of five hundred degrees. It is especially recommended for such pneces or apparatus as are exposed to the action of chlorine, hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, sulphur- ous acid, and nitric acid; also the vapor of alcohol, ether, and bisul- phide of carbon, as none of these agents act upon it. The cement can be used in steam engines, pumps, foundations for machinery, and finally, as a substitute for plaster in galvano-plaster and electro- plating. The preparation of glycerine and litharge to be taken must depend som.ewhat on the consistency of the cement, and its proposed uses. An excess of glycerine would retard the setting, as it does not readily evaporate.

WHA T EVERY ONE SHOULD KNOW, 65

Cement (Gutta Percha), - ^This highly recommended cement is made by melting together, in an iron pan, two parts common pitch, and one part gutta percha, stirring them well together until thorough- ly incorporated, and then pouring the liquid into cold water. When cold it is black, solid and clastic; but it softens with heat, and at one hundred degrees Fahrenheit is a thin fluid. It may be used as a soft paste, or in the liquid state, and answers an excellent purpose in cementing metal, glass, porcelain, ivory, etc. It may be used instead of putty for glazing windows.

Cement (Japanese). - Immediately mix the best powdered rice with a little cold water, then gradually add boiling water until a proper consistency is acquired, being particularly ciareful to keep it well stirred all the time; lastly, it must be boiled for a minute in a clean saucepan or earthen pipkin. This glue is beautifully white and almost transparent, for which reason it is well adapted for fancy paper work, which requires a strong and colorless cement.

Cement (Je"weiers' Armenian). - Isinglass soaked in water and dissolved in spirit, two ounces (thick); dissolve in this ten grains of very pale gum ammonia (in tears) by rubbing them together, then add six large tears of gum mastic, dissolved in the least possible quantity of rectified spirits. When carefully made, this cement resists naoist- ure and dries colorless. Keep in a closely stopped phial.

Cement (Jewelers').- Put in a bottle two ounces of isinglass and one ounce of the best gum arable, cover them with proof spirits, cork loosely, and place the bottle in a vessel of water, and boil it till a thorough solution is effected, then strain it for use.

Cement - for petroleum lamps. - Boil three parts of resin with one part of caustic soda and five of water. The composition is then mixed with half its weight of plaster of Paris, and sets firmly in one- half to three-quarters of an hour. It is of great adhesive power, not permeable to petroleum, a low conductor of heat, but not superficially attacked by hot water.

Cement - for kerosene oil lamps. - The cement commonly used for fastening the tops on kerosene lamps is plaster of Paris, which is porous and quickly penetrated by the kerosene. Another cement which has not this defect is made with three parts of resin, one of caustic soda, and five of water. The composition is mixed with half its weight of plaster of Paris. It sets firmly in about three-quarters of an hour, and is said to have great adhesive power, not permeable to kerosene, a low conductor of heat, and not superficially attacked by water.

Cement - to withstand heat and moisture. - Pure white lead or zinc-white ground in oil and used very thick is an excellent cement for mending broken crockery ware; but it iakes a very long time to harden. It is well to put the mended object in some store-room, and not to look after it for several weeks, or even months. It will then be found so firmly united that, if ever again broken, it will not part on the line of the former fracture.

66 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

Cement - for sealing bottles, etc. - Mix three parts of resin, one of caustic soda, and five of water, this composition is then mixed with half its weight of plaster of Paris. The compound sets in three- quarters of an hour, adheres strongly, is not permeable like plaster used alone, and is attacked only slightly by warm water.

Cement - for general use. - One of the most useful cements for general use, is made by melting together two parts of common pitch and one part of pure (not vulcanized or manufactured) gutta percha. When thoroughly mixed, pour into cold water, and makeup into con- venient sticks. There are few articles that this will not luiite and hold, when the color is not objectionable, and the article is not to be heated.

Cement - for broken marble. - Take gum arable one pound; make into a thick mucilage; add to it powdered plaster of Paris, one and a haif pounds; sifted quick lime, five ounces; mix well; heat the mar- ble and apply the mixture.

Cement - for glass. - A good and durable cement for repairing glass is made by dissolving fine glue in acetic acid until a thin paste is formed. The articles to be mended should be perfectly clean, as the least bit of greasy substance on the broken edges will prevent it from sticking.

Cement - for china, etc. - An excellent cement for mending china articles when broken can be made by mixing flour with white of ^%^ to the consistency of a paste. Hot water does not injure, but rather hardens this simple cement.

Cement - for stoves, etc. - Wood ashes and common salt, made compact with water, will stop the cracks of a stove, and prevent the smoke from escaping.

Cement - to mend leaky boilers. - Powdered litharge, two parts; very fine sand, two parts; slaked quick lime, one part. Mix all to- gether. To use, mix the proper quantity with boiled linseed oil and apply quick. It gets hard very soon.

Cement (Turner's). - Beeswax, one ounce; resin; one-half ounce; pitch, one-half ounce; melt, and stir in fine brick dust.

Cement (White). - Take white (fish) glue, one pound and ten ounces; dry white lead, six ounces; soft water, three pints; alcohol, one pint. Dissolve the glue by putting it in a tin kettle or dish con- taining the water, and set this dish in a kettle of water to prevent the glue from being burned. When the glue is all dissolved put in the lead and stir and boil until it is' thoroughly mixed; remove from the fire, and when cool enough to bottle add the alcohol, and bottle while it is yet warm, keeping it corked.

Cement - for mending earthenware. - Grate a pound of old cheese with a bread-grater, into a quart of milk, in which it must be left for a period of fourteen hours. 'It should be stirred quite often. A pound of unslacked lime, finely pulverized in a mortar, is then added and the whole is thoroughly mixed by beating. This done, the whites of twenty-five eggs are incorporated with the rest and the whole is

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 67

ready for use. There is another cement for the same purpose which is used hot. It is made of resin, beeswax, brick-dust, and chalk boiled together. The substances to be cemented must be heated, and when the surfaces are^soaked with cement, they must be rubbed hard upon each other, as in making a glue joint with wood.

Cement (Soft) - for steam-boilers, steam-pipes, etc. - Red or white lead, in oil, four parts; iron borings, two to three parts.

Cement (Hard.) - Iron borings and saltwater, and a small quantity of sal-ammoniac, with fresh water.

Cement - for gasfitters'. - Mix together resin, four and one quar- ter parts; wax, one part, and Venetian red, three parts.

Cement - for plumbers'. - Black resin, one part; brick-dust, two parts, well incorporated by a melting heat.

Cement - for coppersmiths'. - Boiled linseed oil and red lead mixed together into aputty, are often used by coppersmiths and engineers to secure joints; the washers of leather or cloth are smeared with this mixture in a pasty state.

Cement - for holes or cracks. - Red lead ground in oil, six parts; white lead, three parts; oxide of manganese, two parts; silicate of soda, one part; litharge one-half part; all mixed and used as putty.

Ceilings - to decorate. - A country house may oftentimes be so prettily decorated as to be a joy to its possessor, and a home not in the least behind city homes in tasteful arrangement. In fact, so many more people in the country own their homes than do city people, that it seems almost as if they, as a matter of course, must take a pride in decorating and adorning them. We will not speak of roofs and ver- andas and vines, etc., which all come outside, and concerning which the male nnembers of the family must be more or less consulted be- fore change can be made, but of the internal arrangements of the wall and woodwork and ceiling. Generally, we find the plain, white- washed ceiling in the country house. But it is no more needful there than in the city. It can be painted any color which contrasts well with the woodwork and paper of the walls. Then with a stepladder, paint, brush, and stencil-plate, any lady can decorate her ceiling to suit herself. If she feels that she has not the skill - though it does not take much - she can purchase exceedingly pretty paper for the ceiling, designed in artistic patterns and colors, for moderate cost. This, however, needs care in putting on, that it may be straight and smooth, and the pattern not twisted awry. I think the paint and stencil-plate far easier to manage, and if a simple design has been chosen it ought not to be considered a very great task to put it on.

Ceilings (Smoky) - to clean. - Ceilings that have been smoked by a kerosene lamp should be washed off with soda water. Grained wood should be washed with cold tea.

Celery Cream. - Cut celery into very small pieces, rejecting the toughest green portions. Add only water enough to keep it from burning, and boil it in a closely covered vessel for an hour, or until perfectly tender. Then add a sufficient quantity of milk, first thick-

68 IVHA T E VER V . ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

ened with a tablespoonful of flour to each pint, previously rubbed smooth with two tablespoonfuls of butter, and salt and pepper to the taste, very little of the pepper. Boil and serve as soon as the flour is thoroughly cooked. If made moderately thin with the milk, flour, and butter, it can be rubbed through a colander, when it gives a de- licious, cream-like soup. Smooth squares of bread well browned are frequently put into the soup when finished. A bowl of this, eaten with bread, the same as bread and milk, makes an excellent noon lunch.

Celery (Stewed). - The celery is washed and cut up in pieces of an inch or less. For this, stalks that are not thoroughly bleached, and which would be rejected by those who eat it raw, may be used. That which is imperfectly bleached is stronger than that which is white throughout, but any unpleasant flavor is driven off in the cooking. The celery is covered with water, and allowed to stew gently until thoroughly soft. If there is too much water for the sauce, pour off the excess, add a generous lump of butter, and flour, stirred first in a little cold water, enough to make a sauce about as thick as cream, add salt, if needed, and pepper, if desired. Those who try this will be quite sure to repeat it.

Celery Soup. - Cut celery small and stew it until it is very soft. It is then to be rubbed through a sieve or colander to separate the fibres. This celery pulp is added to a good stock - a plain soup made from meat, with only salt as a seasoning, slightly thickened, and seasoned with pepper, etc. This is the usual celery soup as met with at restaurants. It is better if made with milk. We are not aware of any definite proportion; the ce'ery pulp is thinned with milk; flour stirred up with butter is added to slightly thicken it, and salt and pepper are used as seasoning. A small lump of sugar will greatly improve it. Serve very hot.

Celery - a medicine. - Celery boiled in milk and eaten with the milk served as a beverage, is said to be a cure for rheumatism, gout, and a specific in case of small-pox. Nervous people find great com- fort in celery.

Chalk - uses of. - Chalk, when prepared by washing, becomes an astringent as well as antacid.

It is used internally in diarrhoea, in the form of mixture, and ex- ternally as an application to burns, scalds, and excoriations.

Dose of the mixture from one to two ounces.

Chamois Skin - to clean. - Chamois rrvay be cleaned in a solution of weak soda and warm water; rub plenty of soft soap into the leather, and allow it to remain in soak for two hours, then rub it well until it is quite clean. Afterward rinse it well in a weak solution composed of warm water, soda, and yellow soap. If rinsed in water only, it becomes hard, when dr}-, and unfit for use. The small quan- tity of soap left in the leather allows the finer particles of the leather to separate and become soft like silk. After rinsing, wring it well in.

6g

a rough towel and dry quickly; then pull it about and brush it well, and it will become softer aud better than most new leather.

Chamois Leather- to cleanse.- Dirty wash leather is frequently thrown aside and wasted for the want of knowing how to clean it. Make a solution of weak soda and warm water, rub plenty of soft soap into the leather and allow it to remain in soak for two hours, then rub it well until it is quite clean. Afterward rinse it well in a weak solution composed of warm water, soda, and yellow soap. It must not be rinsed in water only, for then it would be so hard, when dry, as to be unfit for use. It is the small quantity of soap left in the leather that allows the finer particles of the leather to separate and become soft like silk. After rinsing wring it well in a rough towel and dry quickly, then pull it about and brush it well, and it will be- come softer and better than most new leather. In using a rough leather to touch up highly polished surfaces, it is frequently observed to scratch the work; this is caused by particles of dust, and even hard rouge, that are left in the leather, and if removed by a clean, rough brush it will then give the brightest and best finish, which all good workmen like to see on their work.

Chamomile Tea - tonic. - Into a common china teapot put about twenty-five good sized chamomile flowers, and pour over them one pint of boiling water. Let the infusion stand half an hour; then pour it off into a wine bottle, and, if desired, sweeten it with a little sugar or honey. It is best unsweetened; a wineglass should be taken three times a day before eating.

Chamomile - and its uses. - The flowers of the chamomile are tonic, slightly anodyne, anti-spasmodic, and emetic.

They are used externally as fomentations, in colic, face-ache, and tumors, and for unhealthy ulcers.

They are used internally in the form of infusion, wUh carbonate of soda, ginger, and other stomachic remedies, in dyspepsia, flatulent colic, debility following dysentery, and gout.

Warm infusion of the flowers acts as an emetic; and the powdered flowers are sometimes combined with opium or kino, and given in intermittent fevers.

Dose: Of the powdered flowers, from ten grains to one dram, twice or thrice a day; of the infusion, from one to two ounces, as a tonic, three times a day; and from six ounces to one pint, as an emetic; of the extract, from five to twenty grains.

Champagne - for hot weather. - To four parts of seltzer water add one ounce of Moselle wine, or hock, and put a teaspoonful of powdered sugar into a wineglassful of this mixture; an ebullition takes place and you have a sort of champagne which is more whole- some in hot weather than the genuine wine known by that name.

Chandelier - to rene'w. - To renew a dusty and discolored chande- lier, apply a mixture of bronze powder and copal varnish. The drug- gist where they are purchased will tell you in what proportion they should be mixed.

70 WHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD A'lVO W.

Chapped Hands. - When one's hands are chapped, he is always more or less liable to absorb poisonous matter into his system - in the handling, say, of putrid meat, or in the washing of clothes from a sick-room, or dressing some foul sore. Where the surface oil is suffi- cient, it is apt to be washed off, especially with warm v/ater, faster than it is secreted. But the difficulty is greatly increased by the alkali (soda or potash) of the soap, which not only takes up the oil, but actually eats through the epidermis. The best help for chapped hands is, having washed them thoroughly before retiring, to rub them over with mutton tallow and wear through the night a pair of easy- leather gloves. Persons in whom the tendency to chap is not so strong, may keep their hands in condition by an occasional resort to this treatment.

Chapped Hands - treatment of. - Mix quarter pound unsalted hog's lard, which should be washed first in hot water, and then in rose-water, with the yolk of a new-laid ^^g and a large spoonful of honey. Add to this as much fine oatmeal or almond paste as will make the whole into a paste, and apply this after washing the hands.

Charcoal - to make. - Make a foundation of earth with a slightly convex surface slightly nasid above the natural surface, drive a long, stout stake down in the middle, and round this pile the wood cut into lengths of three feet or so. When the heap is finished cover the pile with two inches of dry earth, covered with sod, grass side in. The stake may then be drawn out, and the cavity filled with shavings and chips. The hole in the top must be closed as soon as the fire is fairly started. Ventilating spaces must be left at the base till the fire is well established.

Charlotte Russe. - i. Take one-fifth of a package of gelatine and one half a cupful cold milk: place in a farina boiler and stir gently over the fire until the gelatine is dissolved; pour into a dish and place in a cool room; take one pint of rich cream and whisk it with a tin egg- beater until it is thick; flavor the cream with either vanilla or wune, and sweeten to taste; when the gelatine is cool strain carefully into the prepared cream; line a mould with lady fingers; then pour the cream in carefully until it is filled; cover with lady fingers and ice the top if you desire it.

2. A simple but delicious charlotte russe is made as follows: One pint of sweet cream, sweetened and flavored to taste; one and one- half ounces of Cox's gelatine, whites of three eggs; dissolve the gelatine in a little milk and add it to the cream, let it stand until quite cold, then add the whites of the eggs beaten very stiff. Line your moulds with long strips of sponge cake or lady fingers and fill with the above mixture.

Checks. - Bank checks are orders drawn by individuals or firms on a bank or banker, payable either to " bearer " or to "order." When payable to " bearer " they are usually paid to the holder on presenta- tion; if to "order," although properly endorsed, strangers cannot draw money on them without being identified.

IV HA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 71

All checks must be presented within a reasonable time,

A creditor is not bound to take a check in payment of debt.

Cheese - coloring for. - The coloring for cheese is, or at least should be, Spanish annatto; but, as soon as coloring became general in this country, a color of an adulterated kind was exposed for sale in almrst every shop. The weight of a guinea and a half of real Spanish annatto is sufficient for a cheese of fifty pounds' weight. If a consider- able part of the cream of the night's milk be taken for butter, more coloring will be requisite. The leaner the cheese is, the more color- ing it requires. The manner of using annatto is to tie up in a linen rag the quantity deemed sufficient, and put it into one-half pint of warm water over night. This infusion is put into the tub of milk in the morning with the rennet infusion; dipping the rag into the milk, and rubbing it against the palm of the hand as long as any color runs out. The yolk of &%^ will color butter.

Cheese - to keep from mould. - Dissolve a spoonful of bruised �pepper, two teaspoonfuls of salt, and the same quantity of boracic acid in a quarter of a pint of brandy for a few days; then filter the fluid through a cloth and dilute with an equal quantity of water. Some of the preparation is introduced into the cracks of the cheese by means of a feather, or better with a small glass syringe. If places which have been nibbled by mice are rubbed with the liquid no mould will form. It will put " jumpers " to flight.

Cheese - from veal. - Take out the bone from a shoulder of veal, and cut it into small pieces; stew till tender in a very little water. Remove all pieces of gristle, and chop very fine; then return to the same liquor it was boiled in; add one pound of cold boiled pork, chopped very fine, one spoonful of salt, one teaspoonful each of pep- per and mace, a variety of sweet herbs, and two well-beaten eggs; cook ten minutes, then pour all into an earthen dish, cover with a plate, and bake one hour. To be sliced and eaten cold.

Cherry Pectoral (Ayer's). - Take four grains of acetate of mor- phia; two fluid drams of tincture of bloodroot; three fluid drams each of antimonial wine and wine of ipecacuanha, and three fluid ounces of syrup of wild cherry. Mix.

Chewing Gum. - Take of prepared balsam of tolu, two ounces; white sugar, one ounce; oatmeal, three ounces; soften the gum in water bath and mix in the ingredients; then roll in finely powdered sugar or flour to form sticks to suit.

Chickens - to fatten. - The birds must be shut up; the pen or cage must not be too large, and it should not be tight and close. For a dozen birds a coop three feet wide or deep, four feet long and two and a half feet high is large enough. The whole coop may properly be made of slats, except the roof. The floor should be so made as to allow the droppings of the birds to fall through. Birds that will agree peacably only should be cooped together in a fattening-pen. If one is cross and masterful, turn him or her out, and keep the fattening ones quiet. Give as much food as they will eat up clean, in a trough

72 WITA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

or basket in front of the cage, and give water after the feed is eaten. As a change, give some sand or gravel, or powdered charcoal, once a day. Keep the coop out in an airy place, but not where cold winds will blow through it. Feed rather sparingly than otherwise the first two or three days; afterward give as much as they will cat. This continued for two weeks should give you good, fat fowls; if they are not fat something is wrong, and they should be let out. Fowls will fatten after two weeks' feeding, but they will not be so good to eat. Three weeks is long enough, if all is right.

Chicken (Broiled). - Split the chicken open on the back and then flatten with a cleaver; lay in a dripping-pan with the inside of the chicken next to the pan; bake one hour and baste occasionally; when done make a gravy with the giblets and a little butter and brown flour.

Chicken (Curried). - Cut a chicken into pieces, season and fry in butter. Slice an onion and fry in butter, add a teacupful of stock and tablcspoonful of curry powder mixed with a little flour and rubbed smooth with a little stock; salt; boil five minutes.

Chicken Cholera - cure. - For chicken cholera mix a good supply of salts in the dough when feeding. Keep plenty of fresh water and a clean house for them.

Chickens - to cure gapes in. - This very common and fatal com- plaint in chickens may readily be cured by giving them small pills of dough thoroughly impregnated with soft soap.

Chickens (Young) - food for. - a writer in the Poultry Yard, who believes that chickens are often injured by corn meal, would not let them have corn in any form until they are three or four weeks old, unless it be a little scalded or cooked meal, fed occasionally; and the. principal food should be stale bread crumbled fine or moistened with milk, with wheat screenings (when they get old enough to eat), scald- ed oatmeal, and cottage cheese, made from sour milk. This is not a very expensive method of feeding, as the chickens, being so small, Avill not consume much of it daily, while the best results have invar- iably followed such a system of feeding and management. It is far better to go to a little extra expense than to stand the chance of los- ing a number of valuable birds.

Chicken-Pox. - This is a harmless but an annoying disease. As it resembles modified small-pox, or varioloid, the doctor should be called upon to decide which it is. Keep the patient in the house, and other children away.

Chicken Lice - to destroy. - The first signs of lice are with early setting hens. From their nest soon a whole house will be overrun Avith the pests. Chicks show the presence of lice very quickly, and lice arc certain death to them if they are not protected. Have all nests movable, and change the contents frequently. With sitting liens' nests be sure to have the nest clean and the box and surround- ings whitewashed before she is placed. Whitewash and the dust box are the surest preventives of lice. Put two or three coats of white-

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 73

wash on every interior spot in the building; the lice harbor in the crevices of the rough sidings, and on the under side of the perches. Let the fowl house have a dust box. Mix hot ashes with the dust occasionally to dry it. Do all this early in the year, before spring laying and sitting. Kerosene and lard when applied is a sure cure, but they are too often dangerous in their effects. A little castor oil on the head and under the wings of sitting hens is very effective. Don't keep a brood hen in a little coop without adust wallow. If you want your fowls to be free from lice you must keep their habitation clean. The best way to do that is by occasional change of the nest contents and thorough whitewashing of the apartment.

Chicken - for tea. - Boil a chicken (or chickens) in as little water as possible, until the meat falls from the bones. Chop the meat fine, and season with salt and pepper. Put into the bottom of a mold some slices of hard boiled eggs then a layer of the chopped chicken, another of ^%%,, then chicken, until the mold is nearly full. Boil down the water in which the chicken was cooked, with a large pinch of gelatine moss, until about a cup and a half full is left; season, and strain through a very coarse net and pour over the mould of chicken. Let it stand over night or all day near the ice. To be sliced down for supper, and garnished with celery-tops or parsley.

Chilblains - to cure. - Wear boots which do not hurt the feet, and go without stockings. This is an almost certain cure, as we know from observation in many cases. The feet recover their tone of health slowly, but surely and permanently. The sweating of the feet caused by stockings, especially thick, woolen ones, and the re- tention of this sweat aggravates the disease, and so does the irrita- tion of the skin caused by the wool. It is remarkable how comforta- ble the feet are in boots when there are no socks around them. The lotions, salves, and ointments used for chilblains are of little use.

Chilblains - remedies. - i. Glycerine, one ounce; carbolic acid, one-half a dram; mix and apply night and morning. If the suffering is severe, soak the feet every night in a tea made of white oak bark. This remedy is said to be infallible.

2. Slice raw potatoes with the skins on, and sprinkle over them a little salt, and as soon as the liquid therefrom settles in the bottom of the dish, wash with it the chilblains. One application is all that is necessary.

3. In the evening, before retiring, take salt and vinegar made as hot as can be borne on the parts affected; bathe with a small cloth, and do so until cured.

4. An unfailing remedy for chilblains: A solution of thirty grains of permanganate of potassa in an ounce of pure water, to be applied thoroughly with brush or swab, or in the form of a poultice.

5. Dissolve one ounce of white vitriol in a pint of water. Bathe the parts affected very often.

Children's Diseases - treatment of. - In the case of a baby not yet being able to talk, it must cry when it is ill. The colic makes a

74 WHAT EVERY ONE SHOULD A'lVOW.

baby cryloud, long and passionately, and shed tears, stopping for a moment and beginning again.

If the chest is effected, it gives one sharp cry, breaking off immedi- ateh', as if crying hurt it.

If the head is effected, it cries in sharp, piercing shrieks, with low moans and wails between. Or there may be quiet dozing, and start- ings between.

It is easy enough to perceive, where a child is attacked by disease that there is some change taking place; for either its skin will be dry and hot, its appetite gone; it is stupidly sleepy, or fretful and crying; it is thirsty, or pale and languid, or in some way betrays that some- thing is wrong. When a child vomits, or has a diarrhoea, or is cos- tive and feverish, it is owing to some derangement, and needs atten- tion. But these various symptoms may continue for a day or two before the nature of the disease can be determined. A warm bath, warm drinks, etc., can do no harm, and may help to determine the case. On coming out of the bath, and being well rubbed with the hand, the skin will show symptoms of rash, if it is a skin disease which has commenced. By the appearance of the rash, the nature of the disease can be learned. Measles are in patches, dark red, and come out first about the face. If scarlet fever is impending, the skin will look a deep pink all over the body, though mostly so about the neck and face. Chicken-pox shows fever, but not so much running at the nose, and appearance of cold, as in measles, nor is there so much of a cough. Beside, the spots are smaller, and do not run much together, and are more diffused over the whole surface of the skin, and enlarge into little blisters in a day or two.

Let the room where the child is sick be shad}', quiet, and cool. Be careful not to speak so suddenly as to startle the half-sleeping patient and handle it with the greatest tenderness when it is necessary to move it. If it is the lungs that suffer, have the little patient some- what elevated upon the pillows for easier breathing, and do everything to soothe and make it comfortable, so as not to have it cry, and to thus distress its inflamed lungs. If the child is very weak, do not move it too suddenly, as it may be startled into convulsions. In administering a bath, the greatest pains must be taken not to frighten the child. It should be put in so gradually, and so amused by something placed in the water on purpose as to forget its fear; keep up a good supply of fresh air, at a temperature of about sixty-six degrees Fahrenheit. If a hired nurse must be had, select if possible a woman of intelligence, gentle and loving disposition, kind and amiable manners, and of a most pacific, unruffled and even temper. If a being can be got pos- sessed of these angelic qualities, and we believe there are many such, you will be quite safe in intrusting to her care the management of your sick child, or yourself either, in case of sickness. She should not be under twenty-five or over fifty-five, as between these two ages she will, if healthy, be in her full strength and capacity.

Children Teething - ice for. - The pain of teething may be almost

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 75

done away, and the health of the child benefitted, by giving it fxne splinters of ice, picked off with a pin, to melt in its mouth. The frag- ment is so small that it is but a drop of warm water before it can be swallowed, and the child has all the coolness for its feverish gums without the slightest injury. The avidity with which the little things taste the cooling morsel, the instant quiet which succeeds hours of fretfulness, and the sleep which follows the relief, are the best wit- nesses to this magic remedy. Ice may be fed to a three months' child this way, each splinter being no larger than a common pin, for five or ten minutes, the result being that it has swallowed in that time a teaspoonful of warm water, which, so far from being a harm, it is good for it, and the process may be repeated hourly as often as the fretting fits from teething begin.

Chili Sauce. - Twelve large ripe tomatoes, one large onion, four red peppers; chop all together fine; two cups of sugar, one table- spoonful of salt, one tablespoonful of vinegar, one teaspoonful each of ground allspice and cloves. Boil until quite thick, then bottle and seal.

Chimney - to extinguish a fire in, - So many serious fires have been caused by chimneys catching fire, and not being quickly extinguished, that the following method of doing this should be made generally known: Throw some powdered brimstone on the fire in the grate, and then put a board or something in the front of the fire-place, to prevent the fumes descending into the room. The vapor of the brim- stone ascending the chimney, will then effectually extinguish the soot on fire. Should a fire break out in a - chimney, a wetted blanket should be nailed to the upper ends of the mantle-piece, so as to cover the opening entirely, when the fire will go out of itself.

Chimney - to clean. - To clean a chimney, place a piece of zinc- on the live coals in the stove. The vapor produced by the zinc will carry off the soot by chemical decomposition. Those who have tried the process claim that it will work every time.

Chintz - to wash so as to preserve its gloss and beauty. - Take two pounds of rice and boil it in two gallons of water till soft; when done, pour the whole into a tub, let it stand till about the warmth you in general use for colored linens; put the chintz in, and use the rice instead of soap; wash the chintz in this till the dirt appears to be out; then boil the same quantity as above, but strain the rice from the water, and mix it in warm water. Wash it in this till quite clean; afterward rinse it in water the rice was boiled in. This will answer the end of starch, and no wet will effect it, as it will be stiff while it is worn. If a gown, it must be taken to pieces, and when dried, hang it as smooth as possible; after dry, rub it with a -smooth stone, but use no iron.

China - to mend. - China may be mended by a paste made of the white of ^^%, mixed with flour. The article so mended will not hold water, but for vases, lamp-shades, and similar purposes, answers a good purpose, and is handy.

76 IVI/A T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KXO W.

Chip Dirt - for fruit trees. - Many farmers do not know that they have a mine of weahh - a small one - in the very dooryard. Chip dirt is the very best material to mix with the soil in setting out young trees. It is full of the elements of plant food and retains moisture. If you are setting out a new orchard plow up and utilize the soil from the old wood-pile.

Chloral - uses of - dangerous. - An experienced physician says that anybody who continually uses chloral as a sleeping draught is sure to be killed bv it in the long run, certain conditions of the physical nat- ure making ii a deadly poison.

Chloride of Lime - a disinfectant. - This is very useful to counter- act disagreeable smells and as a disinfectant. It should be put into small earthen pans, and set where needed. Of course, it will require occasional renewing.

This useful disinfectant should be kept in every house to purify a sick-room, and to remove all unpleasant smells. Tainted garments may be rendered harmless by sprinkling them with a weak solution of it; and a piece of sponge dipped in this solution and held to the nose will enable any one with comparative safety to enter a foul sewer.

Chlorine Pastiles - for disinfecting the breath. - i. Dry chloride of lime, two drams; sugar, eight ounces; starch, one ounce; gum tragacanth, one dram; carmine, two grains. Form into small lozenges.

2. Sugar flavored with vanilla, one ounce; powdered tragacanth, twenty grains; liquid chloride of soda sufficient to mix; add two drops of any essential oil. Form a paste and divide into lozenges of fifteen grains each.

Chocolate Drops. - Scrape chocolate to powder, and add pounded sugar in the proportion of two ounces of chocolate to one pound of sugar; make it into a paste with clean water; put it into a stew-pan with a lip to it, not more than three-parts filled, and place it over a hot plate, stirring it with a spoon; when it almost boils, take it from the fire and continue to stir it, till it is of a proper consistence. Have ready a clean smooth tin plate, and on this drop the chocolate. It is a good plan to regulate the falling of the drops from the lip of the pan by means of a small piece of wire; when cold, remove the drops with a knife. If there is any danger of sticking, rub the tin plate lightly over with a rag that has been wet with sweet oil.

Choking - ways to relieve. - i. Do not lose an instant. Force the mouth open with the handle of a knife or of a long spoon; push the thumb and fingers deep down into the throat beyond the root of the tongue, and feel for the foreign body. If the obstruction cannot be grasped, a hair-pin bent into a hook and guided by the left hand will often bring it out. If this fails, get some one to press against the front of the chest or support it against the edge of a table, and strike several hard, quick blows with the open hand on the back, between

IVI/A T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO IV. 77

the shoulder blades. Further treatment must be applied by a phy� sician, who should have been immediately sent for.

2. To prevent choking, break an egg into a cup and give it to the person choking, to swallow. The white of the egg seems to catch around the obstacle and remove it. If one egg does not answer the purpose, try another. The white is all that is necessary.

3. A smart blow with the flat of the hand on the back, just below the neck, will often relieve the windpipe. If it does not, send for the

. doctor at once.

4. Foreign bodies lodged in the throat can be removed by forcibly blowing into the ear. The plan is so easily tried and so harmless that we suggest its use.

Cholera - rules, for the prevention of. - We urge the necessity, in all cases of cholera, of an instant recourse to medical aid, and also under every form and variety of indisposition; for all disorders are found to merge in the dominant disease.

Let immediate relief be sought under disorder of the bowels es- pecially, however slight. The invasion of cholera may thus be read- ily prevented.

Let every impurity, animal and vegetable, be quickly removed to a distance from the habitations, such as slaughter-houses, pig-sties, cess-pools, necessaries, and all other domestic nuisances.

Let all uncovered drains be carefully and frequently cleansed.

Let the grounds in and around the habitations be drained, so as ef- fectually to carry off moisture of every kind.

Let all partitions be removed from within and without habitations, which unnecessarily impede ventilation.

Let every room be daily thrown open for the admission of fresh air; this should be done about noon when the atmosphere is most likely to be dry.

Let dry scrubbing be used in domestic cleaning in place of water cleaning.

Let excessive fatigue, and exposure to damp and cold, especially during the night, be avoided.

Let the use of cold drinks and acid liquors, especially under fatigue, be avoided, or when the body is heated.

Let the use of cold acid fruits and vegetables be avoided.

Let excess in the use of ardent and fermented liquors and tobacco be avoided.

Let a poor diet, and the use of impure water in cooking, or for drinking, be avoided.

Let the wearing of wet and insufficient clothes be avoided.

Let a flannel or woolen belt be worn round the belly.

Let personal cleanliness be carefully observed.

Let every cause tending to depress the moral and physical energies be carefully avoided. Let exposure to extremes of heat and cold be avoided.

78 IVHA T E VER V ONE SHOULD KNO W.

Let crowding of persons within houses and apartments be avoided.

Let sleeping in low or damp rooms be avoided.

Let fires be kept up during the night in sleeping or adjoining apart- ments, the night being the period of most danger from attack, especi- ally under exposure to cold or damp.

Let all bedding and clothing be daily exposed during winter and spring to the fire, and in summer to the heat of the sun.

Let the dead be buried in places remote from the habitation of the living. By the timely adoption of simple means such as these, cholera or other epidemic will be made to lose its venom.

Cholera Infantum - remedy for. - Toast a half slice of stale bread very brown, break in a goblet and fill with water; put in as much soda as you can hold on a three cent piece; let the little one drink a little at a time. If the stomach is very irritable, give only a teaspoonful at a time. In some cases, with the advice of a physician put in a tea- spoonful of paregoric in the gobletful.

Cholera - Egyptian cure for. - Best Jamaica ginger root bruised, one ounce; cayenne, two teaspoonfuls; boil all in one quart of water to one-half pint, and add loaf sugar to form a thick syrup. Dose, one tablespoonful every fifteen minutes, until vomiting and purging ceases; them follow up with a blackberry tea.

Cholera - Indian prescription for. - First dissolve gum camphor, one quarter ounce, in one and one-half ounce of alcohol; second, give a teaspoonful of spirits of hartshorn in a wine glass of water, and follow it every five minutes with fifteen drops of the camphor in a ieaspoonful of water, for three doses; then wait fifteen minutes, and commence again as before; and continue the camphor for thirty minutes, unless there is returning heat. Should this be the case, give one more dose, and the cure is effected; let them perspire freely (which the medicine is designed to cause), as upon this the life depends, but add no additional clothing.

Cholera Tincture (Isthmus). - Tincture of rhubarb, cayenne, opium, and spirits of camphor, with essence of peppermint, equal parts of each, and each as strong as can be made. Dose, from five to thirty drops, or even to sixty, and repeat, until relief is obtained, every five to thirty minutes.

Cholera Morbus - a certain cure. - The ingredients are: One glassful of West India rum, one glassful of molasses, one glassful of spring water, and three tablespoonfuls of ginger. Mix them together and take it. It is said to afford immediate relief.

Cholera Remedy. - Spirits of wine, one ounce; spirits of lavender, one-quarter ounce; compound tincture of benzoin, half an ounce.; oil of origanum, one-quarter ounce; twenty drops on moist sugar. To be rub- bed outwardly also.

Cholera Mixture. - Confection aromatic, one dram; prepared chalk, one dram; powdered gum arable, one dram; pimento-water, two ounces; pure water, four ounces; laudanum, forty drops. - Dose: A grown person to take two tablespoonfuls for the first dose, and one

WHA T E VER V ONE SHOULD KNO W. 79

tablespoonful after every motion. Dose for a child between five and ten years of age, one teaspoonful.

Cholagogue (India). - Quinine, twenty grains; Peruvian bark, pulverized, one ounce; sulphuric acid, fifteen drops, or one scruple of tartaric acid is best; brandy, one gill; water to make one pint; dose, five teaspoonfuls every two hours, in the absence of fever; an excellent remedy.

Chowder (Fish). - Fry a few slices of salt pork, dress and cut the fish in small pieces, pare and slice the potatoes and onions, then place them in the kettle, a layer of fish, then of the fried pork, pota- toes, onions, etc., seasoning each layer with salt and pepper. Stew over a slow fire thirty minutes.

Chromes- to mount. - Take common bleached muslin, heavily starched is best, make a thick flour paste, cook till clear, then strain. Saturate the cloth with the paste, lay the chromo on the cloth face up, turn over and smooth out all the wrinkles and air-puffs. Have a stretch-frame prepared of the proper size made of three-eighths inch soft wood, mitered and well nailed. Lay the chromo on the frame - back on frame. Commence in center of frame and drive a tack on each side, drawing the chromo moderately tight. Then alternate from side to side, driving a tack on each side one and one-half inches from last tack, drawing the canvas gently, but not too tight, both sidewise and endwise of ttfe frame; this obviates the difficulty of puckering on the corners. The end is not so particular, only to draw quite tight. If it is not smooth when first finished, it will be all right when it dries. You can then varnish with best white varnish after it is dry.

Cider Barrels - to cleanse.- Pour in lime water, and then insert a trace chain through the bung hole, remembering to fasten a strong cord on the chain so as to pull it out again. Shake the barrel until all the mold inside is rubbed off. Rinse with water, and finally pour in a little whisky.

Cider (Sour) - to sweeten and keep. - To keep cider perfect, take a keg ^nd bore holes in the bottom of it; spread a piece of woolen cloth at the bottom; then fill with clean sand closely packed; draw your cider from a barrel just as fast as it will run through the sand; after this put in clean barrels which have had a piece of cotton or linen cloth two by seven inches dipped in melted sulphur and burned inside of them, thereby absorbing the sulphur fumes (this process v/ill also sweeten sour cider); then keep it in a cellar or room where there is no fire, and add half a pound of white mustard seed to each barrel. If cider is long made or sourijig when you get it, about one quart of hickory ashes, or a little more of other hard wood ashes, stirred into each barrel will sweeten and clarify it nearly equal to rectifying it as above; but if it is not rectified, it myst be racked off ^o get clear of the pomace, as with this in it, it will sour. Oil or whisky barrels are best to put cider in, or a half pint of sweet oil to a barrel, or a gallon of whisky to a barrel, pr both, may be added with decidedly good

8o WHA T E VER Y ONE SIIO ULD KNO JV.

effects; isinglass, four ounces to each barrel, helps to clarify and settle cider that is not to be rectified.

Cider - to keep sweet. - Pure sweet cider that is arrested in the process of fermentation before it becomes acetic acid or even alcohol and with the carbonic acid gas worked out, is one of the most delight- ful beverages. When the saccharine matters by fermentation are being converted to alcohol, if a bent tube be inserted air tight mto the bung with the other end into a pail of water, to allow the car- bonic acid gas evolved to pass off without admitting any air into the barrel, a beverage will be obtained that is fit nectar for the gods.

A handy way is to fill your cask nearly up to the wooden faucet when the cask is rolled so the bung is down. Get a common rubber tube and slip it over the end of the plug in the faucet, with the other end in the pail. Then turn the plug so the cider can have communi- cation with the pail. After the water ceases to bubble, bottle or store away.

Cider - to keep. - To one pound of cider add two pounds of sugar; put up the cider in glass or stoneware; by no means in wood. After filling the vessels, save enough to keep them full and leave open and keep full until it quits working, then cork up. In three or four months it will be good wine, and the older the better. If at any time you wish fresh cider, take a half glass of said wine, add as much water and sweeten to suit taste, and the best judges will think it just from the press.

Cider (Nectar). - One quart cider, one bottle soda water, one glass sherry, one small glass brandy, juice of half a lemon, peel of one- quarter of a lemon, sugar and nutmeg to taste. Flavor it with exr tract of pine-apple, strain, and ice it all well.

Cinders in the Eye - to remove. - A small camel's-hair brush, dipped in water and passed over the ball of the eye on raising the lid. The operation requires no skill, takes bat a moment, and in- stantly removes any cinder or particle of dust or dirt, without inflam- ing the eye.

Cisterns - to make ^vater tight. - Paint thickly on the inside with a mixture of eight parts melted glue and four of linseed oil, boiled with litharge. In forty-eight hours it will be so hard that the tank can be filled with water.

Citron - to preserve. - Cut the citron in thin slices, pare off the outside rind and take out all the seeds, put in the preserve kettle with water enough to cover it; boil till it can be pierced easily with a fork, skim it out and strain the water, placing it back in the kettle; allow three-quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of citron; dissolve the sugar in the liquor; cut three or four lemons into it and let it boil till it is as thick as required, then put in the citron and boil; when it is transparent then it is done; if boiled too long the citron will be tough.

Citron Preserves. - Take of citron and sugar equal weight; put the citron in a kettle or stewpan, boil until tender, then put in a col-

WHA T E VER V ONE SHOULD KNO JV. 8i

andcr to drain. I often leave mine until morning- to drain well, then take this water, put it in your kettle with the sugar, and boil and skim \intil clear, then put in your citron, boil until well done; flavor Avith lemon if you like. This has been my plan for over thirteen years, and to my remembrance I have never had any sour. I also preserve watermelon rinds the same way.

Clams - with cream. - Chop fifty small clams, not too fine, and season with pepper and salt. Put into a stewpan, butter the size of an egg, and when it bubbles, sprinkle in a teaspoonful of flour, which cook a few minutes; stir gradually into it the clam liquor, then the clams, which stew about two or three minutes, then add a cupful of boiling cream, and serve immediately.

Cleaning^ Mixture. - To clean coat collars and to take out grease from floors or carpets, and to clean paint or white walls (kalsomined) take half a bar of washing soap, and a lump of saltpeter and sal soda each as large as a walnut; add two quarts boiling soft water, stir well and let it stand till cool, then add three ounces of ammonia, bottle and cork tight. Will keep good a year. It is best to bottle when lukewarm, and add the ammonia at any time.

Cleaning Compound. - Mix one ounce of borax and one ounce of gum camphor with one quart of boiling water. When cool add one quart of alcohol; bottle and cork tightly. When wanted for use shake well and sponge the garments to be cleaned. This is an ex- cellent mixture for cleaning soiled black cashmere and woolen dresses, coat collars and black felt hat.

Clinkers - to loosen. - Clinkers may be loosened from fire-bricks by throwing in the fire-box, when very hot, two or three quarts of oys- ter or clam shells, or a less quantity of salt, allowing the fire to go out, and then cleave off the clinkers.

Clocks - to clean. - Take the movement of the clock to pieces. Brush the wheels and pinions thoroughly with a stiff, coarse brush; also the plates which the trains work. Clean the pivots well by turn- ing in a piece of cotton cloth held tightly between your thumb and finger. The pivot holes in the plates are generally cleansed by turn- ing a piece of wood into them, but I have always found a strip of cloth or a soft cord drawn tightly through them to act the best. If you use two cords, the first one slightly oiled, and the next dry, to clean the oil out, all the better. Do not use salt or acid to clean your clock - it can do no good, but may do a great deal of harm. Boiling the movement in water, as is the practice of some, is also foolishness.

To Oil Properly. - Oil only, and very lightly, the pallets of the verge, the steel pin upon which the verge works, and the point where the loop of the verge wire works over the pendulum wire. Use none but the best watch oil. Though you might be working constantly at the clock-repairing business, a bottle costing you but twenty-five cents would last you two years at least. You can buy it at any watch- furnishing establishment.

A Defect to Look After, - ^Always examine the pendulum wire at the

82 ir//A T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO W.

point where the loop of the verge wire works over it. You will gen- erally find a small notch, or at least a rough place worn there. Dress it out perfectly smooth, or your clock will not be likely to work well. Small as this defect may seem, it stops a large number of clocks.

Closets (Damp) - to purify. Indaraip closets and cupboards gen- erating mildew, a tray full of quicklime will be found to absorb the moisture and render the air pure. Of course it is necessary to renev/ the lime from time to time as it becomes slacked. This rem- edy will be found useful in safes and strong-rooms, the damp air of which acts frequently most injuriously on the valuable deeds and documents contained therein.

Clothes - to clean from grease and other stains. - Take one peck of new lime; pour over it as much water as will leave about two gal- lons of clear liquid after it has been well stirred and has settled. In about two hours pour off the clear liquid into another vessel; then add to it six ounces of pearlash, stir it well, and when settled, bottle it for use. With this liquid wash the clothes, using a coarse piece of sponge for the purpose. If the clothes are of very fine fabric and delicate color, the liquid must be diluted with clear soft water.

Clothes-pin Apron. - A great help in hanging out clothes is an apron to put the pins in. Mine is sixteen inches long and eighteen inches wide, rounded at the corners. It is double, and at each side near the belt the outside piece is cut away and bound, making open- ings to put in the pins and take them out when hanging out the clothes. The apron is bound around firmly and will hold several dozens of pins. A belt fastens it about the waist, and with this on there is no need of stooping to pick up clothes-pins. In this apron may be kept a pair of cotton flannel mittens to wear when hanging out the clothes in cold weather. They are a great saving of the hands. One who has once had a pair of these mittens and one of these aprons will not willingly do without either of them.

Cloth - to bleach. - In eight quarts of warm water put one pound of chloride of lime; stir with a stick a few minutes, then strain through a bag of coarse muslin, working it with the hand to dissolve thorough- ly. Add to this five bucketfuls of warm water, stir it well and put in the muslin. Let it remain in one hour, turning it over occasionally, that every part may get thoroughly bleached. When taken out, wash well in two waters to remove the lime,, rinse and dry. This quantity will bleach twenty-five yards of 5'ard-wide muslin. The muslin will bleach more evenly and quickly if it has been thoroughly wet and dried before bleaching.

Clothes (White) - to -wash. - If you wish your white clothes to look clear and pure white, always have ready a kettle of boiling water and scald them thoroughly before putting them in the last rinse water. Clothes washed ever so clean will look dingy if soapy water is allowed to dry into them. Scalding removes the suds. Prints should be washed out a piece at a time in warm water, rinsed, and hung to dry

WHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO IV. 83

immediately. But very few colors will bear soaking in hot soap- suds. If you want your flannels to full, wash them in hot water, rub well upon a board, using plenty of soap, and rinse in cold water. This rules never fails.

Cloth - to make �water-proof. - To make cloth water-proof, dis- solve eight pounds oleic acid in six quarts of alcohol; add gradually twenty pounds sulphate of alumina, leave twenty-four hours to settle; carefully pour off the liquid and save the remaining deposit; filter t!"ij through flannel and press it into a cake. Dissolve one pound of this in fifteen to twenty gallons of water, strain, saturate the fabric thoroughly, remove and let dry. The fabric is water-proof without having its ventilating qualities destroyed.

Cloth - to fasten on wooden surfaces. - The following is a Ger- man process for fastening cloth to the top of tables, desks, etc.: Make a mixture of two and a quarter pounds of wheat flour, two tablespoonfuls of powdered resin, and two tablespoonfuls of powdered alum; rub the mixture in a suitable vessel, with water, to a uniform, smooth paste; transfer this to a small kettle over a fire, and stir until the paste is perfectly homogeneous - without lumps. As soon as the mass has become so stiff that the stirrer remains upright in it, trans- fer it to another vessel and cover it up, so that no skin may form on its surface. This paste is applied in a very thin layer to the surface of the table; the cloth, etc., is then laid and pressed upon it, and smoothed with a roller. The ends are cut after drying. If leather is to be fastened on, this must first be wet. The paste is then applied, and the leather rubbed smooth with a cloth.

Clothes - to wash (French way). - A system of washing clothes has lately been introduced in some French towns which is worthy of special mention. Its economy is so great as to greatly reduce the cost. This is the process: Two pounds of soap are reduced with a little water to a pulp, which having been slightly heated, is cooled in ten gallons of water, to which is added one spoonful of turpentine oil and two of ammonia; then the mixture is agitated. The water is kept at a temperature which may be borne by the hand. In this solution the white clothes are put and left there for two hours before washing them with soap, taking care in the meantime, to cover the tub. The solution may be warmed again and used once more, but it will be necessary to add half a spoonful of turpentme oil and another spoonful of ammonia. Once washed with soap, the clothes are put in hot water, and the blue is applied.

This process, it is obvious, saves much labor, much time and fuel, while it gives the clothes a whiteness much superior to that obtained by any other process, and the destructive use of the wash-board is not necessary to clean the clothes from impurities.

Clothing Renovator. - Soft water, one gallon; make a strong de- coction of logwood by boiling the extract with the water. Strain, "when cool; add two ounces gum arable in powder; bottle, cork well, and set aside for use; clean the coat well from grease and dirt and

84 IVHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

apply the above liquid with a sponge evenly. Dilute to suit the color, and hang in the shade to dry; afterward brush the nap smooth and it will look like new.

Cloth - to raise a nap on. - Clean the article well; soak it in cold water for half an hour; put it on a board, and rub the threadbare parts with a half-worn hatter's card filled with flocks, or with a teazle or a prickly thistle until a nap is raised; then lay the nap the right way with a hatter's brush, and hang up to dry.

Clothes (Acid on) - to restore. - Dampen as soon as possible after exposure to the acid with spirits ammonia. It will destroy the effect immediately.

Clothing (On Fire) - to extinguish. - Immediately throw a rug, a piece of carpet, a coat, or anything woolen, over the victim so as to smother the flames, and do not allow her or him to run away from you. In removing the clothes be careful not to pull off the skin; and if only slightly burned, apply lime water and linseed oil. If at all severe send for a physician.

Coal - how to burn. - A writer in ih^ Journal of Health offers the following suggestions concerning the economical combustion of coal: A very common mistake is made and much fuel wasted in the man- ner of replenishing coal fires, both in furnaces and grates. They should be fed with a little coal at a time, and often; but servants, to save time and trouble, put on a great deal at once, the first result be- ing that almost all the heat is absorbed by the newly put-on coal, which does not give out heat until it has itself become red hot. Hence, for a while, the room is cold, but when it becomes fairly aglow the heat is insufferable. The time to replenish a coal fire is as soon as the coals begin to show ashes on their surface; then put on merely enough to show a layer of black coal covering the red. This will soon kindle, and as there is not much of it, an excess of heat will not be given out. Many almost put out the fire by stirring the grate as soon as fresh coal is put on, thus leaving all the heat in the ashes when it should be sent to the new supply of coal. The time to stir the fire is just when the new coal laid on is pretty well kindled. This method of managing a coal fire is troublesome, but it saves fuel, gives a more uniform heat, and prevents the discomfort of alterations of heat and cold above referred to.

Cockroaches - -ways to destroy. - i. The disagreeable odor which the cockroach emits, and which soon permeates all places that it in- habits, proceeds from a dark colored fluid which it discharges from the mouth. The cockroach loves warmth and moisture, hence its populousness in kitchens where fire and water are almost ever pres- ent. It is a night prowler, and swarms out from its secret lairs on the departure of daylight.

For the destruction of the cockroach we recommend a mixture containing a tablespoonful of red lead, the same amount of Indian meal, A^ith molasses enough to make a thick batter. Set this on a plate at night in places frequented by the insects and all that eat of it

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 85

will be poisoned. Another preparation is composed of one teaspoon- ful of powdered arsenic, with a tablespoonful of mashed potato. Crumble this every night at bed-time where the insects will find it, and it is said to be an effectual poison. Great care should be exer- cised in the use of such dangerous agents. An innocent method of destroying cockroaches is to place a bowl or basin containing a little molasses on the floor at night. A bit of wood, resting one end on the floor and the other on the edge of the vessel, serves as a bridge to conduct the insects to the sweet deposit. Once in the trap its slip- pery sides prevent retreat, and thus cockroaches may be caught by the thousands.

2. The following is said to be effectual: These vermin are easily destroyed, simply by cutting up green cucumbers at night, and plac- ing them about where roaches commit depredations. What is cut from the cucumbers in preparing them for the table answers the pur- pose as well, and three applications will destroy all the roaches in the house. Remove the peelings in the morning and renew them at night.

3. Common red wafers, to be found at any stationers, will answer the purpose. The cockroaches eat them and die. Also, sprinkle powdered borax plentifully around where "they most do congre- gate," and renew it occasionally; in a short time not a roach will be seen. This is a safe and most effectual exterminator.

4. Borax is a very good cockroach exterminator. Take some pieces of board, spread them over with molasses, only sufficient to make the borax when sprinkled upon it stick, and place the boards in their haunts. Gum camphor is a speedy remedy to clear the house of cockroaches.

Codfish Balls. - Soak codfish cut in pieces about an hour in luke- warm water, remove skin and bones, pick to small pieces, return to stove in cold water. As soon as it begins to boil, change the water and bring to a boil again. Have ready potatoes boiled tender, well mashed and seasoned with butter. Mix thoroughly with the potatoes half the quantity of the codfish while both are still hot, form into flat thick cakes, or round balls, fry in hot lard or drippings, or dip in hot fat, like doughnuts. The addition of a beaten egg before making into balls renders them lighter. Cold potatoes may be used by reheating adding a little cream and butter, and mixing while hot

Codfish Sauce. - Boil a piece of codfish, but do not overdo it. Pick out the flesh in flakes, put them in a sauce-pan with a piece of butter, pepper and salt to taste, some minced parsley, and the juice of a lemon, with a dust of Cayenne. Put it on the fire till quite hot, and serve.

Coflfee - a disinfectant. - Numerous experiments with roasted cof- fee prove that it is the most powerful means, not only of rendering animal and vegetable effluvia innocuous, but of absolutely destroying them. A room in which meat in an advanced degree of decomposi- tion had been kept for some time, was instantly deprived of all smell

86 WHA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO W.

on an open coffee-roaster being carried through it, containing a pound of coffee newly roasted. In another room, exposed to the effluvium occasioned by the clearing out of the dung-pit, so that sul- phureted hydrogen and ammonia in great quantities could be chem- ically detected, the stench was completely removed in half a minute on the employment of three ounces of fresh roasted coffee, while the other parts of the house were permanently cleared of the same smell by being simply traversed with the coffee roaster, although the cleansing of the dung-pit continued for several hours after. The best mode of using the coffee as a disinfectant is to dry the raw bean, pound it in a mortar, and then roast the powder on a moderately- heated iron plate, until it assumes a dark brown tint, then it is fit fer use. Then sprinkle it in sinks or cess-pools, or lay it on a plate in the room which you wish to have purified. Coffee acid or coffee oil acts more readily in minute quantities.

Coffee - ways to make. - i. Take of unground coffee the usual quantity which supplies your family, and break the beans in a mortar This you will find to be quite as easy a task as grinding it in the usual way, as the beans are brittle and break readily. Have over the fire a kettle of perfectly fresh water, and let it boil. This is quite an es- sential feature. Put the coffee in a boiler, similar in shape to an oyster stew-pan, if you have it, but an ordinary coffee-pot will do, without the addition of any clarifying substance whatever, white of ^Z%- ^SS shells, fish skin, or anything else, and* when the water first comes to a boil, pour it over the coffee and count two; then grasp the pan bv the handle and give it a vigorous shake. Let it stand where it will keep up to the boiling point (but never pass it) two minutes, and it is ready for use. You will find that it will pour out as clear and strong as brandy, and with a sparkling flavor and spirit, so to speak, that to all lovers of good coffee will be quite delightful.

2. Coffee should be quickly and evenly roasted to a light-brown color. A few burned grains will impart a disagreeable flavor to it when made. Only a sufficiency for four or five days should be roasted at one time, and it should never be ground until required for use.

The following is an excellent method of making coffee both in bar- racks and in the field. It is the favorite recipe at Delmonico's:

Heat the grounds hot in a mess-pan, one tablespoonful for each person and one for the pot or kettle; then pour on boiling w^ater, one cupful for each spoonful of coffee. Cover tight and stand where it will keep hot, but not boil, for fifteen or twenty minutes. Then strain into the cups. The coffee should never be boiled. "Coffee boiled is coffee spoiled."

3. In the first place, get.the very best coffee, equal parts of Mocha and Java. Keep this in a tightly-covered jar after roasting, and grind it fresh every morning. For three grown people use six tablespoonfuls of coffee, put it in a bowl, and break a fresh %^'g into it, shell and all. Mix till the coffee is w^et throughout, then put it

P^^HA T. E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO IV. 87

into a hot tin coffee-pot, turn on two quarts of boiling water, set it on the stove, and let it boil briskly for ten minutes; then pour in half a cupful of cold water, set it on the table a minute or two to settle, and then pour through a little wire strainer into the coffee-pot in- tended for the table. Use hot milk with the coffee.

Coffee (a la Turk). - Coffee a la Turk is thus concocted: In a copper coffee-pot bring water to its first full boil. After having ground the coffee in an ordinary mill, screw it (the mill) to its finest possible ca- pacity and regrind the coffee, which becomes almost dust. To every cup of water add a heaping teaspoonful of this coffee dust, throw dry into the boiling water; take it a second from the fire, let come again to a boil, and repeat the ceremony three times, and if the coffee be true Mocha, it is a nectar fit for the gods. It must be sweetened to the taste while on the fire.

Coffee - to preserve the aroma of. - Add the white of an &gg to every pound of coffee just before it is quite cold. Stir it thoroughly into the mass, so that every berry will be wet with it.

Coffee (Cream) - whipped. - Whipped coffee cream for one who likes the coffee flavor is perfectly delicious as a last morsel at a for- mal dinner or an afternoon lunch. Take two ounces of coffee beans and roast them; while fresh and still warm put them in one pint of rich cream, which you have sweetened liberally with sugar. Let this stand for an hour; then strain it through a muslin cloth laid in a col- ander; dissolve a teaspoonful of gelatine in a little cold milk, and add to the cream; then whip it to a firm froth. The gelatine may be dis- solved in a little orange water, or lemon extract if you choose.

Coffee (Rice) - to make. - Brown rice as you would the coffee bean, and then either grind or mash in the mortar; take half a cup of the ground rice and pour about a quart of boiling water over it and let it stand about ten or fifteen minutes; then strain and sweeten with loaf sugar, and season with boiled milk. This is particularly nice for children.

Coffee-pots - to cleanse. - Musty coffee-pots and tea-pots may be cleaned and sweetened by putting a good quantity of wood ashes into them and filling up with cold water. Set on the stove to heat grad- ually till the water boils. Let it boil a short time, then set aside to cool, when the inside should be faithfully washed and scrubbed in hot soap-suds, using a small brush that every spot may be reached, then scald two or three times and wipe till well dried. It must be a desperate case if the vessels are not found perfectly sweet and clean, if this advice is strictly followed. Pots and pans or plates that have been used for baking and grown rancid may be cleansed in the same way. Put the plates into a pan with wood ashes and cold water, and proceed as above stated. If no wood ashes can be had, take soda. If cooks would clean their pie-plates and baking dishes after this fashion after using, they would keep sweet all the time.

Cold - simple remedies for. - Simple remedies will usually remove a cold, if taken promptly, before the congestion has produced serious

88 IV//A T E VER Y OXE SHOULD KNO W.

disorganization. When struck with a sense of chilliness, fifteen to thirty drops of aromatic spirits of ammonia in half a tumbler of water will often start a uniform circulation all through the body, as this quickly enters the whole blood and is stimulating. Soaking the feet in warm water, gradually adding warmer water as long as it can be borne, draws off the blood from all the rest of the body, and often relieves congestion in any local part. Smart friction upon any part or the whole of the skin surface, or a uniform surface sweating, pro- duces like results. But in these cases, special care must be taken to prevent after-chilling of the feet, or any other part. After the feet heating, wipe dry quickly and cover them v.-armly.

The best remedy we have found for a recent cold is a moderate movement of the bowels with castor oil, or calcined magnesia, or other mild cathartic. This produces a flow of fluid, drawn from the blood to the alimentary canal, and thus reduces the pressure upon any one congested point, just as drawing off part of the water from a flooded pond relieves pressure upon a weakened dam or embank- ment. This is to be followed by keeping the body warm and com- fortable, and toning it up with good food, or a simple tonic like quinine.

Cold - to cure. - Put a large teacupful of linseed, with a quarter of a pound of sun raisins and two ounces of stick licorice into two quarts of soft water, and let it simmer over a slow fire till reduced to one quart; add to it a quarter pound of pounded sugar candy, a table^ spoonful of old rum, and a tablespoonful of the best white-wine vinegar or lemon-juice. The rum and vinegar should be added as the decoction is taken; for, if they are put in at first, the whole soon becomes flat and less efficacious. The dose is half a pint, made warm, on going to bed; and a little may be taken whenever the cough is troublesome. The worst cold is generally cured by this remedy in two or three days; and, if taken in time, it is considered infallible.

Cold on the Chest. - A flannel dipped in boiling water and sprinkled with turpentine laid on the chest as quickly as possible, will relieve the most severe cold or hoarseness.

Cold in the Head - remedy for. - When one has a bad cold and the nose is closed up so that he cannot breathe through it, relief may be found instantly by putting a little camphor and water in the center of the hand and snuffing it up the nose. It will be found a great relief. Dr. Pollion, of France, says that cold in the head can be cured by inhaling hartshorn. The inhalation by the nose should be seven or eight times in five minutes.

Cold - to relieve. - When you get chilly all over and away into your bones, and begin to sniffle and almost struggle for your breath, just begin in time and your tribulations need not last very long. Get some powdered borax and snuff the dry powder up your nostrils. Get your camphor bottle, smell it frequently, pour some on your handkerchief, and wipe your nose with it whenever needed. Your nose will not get sore, and you will soon wonder what's become of your cold. Begin

89

this treatment in the forenoon and keep on at intervals until you go to bed, and you will sleep as well as you ever did.

Cold - remedies for.- i. Boil two ounces of flaxseed in one quart of water; strain, and add two ounces of rock candy, one-half pint of honey, juice of three lemons; mix, and let all boil well; let cool, and bottle. Dose, one cupful on going to bed, one-half cupful before meals. The hotter you drink it the better.

2. When one feels the approach of a severe cold, he may often find relief by using composition tea. The following is the recipe for the powder. Take one-half ounce of red pepper, one-half ounce of cloves, one-half ounce of cinnamon, one-half pound of bay-berry bark, and one-half pound of ginger. The ingredients should all be ground and thoroughly mixed. Put in wide-mouthed bottles and cork tight. When needed, put a teaspoonful of the powder in a bowl and fill it with boiling water. Milk and sugar make it very palatable.

3. Lemonade with loaf sugar, used freely, and taken as hot as can be swallowed comfortably, on going to bed is excellent for a cold. Lemons should be used freely, and sugar also, and you should not go into the cold after taking it but cover warm in bed. Lemon juice with sugar should be used freely at all times while the cold remains. There is nothing better.

Cold Feet - ways to relieve. - i. People who write or sew all day, or rather those who take but little exercise, may warm their cold feet without going to the fire. All that is necessary is to stand erect and very gradually to lift one's self up upon the tips of his toes, so as to put all the tendons of the foot at full strain. This is not to hop or jump up and down, but simply to rise - the slower the better - upon tiptoe, and to remain standing on the points of the toes as long as possible, then gradually coming to the natural position. Repeat this several times, and, by the amount of work the tips of the toes are made to do, in sustaining the body's weight, a sufficient and lively circulation is set up. Even the half-frozen car-driver can carry this plan out. It is one rule of the " Swedish movement " system, and, as motion warmth is much better than fire warming, persons who suf- fer with cold feet at night can try this plan just befoi'e retiring to rest.

2. A very valuable recipe for a foot-bath for any one troubled with cold feet: One pound prickly ash bark, a quarter of a pound of white mustard, and a quarter of a pound of pepper. Boil in one gal- lon of water, strain and bottle and keep cool. Use a teacupful of this with two quarts of water for a foot-bath at bed-time.

3. The only sure and efficient way to warm cold feet is to dip them in cold water, and then rub them dry briskly with a coarse towel.

Cold Slaw - delicious. - Do not mash the cabbage, or the dressing- will be poor and thin. Cut fine, and seasoning with salt and pepper, put in a crockery bowl or dish. Rub well together a teaspoonful of flour, and butter the size of a walnut, pour on it two tablespoonfuls of boiling water, and stir smoothly on the stove; push back so it will

90 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

keep hot, but not boil, and add two teaspoonfuls of vinegar; beat light the yolks of two eggs, a teaspoonful of sugar, half a teaspoonful of mustard, and two tablespoonfuls of cream, sour or sweet; pour the hot mixture on this, beat well, and replacing on the stove, let it come to a boil, and pour hot on the cabbage.

Cold - to restore animation. - The restoring of animation after in- tense cold is a most painful sensation. By no means allow the pa- tient to come near the fire. Rub the body with snow, ice, or cold water, and restore warmth to it by slow degrees. A little brandy, or warm brandy and water, should be administered.

Colic - remedies for. - i. For the violent internal agony termed colic, take a teaspoonful of salt in a pint of water; drink and go to bed. It is one of the speediest remedies known. It will revive a person who seems almost dead from a heavy fall.

2. Phares' method of treating colic consists in inversion - simply in turning the patient upside down. Colic of several days' duration has been relieved by this means in a few minutes.

3. Dr. Tepliashin has recommended a thin stream of cold water from a teapot lifted from one to one and a half feet from the abdo- men, in cases of colic. He has seen it relieve pain when opium and morphia had failed.

4. A loaf of bread, hot from the oven, broken in two, and half of it placed upon the bowels, and the other half opposite it upon the back, will relieve colic from whatever cause almost immediately.

Collodion - uses of. - This is gun-cotton dissolved in ether. It is very useful for many purposes, especially is it useful in photography. Those who take pleasure in striking cuttings of tender plants in Wal- tonian cases, or under small glasses in the house will find it of great assistance in the case of all soft-wooded plants to touch the wound at the lowest joint of the cutting which enters the ground with a camel- hair brush dipped in collodion. This will materially hasten the for- mation of the callous, which is necessary before any roots can be formed.

Color - to restore. - When the color on a fabric has been destroyed by acid, ammonia neutralizes the same, after which the application of chloroform will restore the original color.

Color Blindness. - This malady is incurable, if congenital. When not inherited an education of the sight will remove it.

Coloring Recipes. - In using the following recipes remember that the goods should always be wet in hot soapsuds before they are put into the dye. Be very careful to have the materials thoroughly dis- solved and keep the dye hot, constantly stirring the goods, lifting them up to the air and turning them over:

Brown. - For five pounds of goods allow one pound of catchu and two ounces of alum, dissolved in sufficient hot water to wet the goods. Put this in a brass kettle or tin boiler on the stove, and when it is boiling hot put in the goods and remove it from the stove. Have ready four ounces of bi-chromate of potash dissolved in hot water in

WHAT E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 91

a wooden pail. Drain the goods from the catchu and dip them into the bi-chromate of potash, then back into the catchu again. Proceed in this way, dipping into each alternately until the required shade is produced. This colors a nice brown on cotton, woolen, or silk.

Blue (on cotton). - Dissolve four ounces of copperas in three or four gallons of water. Soak the goods thoroughy in this, and then drain and transfer to a solution of two ounces of prussiate of pota.'^h in the same quantity of water. Lift the goods from this and put them to drain, then add to the prussiate of potash solution one-half ounce of oil of vitriol, being careful to pour in a few drops only at a time; stir thoroughly return the goods, and as soon as of the desired shade rinse them in clear water and dry. This will color five pounds.

Yellow (on cotton). - For five pounds of goods, dissolve one pound of sugar of lead in enough water to thoroughly saturate the goods, and one-half pound of bi-chromate of potash in the same quantity of water in a separate vessel. Dip the goods well, and drain in each alternately until the desired shade is secured, then rinse and dry. If an orange is desired, dip the yellow rags into strong, hot lime water before rinsing.

Green (on cotton). - First color blue, and then proceed as in col- oring yellow.

Turkey Red (on cotton). - For four pounds of cloth, take one pound of sumac in enough soft water to cover the cloth in a tub, soak over night, wring out and rinse in soft water. Take two ounces of muriate of tin in clear soft water, put in the cloth and let it remain fifteen minutes. Put three pounds of bur wood in cold soft water, in a boiler, on a stove, and nearly boil, then partly cool, then put in the cloth and boil one hour. Take out the cloth and add to the water in the boiler one ounce of oil of vitriol, put in the cloth and boil fifteen minutes. Rinse in cold water.

Dark Brown. - For dark brown, four ounces of blue vitriol, two pounds of cutch, and six ounces of bi-chromate of potash. This is for ten pounds of cloth. Put the cutch in an iron kettle, in cold water enough to cover the cloth, heat until dissolved, dissolve the vitriol, and add it to the dye, put in the cloth and scald it an hour or more. Wring it from the dye, dissolve the bi-chromate of potash in boiling water in brass, and put in the cloth for fifteen minutes.

Canary (on cotton). - Take one-half pound of sugar of lead, and dissolve it in hot water. Dissolve one-fourth pound of bi-chromate of potash in cold water in a wooden vessel. Dip the goods first in the lead water, then in the potash, so continuing until the color suits. This quantity will color five pounds of rags.

Cologne Water, - Alcohol, one gallon; add oil of cloves, lemon, nutmeg, and bergamot, each one dram; oil neroli, three and a half drams; seven drops of oil of rosemary, lavender and cassia; half a pint of spirits of nitre, half a pint of elder flower water. Let it stand a day or two, then take a colander and at the bottom lay a piece of

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white cloth, and fill it up, one-fourth of white sand, and filter through it.

Colts - care of. - Young colts should be well fed and cared for the first winter; provide a warm stall for them, with plenty of litter, and give them a good brushing down once every day. A quart of oats, daily, will be needed, and some bright, clean, sweet hay. Cut feed is not suitable for young colts, whose digestion should not be over- taxed by food packed solidly in the stomach; feed light and fre- quently.

Comfortables - to renovate. - After washing and thoroughly dry- ing bed-quilts, fold and roll them tight, then give them a beating with the rolling-pin to liven up the batting, and make them soft and new.

Composition for Boots and Shoes - (Waterproof). - Beeswax, two ounces; beef suet, four ounces; resin, one t)unce; neatsfoot oil, two ounces; lampblack, one ounce. Melt tt)gether.

Composition - for driving out rats, etc. - Keep on hand a quan- tity of chloride of lime. The whole secret consists in scattering it dry all around their haunts and into their holes, and they will leave at once, or a liberal decoction of coal tar placed in the entrance of their holes will do as well.

Compost - materials for. - In several of the Slates a compost heap mav be made of muck or earth for a basis; to this may be added leaves, cotton-seed, ashes, gypsum, night-soil, stable manure, trash from the fields, except weeds in seed, and all the slops from the houses and cabins. If desired, bone-dust may be added, but the fine artificial fertilizers will be better, if used by themselves.

Composition Powder (Thompson's). - Bay berry bark, two pounds; hemlock bark, one pound; ginger root, one pound; Cayenne pepper, two ounces; cloves, two ounces; all finely pulverized and well mixed. Dose, one-half teaspoonful of it and a spoonful of sugar; put them into a tea-cup and pour it half full of boiling water; let it stand a few minutes, and fill the cup with milk and drink freely. If no milk is to be obtained, fill up the cup with hot water.

Consumption Cure. - The following is said to be an effectual rem- edy, and will in time completely cure the disorder. Live temperateh', avoid spiritiious liquor, wear fiannel next the skin, and take every morning half a pint of new milk mixed with a wineglassful of the ex- pressed juice of green horehound. One who has tried it says: "Four weeks' use of the horehound and milk relieved the pains in my breast, gave me ability to breathe deep, long and free, strcngthenetl and har- monized my voice, and restored me to a better state of health than I had enjoyed for years."

Consumption - remedy for. - Mix together sixteen ounces of liquid tar and one lluid ounce of liquor of potassa, boil them for a few min- utes in the open air, then let it simmer in an iron vessel over a spirit or other lamp in the chamber of the patient. This may at first ex- cite a disposition to cough, but in a short time it allays it, and re- moves any tendency to it.

WHAT EVERY ONE SHOULD A'NOW, 93

Convulsions. - Dr. Williamson reports an interesting and remark- able case in which he saved the life of an infant in convulsions by the use of chloroform. He commenced the use of it at nine o'clock one evening, at which period the child was rapidly sinking, numerous remedies having been already tried without effect. He dropped half a dram of chloroform into a thin muslin handkerchief, and held it about an inch from the infant's face. In about two minutes the con- vulsions gave way. and the child fell into a sleep. By slightly re- leasing the child from the influence of the chloroform, he was able to administer food by which the child was nourished and strengthened. The chloroform was continually administered in the manner de- scribed, from Friday evening at nine o'clock until Monday morning at nine. This treatment lasted sixty hours, and sixteen ounces of chloroform were used. Dr. Williamson says he has no doubt that the chloroform was instrumental in saving the infant's life; and that no injurious effects, however trivial, from the treatment adopted, have subsequently appeared.

Cooking^ Hints. - Cooking needs an intelligent, cultivated mind to guide the hands Quite as much as painting and music. It is one thing to prepare food so carefully that it shall look inviting and be nourish- ing and digestible; quite another to mix a few ingredients, place them in the oven, or over the stove, which is either too hot or too cold oftentimes, without any interest as to the result. Take one or two common dishes as cooked by ordinary servants, and compare them with what they should be; for instance, that much abused dish, " hash." No wonder, as it is brought to the table too often. The odds and ends of meat, left over from many meals, are picked up; some are fresh and some dry, some with tough gristle on, and all chopped together with potatoes, the latter perhaps just cooked and hot, which spoils all hashes. It is put into a cold spider, with fat of some kind, and moistened with water, sometimes too much and sometimes too little. When hot it is sent to the table. The real, ap- petizing hash is something very different and a nice breakfast dish. Water in which meat of any kind has been boiled should be set away to cool, the fat removed and the broth saved for soups, stews and hashes. All gravies should be saved and treated in the same way, and no fat at all left in them. A jar of extract of beef should be in every house, and if there is neither of the above on hand, a quarter of a teaspoonful of the extract in a half cup of hot water will moisten and flavor the hash, and add very much to its richness. More should be used if the quantity of hash needed is large. Corned beef is al- ways best, but the hash is good when made of cold roast beef, mut- ton, or fowls. A roast beef bone will often have on it meat enough for hash, when there is not enough for the table in any other form. It should be boiled in a very little water, and the water saved to moisten it, until the meat loosens from the bones, then chopped with twice the amount of cold boiled potatoes, seasoned with salt and pepper and moistened before putting on the fire. The spider with a

94 ^VHA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO W.

little butter or beef-dripping in it, should be boiling hot, the hash put on and covered until a light brown crust has formed; then turned over on the platter and served.

The odor of cabbage when boiling may be remedied almost entirely by placing a lump of charcoal in the pot with the cabbage. In boil- ing greens a lump of dough the size of a hen's egg tied in a clean cloth and placed to boil with the greens will absorb all offensive odor.

Copartnerships. - Partnerships may be either general or special. In general partnerships money invested ceases to be individual prop- erty. Each member is made personally liable for the whole amount of debts incurred by the company. The company is liable for all contracts or obligations made by individual members.

Special partners are not liable beyond the amount contributed.

A person may become a partner by allowing people generally to presume that he is one, as, by having his name on the sign, or par- cels, or in the bills used in the business.

A share or specific interest in the profits or loss of a business, as remuneration for labor, may involve one in the liability of a partner.

In case of bankruptcy, the joint estate is first applied to the pay- ment of partnership debts, the surplus only going to the creditors of the individual estate.

A dissolution of partnership may take place under express stipula- tions in the articles of agreement, by mutual consent, by the death or insanity of one of the firm, by award of arbitrators, or by court of equity in cases of misconduct of somfe member of the firm.

In case of death, the surviving partners must account to the repre- sentatives of the deceased.

Copying Paper - to make. - To make black paper, lampblack mixed with cold lard; red paper. Venetian red mixed withlard; green paper, chromo green mixed with lard; blue paper, prussian blue mixed with lard. The above ingredients to be mixed to the consistency of thick paste, and to be applied to the paper with a rag, then take a flannel rag and rub till all color ceases coming off. Cut your sheets four inches wide, and six inches long, put four sheets together, one of each color, and sell for twenty-five cents per package. The first cost will not be over three cents. Directions for writing: Lay down your paper upon which )'ou wish to write; then lay on the copying paper, and over this lay any scrap of paper you choose; then take any hard pointed substance and write as you would with a pen.

Coral - to clean. - Soak it in soda and water for some hours. Then make a lather of soap, and with a soft hair-brush rub the coral lightly, letting the brush enter all the interstices. Pour off the water and re- plenish it with clean constantly, and then let the coral dry in the sun.

Cordial (Blackberry). - Let the fruit simmer awhile and then press out juice; to each pint of the same, put nearly equal quantities of while sugar; boil and skim, and when a thick jelly, put in bottles, filling

95

half-way; when cold, fill up with good whisky or French brandy. It tastes as if highly spiced, and is splendid for medicinal purposes.

Cordial (Godfrey's). - Sassafras, six ounces; seeds or coriander, caraway, and anise, of each one ounce; infuse in six pints of water, simmer the mixture till reduced to four pints, then add six pounds of molasses; boil a few minutes; when cold add three fluid ounces of tincture of opium. For children teething.

Cordial (Neutralizing). - Take of powdered rhubarb, bi-carbonate potash, powdered peppermint leaves, each three ounces; oil of cinna- mon, oil of erigeron, each two drams; water, four pints; alcohol, ninety-five per cent., eight ounces; sugar, thirty-two ounces; infuse the powders in the boiling water for a half-hour, and express and strain; then dissolve the sugar in the liquor by means of heat; while the mixture is cooling, add the essential oils dissolved in the alcohol. Dose, one or two teaspoonfuls every three hours, or oftener, as may be required, in diarrhoea, dysentery, and the summer complaints of children, etc.

Cordial (Peppermint). - Good whisky, ten gallons; water, ten gallons; white sugar, ten pounds; oil peppermint, one ounce, in one pint alcohol, one pound flour well worked in with the fluid, one-half pound burnt sugar to color. Mix and let it stand one week before using. Other oil in place of peppermint, and you have any flavor desired.

Corns - treated with salicylic acid. - Dr. Traill Green speaks highly of the results obtained in the treatment of hard and soft corns with salicylic acid. He has adopted a formula recommended by Dr. Gezou, which is as follows: Salicylic acid, thirty parts; extract of cannabis indica, five parts; collodion, two hundred and forty parts. The collodion fixes the acid to the part and protects it from friction; the cannabis indica acts as an anodyne, and the acid reduces and loosens the corn so that it comes off in four or five days. The reme- dy is applied with a camel's-hair pencil, and if the corn is not well cured, the application may be repeated. In four or five days the pa- tient should use a warm foot bath and rub off the collodion. If any portion of the corn remains, the acid should be applied again, and the treatment continued until the whole of the corn has disappeared.

Corns - on the bottom of the foot. - Corns, wherever they occur, are generally due to unequal pressure, or to the rubbing of the spot by the shoe or boot. As a rule, if the cause is removed, a cure will be made. Use an in-sole of leather, or of pasteboard, cutting in it a hole large enough to receive the corn. If the sole is thick enough to prevent all pressure upon the corn, it will probably get well.

Corns - treatment of. - i. Corns are a thickened state of the scarf-skin, caused by pressure or friction. The part of the skin acted upon becomes hard, and presses upon the sensitive skin within, which, endeavoring to relieve itself, produces an additional quantity of scarf-skin. Treatment: Soak the feet in warm water, pare the top of the corn, and apply one drop of the following solvents: i.

96 WIIA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

Lunar caustic. * Moisten the corn and rub it with the caustic. 2. Nitric acid, applied with a rod or stick. 3. Strong solution of sub- carbonate of potash. The corn is gradually eaten away and disap- pears. As corns are the result of friction, they may be prevented or driven away at an early stage by anointing them every night and morning with sweet oil, on the same principle that lubrication is ap- plied to axle-trees, etc., to prevent friction injuring them.

2. Soak the feet well in warm water, pare off as much of the corn as can be done without pain, and bind up the part with a piece of linen or muslin, thoroughly saturated with sperm oil, or, what is bet- ter, the oil from herring or mackerel. After three or four days the dressing may be found of a soft and healthy texture, and less liable to the formation of a new corn than before. We have obtained this recipe from a reliable source which we cannot well doubt.

3. A small piece of sal ammoniac dissolved in two tablespoonfuls of spirits of wine, and the same quantity of water. Saturate a small piece of sponge or linen rag, and place it between the toes, changing it twice a day. This will cause the skin to harden, and the corn may be easily extricated.

4. Soak the feet well in hot water before going to bed, then pare down the corn, and, after having just moistened it, rub a little lunar caustic on the corn and just around the edge, till it turns light gray. By the next morning it will be black, and when the burnt skin peels oft it will leave no vestige of the corn underneath. Of course, the corn is liable to return, but not for some length of time. Or, scrape a bit of common chalk, and put a pinch of the powder on the corn at night, binding a piece of linen round. Repeat this for a few days, when the corn will come off in little scales.

5. For soft corns dip a piece of linen cloth in turpentine and wrap it around the toe on which the corn is situated, night and morning. The relief will be immediate, and, after a few days, the corn will dis- appear. If corns are soaked in soda and water they will become softened and may be easily removed.

6. Boil a potato in its skin, and after it is boiled take the skin and put the inside of it to the corn, and leave it on for about twelve hours; at the end of that period the corn will be nearly cured.

7. Take quarter cup of strong vinegar, crumb finely in it some bread. Let stand half an hour, or until it softens into a good poul- tice. Then apply, on retiring at night. In the morning the soreness will be gone and the corn can be picked out. If the corn is a very obstinate one, it may require two or more applications to effect a cure.

Corn Plasters. - In a piece of card, cut a round hole the size of the central portion of the corn; lay the card on a piece of adhesive piaster, and warm the spot of plaster exposed by the hole in the card, by hold- ing a hot iron near it for a second or two; then remove the card and sprinkle some finely powdered nitrate of silver on the warm spot of

97

the plaster. When cold, shake off the loose powder, and apply to the com. Two or three applications seldom fail to cure.

Corn-cribs (Rat-Proof). - Take posts ten or eleven feet long and eight inches square; mortise two feet from one end; for end-sills, two- inch mortise with tusk. Taper posts from sill to the end, by hewing off inside until the end is reduced to four inches diameter; make smooth with the draw-knife, and nail on tin smooth half way to the end, below the sill. Let sills be eight inches square, also end-tie them and the rafter-plates strong with moderate inter-ties. Brace well, and lath up and down with three-quarter-inch lath; dove-tail or counter- sink joints crosswise; lay the floor, and board up the ends with un- grooved boards; let each bin be twelve feet long, six feet wide at the sill, and seven and one-half feet at plate; and, if full to peak, it will hold two hundred and fifty bushels. If preferred, lay the floor with lath or narrow boards, with room for ventilation. Each post should stand on stone, and be about three inches from the ground, and each stone have a foundation two feet square and below the frost.

Corn - to prevent being destroyed. - To prevent the corn being destroyed or eaten by chickens, birds, or insects, before it grows through the surface of the soil, prepare the seed before planting by sprinkling a sufficient portion of coal tar, procured at the gas manu- factory, through it, stirring so that a portion will adhere to each grain; then mix among the corn some ground plaster of Paris, which will prevent the tar from sticking to the fingers of those who drop the corn, and vegetation will be promoted thereby. The tar and plaster will not injure the corn so as to prevent its growing, by being kept some days after it is so mixed together.

Corn, Beans, etc. - to can. - After stripping off the husks and picking off the silk, slice off carefully about half or two-thirds of the corn, with a sharp knife; then, with the back of the blade, pressor scrape off that part of the kernels left on the cob. This prevents cut- ting of the cob. Fill the can about one-third, and with the small end of a potato masher, or other stick, gently pack it down; put in more corn and pack again, and continue until the can is full to the very top. Put on the rubber, and screw the top on very tight. Put some cloth, hay or straw in the bottotn of the wash boiler and on it set (or lay) the filled cans. Fill the boiler with cold water, being careful to cover the cans with it; set over the fire, and boil for three hours or more. Do not fear that the cans will burst, even if very tightly screwed down. When you take them out, try if it is possible to screw the cover on more securely. After the jars are cool, wrap each one in paper, and set away in the dark. This is essential. This process succeeds perfectly, absolutely without a failure. Succotash is put up in the same way, and so are green beans and string beans. Peas you cannot pack - shake down very closely - put on rubbers, screw on cover, and boil in the same manner as directed for the corn. They will shrink in the can - corn will not if packed hard.

Com^^to can in glass jars. - Take the best sweet com for table

98 WIIA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

use; when tender, cut from the cob before cooking; put in glass jars, and with the small end of the potato-masher pack it tight; when full put on the rubber and screw on the cover almost tight; place cloth on the bottom of the wash boiler; lay in the cans, one over another; cover with cold water; when it comes to a boil, boil three hours; take out and screw on the covers perfectly tight. If the covers are not tight enough, then boiling water will get in. Corn put up in this way is as well as in summer - all the flavor is preserved and there is no trouble in keeping.

Corn - to can in tin cans. - Get cans made that require to be solder- ed. Cut the corn off the cob and fill the cans within three-quarters of an inch of the top. Do not pack the corn. Then pour in water until the corn is covered. Then put the cap on and solder it up perfectly air tight. Put the cans in a kettle and boil them two and a half hours. Then take them out and punch a hole in the top of the can; a hole the size of a large pegging-awl will do. Let them set until all the steam has passed out, which requires about five minutes. Then stop up the hole with solder, and put them in the kettle and boil them two and a half hours again. Then put the cans in a cool, dark place, and they will keep well.

Corn (Hulled). - Old-fashioned people look upon hulled corn as a luxury. It should be more common than it is as a wholesome acceptable food. Hulled corn is the Northern equivalent of hominy or samp. In one case the hull is removed by means of ley and in the other by beating or other mechanical means. In the course of hulling, the corn doubles in bulk. White, flinty corn is prefered. Take hard-wood ashes equal in measure, to the com, pour on twice as much water, in an iron kettle, and boil for several minutes. Skim off whatever rises and allow the dregs to settle. This will take place sooner if a little cold water be added. Pour off the clear ley, wash the kettle, put in the corn with the ley and boil briskly for half an hour, adding water to make up the loss by evaporation, and stiring frequently. Pour off the ley and rinse the corn in several waters. Place the corn with w^ater in a large pan and rub it through the hands to remove any remaining hulls and the black " chits." Continue to wash in succes- sive waters, until that which is poured off is clear. Then cover the corn with water and boil slowly until quite soft, stirring frequently and adding hot water to make up any loss. When quite soft, add a large tablespoonful of salt to each six quarts of the hulled corn. Hull- ed corn is eaten cold with milk or with sugar and cream, or hot with butter. It will keep in cold weather for several days.

Corn - for seed, - Always select even-rowed ears, and ears whose rows are straight and regular on the cob. Ears that taper are the best because better protected by the husks, and then, too, the silk - the female part of the plant - remains alive longer. The reason for selecting the top ear for seed is that it is always more fully devel- oped, more uniform and more vigorous in its germination, having been better fertilized when in the silk.

IV HA T E VER V ONE SHOULD KNOW, 99

Corn Starch - to manafacture. - The corn is steeped in water, ranging in temperature from seventy degrees to one hundred and forty degrees Fahrenheit, for about a week, changing the water at least once in twenty-four hours. A certain amount of acid fermentation is thus produced, causing the starch and refuse of the corn to be easily separated afterward. The swollen com is ground in a current of clear soft water, and the pulp passes through sieves, with the water into vats. In these the starch gradually settles to the bottom, the clear water is then run off by a tap, and the starch gathered and dried in a proper apartment for the purpose.

Cosmoline - use of, - Cosmoline is soothing when the skin is brok- en and keeps better than ordinary salve. The plaster will come in play for cuts, and a little collodion brushed over it makes it water- proof, so that it need not be disturbed until the new skin has formed beneath it,

Costiveness - to cure. - Common charcoal is highly recommended for costiveness. It may be taken either in tea or tablespoonful, or even larger doses, according to the exigencies of the case, mixed with molasses, repeating it as often as necessary. Bathe the bowels with pepper and vinegar. Or take two ounces of rhubarb, add one ounce of rust of iron, infuse in one quart of wine. Half a wineglass- ful every morning. Or take pulverized blood-root, one dram; pul- verized rhubarb, one dram; Castile soap, two scruples. Mix and roll into thirty-two pills. Take one morning and night. By follow- ing these directions it may perhaps save you from a severe attack of piles, or some other kindred disease.

Cotton Goods - to cleanse. - Add to hot rain water an amount of wheat bran equal to one-eighth of the fabric to be cleansed, and, after stirring well for five minutes, add the goods; stir them about with a clean stick, and bring the whole to a boil. Allow the mixture to cool until the articles can be washed out, after which rinse them well.

Cottons (Colored) - to wash. - Boil two quarts of bran in water for half an hour, let it cool, then strain it, and mix the liquor with the water in which the things are to be washed. They will only re- quire rinsing, as the bran will stiffen them sufficiently. For colored muslins, rice-water is very good, as it helps to preserve the color; but, although it makes white muslins clear, it sometimes gives them a yellow tinge. When used it should previously be boiled in the proportion of one pound of rice to one gallon of water. No soap is required.

Cotton Fabrics - to render fire proof. - If a teaspoonful of pow- dered borax is added to every pint of starch used in starching cotton goods, they cannot be made to burn with a blaze. The borax can have no injurious effect upon the cloth or upon the wearer, and is so cheap that every one can afford it.

Cough Compound. - For the cure of coughs, colds, asthma, whoop- ing-cough, and all diseases of the lungs: One spoonful of common tar, three spoonfuls of honey, the yolk of three hen's eggs, and half a

loo

pint of wine; beat the tar, eggs and honey well together with a knife, and bottle for use. A teaspoonful every morning, noon and night, before eating.

Cough (Consumptive) - to cure. - Take three pints rain water, half a pound of raisins chopped fine, three tablespoonfuls flax seed; sweeten to a syrup with honey, and boil down to a quart. Add three teaspoonfuls of extract of anise seed. Take a tablespoonful eight times a day.

Cough Candy (Medicated.) - To five pounds of candy just ready to pour on the slab, add the following mixture, and form it into sticks: Tincture squills, two ounces; camphorated tincture of opium and tincture of tolu, of each one-half ounce; wine of ipecac, one-half ounce; oils of gaultheria, four drops; sassafras, three drops; and of anise seed oil, two drops, and use this freely in common coughs.

Cough Drops. - Four teaspoonfuls of castor oil, four teaspoonfuls of molasses, one teaspoonful of camphor, and one teaspoonful of par- egoric. Mix together and take a teaspoonful at a dose four or five times a day. Mothers, try this; a month old baby can take a few drops; six months', a half teaspoonful, and a year old, a spoonful. When a child has a cold, and threatened with croup, begin giving the syrup during the day, and on going to bed. If it coughs during the night, give more. It will not fail to prevent croup and cure a cough. A grown person can take a larger dose.

Cough (Dry) - remedy for. - Take of powdered gum arable, half an ounce; liquorice-juice, half an ounce. Dissolve the gum first in warm water, squeeze in the juice of a lemon, then add of paregoric two drams; syrup of squills, one dram. Cork all in a bottle and shake well. Take one teaspoonful when the cough is troublesome.

Cough Cure. - An infallible cure for a cough or bronchitis. Well tried and proves true: Tincture of tolu, four drams; tincture of opium, two drams; tincture of lobelia, four drams; syrup of squills, one ounce; tincture of tar, two drams; syrup, wild cherry, one pound; syrup of Ipecac, one ounce; glycerine, five ounces; mix. Take one teaspoonful three times a day.

Cough - to alleviate. - For a cough or tickling in the throat take the juice of two lemons, the beaten white of one ^gg, enough powdered or granulated sugar to make a thick paste. A teaspoonful of this mixture will allay the irritation and cure a cough in its early stages.

Cough - to cure. - Roast a lemon very carefully without burning it; when it is thoroughly hot, cut and squeeze into a cup upon three ounces of sugar, finely pow^dered. Take a teaspoonful whenever your cough troubles you. It is as good as it is agreeable to the taste.

Cough Mixture - reliable. - Take two ounces of balm of gilead buds, the freshest you can procure, and boil them very slowly in a quart of water. Let it simmer down to one pint, then strain it, and then add one pound of honey in comb, with the juice of three lemons*

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. loi

Let them all boil together until the wax in the honey is dissolved. This has been known to cure a cough of long standing.

Cough Mixture. - Paregoric, one ounce; tincture of tolu, one ounce; spirits of nitre, one ounce; antimonial wine, eighth of an ounce. A teaspoonful of this mixture is a dose.

Cough Syrup. - Put one quart hoarhound to one quart water, and boil it down to a pint; add two or three sticks of licorice and a table- spoonful of essence of lemon. Take a tablespoonful of the syrup three times a day, or as often as the cough may be troublesome.

Cough - simple remedies for. - i. For a tight, hoarse cough, where phlegm is not raised, or with difficulty, take hot water often, as hot as can be sipped. This will be found to give immediate and permanent relief.

2. Try gum arable. Keep a piece in the back part of the mouth until the irritation is allayed. It is very healing as well as nutritious, and does not disarrange the stomach as sweet cough mixtures do.

3. A small piece of resin, dipped in the water which is placed in a vessel on the stove, will add a peculiar property to the atmosphere of the room, which will give great relief to persons troubled with cough. The heat of the water is sufficient to throw off the aroma of resin.

4. A medical authority recommends a little common sugar as a remedy for a dry hacking cough. If troubled at night or on first wak- ing in the morning, have a little cup on a stand close by the bed, and take half a teaspoonful; this will be of benefit when cough-syrups fail.

Cough (Whooping) treatment. - Dissolve a scruple of salt of tartar in a gill of water; add to it ten grains of cochineal; sweeten it with sugar. Give to an infanta quarter teaspoonful four times a day; two years old, half spoonful; from four years, a tablespoonful. Great care is required in the administration of medicines to infants. We can assure paternal inquirers that the foregoing may be depended upon.

Coughs - to relieve. - It is said that a small piece of resin dipped in the water which is placed in a vessel on a stove, not an open fire- place, will add a peculiar property to the atmosphere of the room which will give great relief to persons troubled with a cough. The heat of the stove is sufficient to throw off the aroma of the resin, and gives the same relief that is afforded by the combustion, because the evaporation is more durable. The same resin may be used for weeks.

Court Plaster. - This plaster is merely a kind of varnished silk, and its manufacture is very easy. Bruise a sufficient quantity of isinglass, and let it soak in a little warm water for twenty-four hours; expose it to heat over the fire till the greater part of the water is dissipated, and supply its place by proof spirits of wine, which will combine with the isinglass. Strain the whole through a piece of open linen, taking care that the consistence of the mixture shall be such that, when cool, it may form a trembling jelly. Extend a piece of black or flesh-colored silk on a wooden frame, and fix it in that position

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by means of tacks or twine. Then apply the isinglass (after it has been rendered liquid by a gentle heat) to the silk with a brush of fine hair (badger's is the best). As soon as this first coating is dried, which will not be long, apply a second; and afterward, if the article is to be very superior, a third. When the whole is dry, cover it with two or three coatings of the balsam of Peru. This is the genuine court plaster. It is pliable, and never breaks, which is far from being the case with spurious articles sold under that name.

Court Plaster. - Brush silk over with a solution of isinglass, in spirits or warm water, dry and repeat several times. For the last application apply several coats of balsam of Peru. Used to close cuts or wounds, by warming it and applying. It does not wash off until the skin partially heals.

Cover - for a lounge. - A serviceable cover to throw over a lounge or couch in the sitting-room is made by taking a broad, bright stripe of cretonne; on each side of this put a stripe of black or dark brown cloth (line to give body to it); on each edge put a row of fancy stitches in silk or crewel; the ends may be finished with fringe or not, as you choose. Another cover is made of the drab Aida canvas, with the ends worked in loose overcast stitches. The canvas may be fringed out to any length desired if you take the precaution to overcast the edge where you stop raveling, to prevent its fraying out to a greater depth than you care to have it.

Cow - to relieve from choking. - When a cow is choked with a potato or a piece of root in the throat, and it cannot be reached or caught by two fingers of the hand inserted in the throat, the best means of relief is rather to crush the obstacle by placing a block of wood on one side of the throat against it, and striking a sharp blow on the other side with a wooden mallet. This will smash the potato, apple or root, and the cow can swallow it.

Cow (swelled bag) - to cure. - An excellent remedy for swelled bags in cows, caused by cold, etc., is gum camphor, one-half ounce, to sweet oil, two ounces; pulverize the gum, and dissolve over a slow fire.

Cow (kicking) - to cure. - To cure a cow of the habit, put a com- mon garden hoe end in front of her off hind leg, and above and be- hind the gambrel joint of the nigh hind leg. Then sitting down on the right to milk, put the handle of the hoe well up under the arm, and begin milking. The heifer cannot stir either hind leg, and after one Aveek she can be milked safely without fettering.

Crab-apple (Sweet Spiced) - to can. - Select large ones, cut out the blows. One pint of vinegar, one-half pint of water, five pounds of sugar, one tablespoonful each of whole cloves, stick cinnamon, whole allspice, and one half teacup of mustard seed. Cook the syrup a few minutes. Put few apples in at a time; skim out as soon as soft into a jar, then turn the syrup over all. For one peck of apples. I also can crab-apples as I do strawberries, or preserve them whole, pound for pound.

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 103

Crackers (Oatmeal). - Wet one pint of fine oatmeal with one gill of water; work it a few minutes with a spoon, until you can make it up into a mass; place it on a board well covered with dry oatmeal; make it as compact as you can, and roll it out carefully to about one- sixth of an inch in thickness, and cut into squares with a knife, or into shapes with a cake-cutter. Bake in a very slow oven, or merely scald them at first and then let them stand in the oven until they dry out. These are difficult to make at first, but you soon learn to handle the dough and to watch your oven so that they will not scorch. They are excellent for all the purposes of crackers, and if kept dry, or if packed in oatmeal, they will last good for months. This is one form of the Scotch "bannock." A rich addition is two heaping spoonfuls of ground dessicated cocoa-nut.

Cramp - in bathing. - For the cure of the cramp when swimming, Dr. Franklin recommends a vigorous and violent shock to the part affected, by suddenly and forcibly stretching out the leg, which should be darted out of the water into the air if possible.

Cranberry Sauce. - To make nice cranberry sauce the berries, after being thoroughly washed, should be put into a sauce-pan (por- celain, never iron or tin), with a quart of boiling water to each quart of berries, and boil rapidly for twenty minutes, mashing the berries with a strong wooden spoon or masher. Then add two teacupfuls of sugar for each quart of berries, stir well, let it boil up, and then pour into a dish to cool. It should be very cold when served. We always pass the stewed fruit, after cooling a little, through a course sieve, and return to the sauce-pan before adding the sugar, let it just come to a boil, stir in the sugar and boil gently three or four minutes. Then pour into moulds or in a pretty glass dish. If one serves the berries in this way once she will never use them without ridding them of the tough and indigestible skins, which really never should be eaten, Long cooking spoils both color and flavor, and not only for cranberry but for apple sauce as well.

Crape - to make old look nearly equal to new. - Place a little water in a teakettle, and let it boil until there is plenty of steam from the spout; then, holding the crape in both hands, pass it to and fro several times through the steam, and it will be clean and look nearly equal to new.

Crape (Black) - to remove water stains from. - When a drop of water falls on a black crape veil or collar, it leaves a conspicuous white mark. To obliterate this, spread the crape on a table (laying it on a large book or paper to keep it steady), and place underneath the stain a piece of old black silk. With a large camel's-hair brush, dipped in common ink, go over the stain, and then wipe off the ink with a small piece of old soft silk. It will dry immediately, and the white mark will be seen no more.

Cream (Cold) - to make. - One-half ounce of white wax; one-half ounce of spermaceti, three ounces oil of almonds, one ounce of glyc- erine, two ounces of rose water. Melt the first four ingredients

I04

gently together, and when nearly cold, stir in the rose water and a few drops of attar of roses.

Cream Cheese from Buttermilk. - Put the buttermilk in a kettle over the fire and heat slowly until it curdles, but do not let it get warmer than will be pleasant to the hands when placed in it. Re- move from the fire and let it set on the back of the stove till the curd separates from the whey, then strain through a sieve or bag. Work the curd fine with the hands, salt it a very little, and then put in cream, mixing it thoroughly.

Cream (Fruit). - Take one-half ounce of isinglass dissolved in a little water, then put one pint of good cream, sweetened to the taste; boil it. When nearly cold lay some apricot or raspberry jam on the bottom of a glass dish and pour it over. This is most excellent.

Cream (Italian). - Melt three-quarters ounce of isinglass in half pint of milk; put a stick of cinnamon and a small piece of lemon peel in it; into one pint of rich cream put some granulated sugar, the juice of three oranges, and a glass of brandy; whisk them up well, and then strain the isinglass in it when cold and whip them all together; when it gets thick, put ina mold; place on ice in a very cool place.

Cream (Lemon). - Take a pint of thick cream and put in it the yolks of two eggs, well beaten; four ounces of fine sugar, and the thin rind of a lemon; boil it up, then stir till almost cold; put the juice of a lemon in a dish or bowl and pour the cream upon it, stirring till quite cold.

Cream (Raspberry). - Put six ounces of raspberry jam to one quart of cream, pulp it through a lawn -sieve, add to it the juice of a lemon and a little sugar, and whisk it till thick. Serve it in a dish or glasses.

Cream (Strawberry). - One pint fresh strawberries sprinkled with half ounce of white powdered sugar. Let stand for a time to draw out the juice, then pass through a sieve with a wooden spoon; put half ounce gelatine into a stew-pan, with half a gill of cold water to soak and swell; then put on the fire and stir until the gelatine is melted. Add two ounces powdered sugar and juice of orte lemon. Put this mixture through a strainer, and stir into the strawberries. Whip half a pint of cream to a stiff froth, and add also. Scald a pint mold with hot water and rinse with cold. Pour the strawberry cream into the mold, and place it on ice until required for use.

Cream (Salmon). - Take out the contents of a pint can, and remove all bits of skin and bone, drain off the fluid, and mince the fish fine. For a white sauce, boil a pint of milk, thicken with two tablespoon- fuls of corn starch, and add two tablespoonfuls of butter, with salt and pepper to one's liking. Prepare one pint finely powdered bread crumbs. Put a thin layer of crumbs in bottom of a pudding dish, then a layer of the minced fish, then a layer of the white sauce. Re- peat these layers for whole, ending with crumbs. Then bake in the oven -until the top crumbs are a handsome brown. This is a delicious

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 105

and nourishing dish for breakfast or tea. and is served as a fish course at dinners.

Cream (Tapioca). - At night put two heaping tablespoonfuls of tapioca to soak, and in the morning drain off the water, beat the yolks of two eggs with half a cup of sugar, a little nutmeg, and the tapioca; stir into a quart of boiling milk, and boil about ten minutes, thek pour into a dish. Beat the whites of the eggs to a froth with a little sugar, flavor with lemon or vanilla, spread smoothly over the cream, and put into the oven and brown. Eat cold.

Crib-biting - remedy for. - Crib-biting is often a habit, but may be caused by disease. Indigestion occasions a constant irritation and uneasiness, which may impel the horse to take hold with the teeth and stretch the neck as a means of relief. From this grows the habit of crib-biting and wind-sucking, which ceases when the cause is re- moved. As a remedy, give the horse in his feed, daily, for a few weeks, one dram of copperas and half an ounce of ground ginger, and feed him upon cut feed, with crushed or ground grain, and an ounce of salt in each feed.

Cribbing - to prevent. - Cribbing is a vice which springs from habit more than any other cause. It begins frequently from a desire to ease the teeth from inconvenience or perhaps pain, at that period when the dentition is perfecting, and then becomes fixed upon the horse as a vice. It is not injurious except when accompanied with wind-sucking, which is a series of deep inspirations by which flatu- lence and bellyache are caused. When the habit is fixed on a horse it is difficult io break it, and the only effective method is to use a muz- zle which prevents him from thus using his teeth.

Crockery - to mend. - Take four pounds of white glue, one and a half pounds dry white lead, one-half pound isinglass, one gallon soft water, one quart alcohol, one-half pint white varnish; dissolve the glue and isinglas in the water by gentle heat if preferred; stir in the lead, put the alcohol in the varnish, and mix the whole together.

Crops per Acre - to estimate. - Frame together four light sticks, measuring exactly a foot square inside, and, with this in one hand, walk into the field and select a spot of fair average yield, and lower the frame square over as many heads as it will inclose, and shell out the heads thus inclosed carefully, and weigh the grain. It is fair to presume that the proportion will be the 43.560th part of an acre's produce. To prove it, go through the field and make ten or twenty similar calculations, and estimate by the mean of the whole number of results. It will certainly enable a farmer to make a closer calcu- lation of what a field will produce than he can by guessing.

Croup - cure for. - The following treatment is recommended as a cure for croup: As soon as the first symptoms are discovered, apply cold water suddenly and freely to the neck and chest with a sponge, then lay a cloth wet with cold water, on the chest, and closely cover with cotton batting (nothing else will do as well), and the breath will be instantly relieved. Give the patient plenty of cold water to drink,

io6

and cover it warm in bed, and it will sleep sweetly. There is no dan- ger of taking cold by the operation.

Croup - treatment and cure. - There are various remedies for this enemy in the nursery. As in other diseases, prevention is better than cure. Children liable to croup should not play out of doors after three o'clock in the afternoon. If a woolen shawl is closely pinned around the neck of the patient when the first symptoms of croup appear, the attack may be diminished in power. The child struggling for breath naturally throws its arms out of bed to breathe through its pores, and thus takes more cold and increases its trouble. Bi-chromate of po- tassa in minute doses - as much as will rest on the point of a penknife - given every half hour till relief is obtained, is the best remedy we have ever tried. Mustard plasters on the ankles, wrist and chest will draw the blood from the throat and relieve it, cloths wrung from hot water and placed about the throat and chest and wrapped in flannel, give relief, A teaspoonful of alum, pulverized and mixed with twice its quantity of sugar, to make it palatable, will give almost instant help. Another remedy is the following: Take equal parts of soda or saleratus and syrup or molasses; mix and give a teaspoonful for a child two years old, larger doses for older children, smaller for nurs- ing babies. Repeat the doses at short intervals until the phlegm is all thrown up, and upon each recurrence of the symptoms; or, grate a raw onion, strain out the juice, and to two parts of the juice put one part of castor oil; keep it well corked in a bottle, shake well, give one teaspoonful once in two or three hours; or, take two parts sweet lard and six parts pulverized sugar, mix thoroughly, and give a tea- spoonful every fifteen minutes until relief is obtained. Among the many remedies given we hope that one or more may be available to every mother who needs aid in this matter.

Croup - remedies. - i. First, get a piece of chamois skin, make a little bib, cut out tlie neck and sew on tapes to tie it on; then melt together some tallow and pin-e tar; rub some of this in the chamois and let the child wear it all the time. My baby had the croup when- ever she took cold, and since I put on the chamois I have had no more trouble. Renew with tar occasionally.

2. One of the best cures for croup, and one which is always at hand, is to dip strips of flannel in very hot water and then bind tightly about the throat. Remove as soon as cold, and apply others. A cold in the chest can also be cured by wetting several thicknesses of flannel in hot water and laying it upon the chest.

3. Croup can be cured in one minute, and the remedy is simply alum and sugar. The way to accomplish the deed is to take a knife or grater and shave off in small particles about a teaspoonful of alum; then mix it with twice its quantity of sugar, to make it palatable, and administer it as quick as possible. Almost instantaneous relief will follow.

4. In croup or lung trouble, where there is difficulty in breathing,

WHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W, 107

slake lime, and let the patient inhale the steam. This has cured mem- branous croup and given great relief in lung trouble.

Croquettes (Chicken). - Have ready a coffeecupful of cold chicken, either roast or boiled, and chopped to the most complete fineness! Take a piece half the size of an q%^ of the best butter and let it heat to bubbling point over the fire. Stir into it a spoonful of milk and enough flour to make it of the consistency of drawn-butter sauce. Then when thoroughly cooked add a beaten egg and the chopped chicken and pepper and salt to taste. Spread it out on a platter to the thickness of a little less than an inch. Let it get cold. Then when wanted, form the croquettes with the hands, dip them in cracker crumbs, and fry in hot lard. A wire basket which can be dipped into the lard is good to fry croquettes in. This recipe can be used for any kind of cold meat or poultry, also for lobster. The mixture must be moist. The quantities given above will make enough croquettes for a moderate sized family.

Crumpets. - One cup of sweet milk, one cup of buttermilk, one e:^^, half a teaspoonful of soda, a pinch of salt; flavor and sugar to taste. Make the batter a good deal thicker than for pancakes; bake on a griddle. The crumpets will keep for a week, and improve in keeping.

Crystalized Chimney Ornaments. - Select a crooked twig of white or black thorn; wrap some loose wool or cotton around the branches, and tie it on with worsted. Suspend this in a basin or deep jar. Dissolve two pounds of alum in a quart of boiling water, and pour it over the twig. Allow it to stand twelve hours. Wire baskets may be covered in the same way.

Cucumber Vines - to make bear fine crops. - When a cucumber is taken from the vine let it be cut with a knife, leaving about the eighth of an inch of the cucumber on the stem, then slit the stem with a knife from its end to the vine leaving a small portion of the cucum- ber on each division, and on each separate slip there will be a new cucumber as large as the first.

Curculio in Fruit Trees - remedy for. - Sawdust saturated in coal oil, and placed at the roots of the tree, will be a sure preventive; or, clear a circle around the tree from all rubbish; fill up all little holes and smooth off the ground for a distance of at least three feet each way from the tree, then place chips or small pieces of wood on the ground within the circle; the curculio will take refuge in large num- bers below the chips, and you can pass around in the mornings and kill them off.

Currant Wofms - to destroy. - The last two seasons my currant bushes were entirely stripped of leaves by the worms, leaving nothing but the bare fruit, and that of poor quality. This year I put about one pound of coarsely ground quassia wood into ten or fifteen gallons of water, and after stirring in two or three times, applied it with a watering-spout, by sprinkling the bushes every morning for several

loS fVB-A T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

davs. The result is a plentiful crop of leaves, and fruit of an excellent quality. Water may be added as long as bitterness remains.

Currants and Gooseberries - to insure a good crop. - Put one pint of salt and one pint of soft soap (it ought to be farmer's soap) to ten gallons of water, and use it on currants and gooseberries. I'll warrant them a full crop. Put plenty of ashes - coal or wood - around the roots to increase the size of the berries.

Curry Powder - to make. - (This is the genuine East India recipe): Take the fennel seed, cummin seed, and coriander seed each four ounces, with two ounces of caraway seed, dry them before the fire, then grind and sift them, add to this two ounces of ground turmeric and the same of ground black pepper, one ounce of ground ginger, and half an ounce of Cayenne pepper. Mix well and keep dry and well stopped.

Curtains - for bedrooms, etc. - A very stylish and graceful design for sitting room or bedroom curtains recently originated in the New York art rooms, and full directions are given here for making a pair. The curtains are inexpensive, the full cost for two deep windows be- ing about $3.50. The materials required are two yards of cretonne, ten or twelve yards of cheese cloth, and sufficient lace for finishing the front edges of the curtain and making an insertion across the top of each. Be careful in purchasing the cheese cloth to get a piece which is evenly woven, and without black threads. Scrim may be used instead of cheese cloth, if preferred, but it is more expensive. In buying the cretonne get two patterns which harmonize, buying one yard of each. Cut each yard in four pieces, lengthwise. Each curtain has two pieces at the top, with an insertion of lace in between. One curtain only will be described. Of each pattern of cretonne take one piece, stitch the lace insertion between them, turn down the edge - about an inch - of the one intended for the top of the curtain, and stitch the cheese cloth on the other piece with a pudding-bag seam. Make a hem twelve inches deep on the bottom of the curtain. The lace for the curtain should be about four inches wide. Lay the lace flat on the right side of the curtain, an inch from the edge, with the straight edge of the lace toward the selvage, and the pointed edge turning backward. Stitch it on, fold down the hem on the wrong side, and catch it fast with long stitches. Cut a V-shaped piece out of the lace at the lower corner of the curtain, seam the lace together, and sew it across the bottom of the curtain.

Curtains (Lace) - to laundry. - Lace curtains should never be ironed - nor even the embroidered muslin ones. Have two narrow, slender boards, as long or longer than your curtains. Tack strips of cloth or wide tape the entire length of these. Place them out doors upon chairs, as you would quilting frames, and carefully pin the wet curtain between - stretching it until it is entirely smooth. Every point, every scallop should be pulled in shape and fastened down. It takes but little time for it to dry, and then its place should be filled with another. Housekeepers often stretch a sheet on the carpet of

109

some unused room, and then pin the curtain to the floor, but the above method is greatly preferable.

Curtains (Silk Rag) - to make. - Cut the silk into strips about half an inch wide (a little more or less makes no difference), either straight or on the bias. Sew the pieces together strongly, and roll into balls, keeping each color and shade by itself. Pieces of narrow ribbons, old cravats and sashes, old waists of dresses - in fact, every scrap of silk can be made use of whether soiled or fresh. After making a number of balls send them to a rag-carpet weaver, who will weave them for about twenty-five cents a yard. It will take one and one- half pounds of silk to make a yard of material three-quarters of a yard wide, which is the width of nearly all looms. If the balls of silk are given to the weaver with directions how to place the colors, and the width the stripes are desired, the stuff when finished will have a very handsome effect, and is very heavy. It is suitable for portieres, cur- tains, rugs, or tablecloths.

Curtains (Window) - cheap and handsome. - Really charming bedroom curtains can be made of unbleached muslin sheeting with a simple hem upon the edge. All the trimming required is a strip of bright chintz or cretonne, a foot in width, stitched horizontally across the top about two feet from the cornice. The light falling through the unbleached muslin gives the fine ecru tone so much in vogue at the present, and it is impossible to detect the nature of the fabric without close examination. The effect is precisely that of the fine twilled India material so much admired when combined with strips of oriental embroidery. Really beautiful curtains for a parlor can be made of canton flannel in the same way, and the effect produced is that of a rich cream-colored plush or velvet. It is impossible to judge of the beauty of these cheap and novel hangings without hav- ing seen them.

Custard (Apple) - to make. - Six tart apples, half teacupful of water, four spoonfuls of sugar, three pints of milk, eight eggs. Pare and core the apples, cook them in the water till tender, but do not let them break, put them in the pudding dish and sprinkle sugar over them; then make a custard of the milk, sugar and well-beaten eggs; flavor to taste; pour this over the apples, and bake in a moderate oven about half an hour.

Custard (Boiled). - Heat one quart of milk to near boiling, add two tablespoonfuls of corn starch previously dissolved in a little cold milk; add two well beaten eggs, four tablespoonfuls of white sugar; let it boil up once, stirring all the time; flavor to suit.

Custard (Chocolate Cream). - Scrape quarter of a pound of the best chocolate, pour on it a teacupful of boiling water, and let it stand by the fire until it is all dissolved. Beat eight eggs light, omitting the whites of two; stir them, by degrees, into a quart of rich milk alternately with the chocolate and three tablespoonfuls of white sugar. Put the mixture into cups and bake ten minutes.

Custard (Orange). - The juice of six oranges strained and sweet-

1 10 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

ened with loaf sugar; stir over a slow fire till the sugar is dissolved, take off the scum; when nearly cold add the yolks of six eggs, well beaten, and a pint of cream or milk. Return to the fire and stir till it thickens, pour into glasses and serve when cold.

Custard (Rice). - One quart of milk, three eggs, well beaten, four tablespoonfu's of sugar, one tablespoonful of butter, one cup of boiled rice, a little salt, half the grated rind of a lemon. Boil the rice, drain, and stir while hot into the milk. Beat the eggs well, rub the butter and sugar to a cream with lemon peel and a little salt, and stir into the warm milk. Mix well and bake in a buttered dish in a brisk oven. Eat warm or cold. We like it better warm, with a little cream poured over it when served in saucers.

Custard - without milk. - Add to one pint of water two heaping spoonfuls of flour, boil well, and when cold, add one ^%,^, piece of butter half the size of an egg, one cup of sugar, salt to taste, and flavor with lemon or vanilla.

Cutting the Hair. - Cutting the hair does not, as generally thought, promote its growch. Most of the specifics recommended for bald- ness, not excepting petroleum, are mere stimulants, and are seldom or never permananently successful. Some of them give rise to con- gestion of the scalp. When a stimulant is desirable ammonia is the best. It is safe.

Cuts- how to treat. - There is nothing better for a cut than pow- dered resin. Get a few cents' worth, pound it until it is quite fine, put it in a cast-off spice box, with perforated top, then you can easily sift it on the cut. Put a soft cloth around the injured member, and wet it with water once in awhile. It will prevent inflammation or soreness.

Cuttings - for mailing. - Let me tell the floral readers how I do up cuttings for mailing. Cut at the leaf joint; trim off the large leaves, put a little damp moss or cotton around them, pack in a tin spice box, being careful to wrap and tie it securely. My cuttings have gone from Massachusetts to California all right.

Dandruff - -ways to remove. - i . To remove dandruff take a thimble- ful of powdered refined borax (can be had at any druggists), let it dis- solve in a teacupful of water; first brush the head well, then wet a brush and apply it to the mixture, and then to the head. Do this every day for a week, and twice a week after for two or three times, and you will effectually remove the dandruff.

2. The annoyance from dandruff can be prevented by dampening the scalp three or four times a week with sulphur water, made by putting a half ounce of flour of sulphur into a pint of water, shaking occasionally for a few days; then pour off into a clean bottle.

Deafness - treatment of. - Take three drops of a sheep's gall, warm, and drop it into the ear before going to bed. The ear must be syringed with warm water in the morning. The gall must be applied for three successive nights. It is only efficacious when the deafness is produced by cold. The most convenient way of warming the gall

in

is by holding it in a silver spoon over the flame of a light. The above remedy has been frequently tried with perfect success.

Deafness - to relieve. - Put a tablespoonful of bay-salt into nearly a half pint of cold spring water; and after it has steeped therein for twenty-four hours, now and then shaking the phial, pour a small teaspoonful in the ear most effected, nightly, when in bed, for seven or eight successive nights.

2. Digest two ounces of bruised garlic in one pound of oil of al- monds for a week, and strain. A drop poured into the ear is effect- ive in temporary deafness.

Decanters - to clean. - Roll up in small pieces some soft brown or blotting paper; wet them, and soap them well. Put them into the decanters about one-quarter full of warm water; shake them well for a few minutes, then rinse with clear cold water; wipe the outsides with a nice dry cloth, put the decanters to drain, and when dry they will be almost as bright as new ones. This is the best and safest mode of cleaning decanters. Some persons, however, use a little fine sand, and others egg-shells crushed into small pieces, which are shaken about in the glass with cold water; a beautiful polish may be given by this means.

Decanter Stoppers - to remove. - Stoppers of glass decanters fre- quently, from a variety of causes, become so fixed that they cannot be removed without danger. Whenever this is the case, place a little sweet oil with a feather around the stopper and the neck of the de- canter, and set it near the fire. When tolerably warm tap the stop- per gently on all sides with a light piece of wood, and it will soon become loose; or the neck of the decanter may be rubbed sharply with a piece of list; the friction will expand the glass of the decanter and in this way set the stopper .i^ee. Great care must be taken that the stopper is not broken. ^**^

Decorating - a lesson in. - Choose a plain, smooth, red-clay flower- pot. If it is rather stupid-looking, all the better. With your box of water-color paints, lay broad bands of dull blue around top and bot- tom. If you prefer, you can paint the intervening strip black, in- stead of leaving it red, and the bands may be divided by a narrow line of yellow. Now you are ready for the pictures. If you possess some sheets of little scrap-chromos, you will soon be rid of your task. Select some very odd, grotesque ones that will surprise each other as much as possible - a huge butterfly, tiny Madonna, reptiles, sprays, zebras, and the like. Paste them on in the most disorderly order you can imagine, and your work is complete. Another method is to cut from picture papers a quantity of small designs, being care- ful to trim them very neatly. Paint these all black, and lay on a dull red or blue ground. Whichever plan you choose, be careful and not decorate too profusely, as that would be quite unlike the Japanese, while it would hint most strikingly of a merry, mischievous little girl.

Deer Skins - to tan for gloves. - For each skin take a bucket of

1 12 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO fV.

water and put it into one quart of lime; let the skin or skins lie in from three to four days, then rinse in clean water, hair and grain; then soak them in cold water to get out the glue; now scour or pound in good soap-suds for half an hour; after which take white vitriol, alum and salt, one tablespoonful of each to a skin; these will be dis- solved in sufficient water to cover the skin, and remain in it for twenty-four hours; wring out as dry as convenient, and spread on .vith a brush one-half pint of curriers' oil. and hang it in the sun about two days; after which )^ou will scour out the oil with soap-suds, and hang out again until perfectly dry; then pull and work them until they are soft; and if a reasonable time does not make them soft, scour out in suds again as before, until complete. The oil may be saved by pouring or taking it from the top of the suds, if left stand- ing a short time. The buff color is given by spreading yellow ochre evenly over the surface of the skin when finished, rubbing it well with a brush.

Dentifrice (Charcoal.) - Ingredients: Powdered charcoal, four ounces; powdered yellow bark, two ounces; powdered myrrh, one ounce; orris root, half an ounce. Mix, and flavor with wintergreen.

Dentists' Nerve Paste. - i. Arsenic, one part; rose pink, two parts. To destroy the nerve, apply this preparation on a pledget of cotton, previously moistened with creosote, to the cavity of the tooth, let it remain four hours, then wash out thoroughly with water.

2. Arsenous acid, thirty grains; acetate of morphia, twenty grains; creosote, quantity sufficient for paste. Mix.

Dentists* Emery Wheels. - Emery, four pounds; shellac, one-half pound; melt the shellac over a slow fire; stir in the emery, and pour into a mould of plaster of Paris. When cold it is ready for use.

Dedorizer. - A few pounds of copperas in a bucket of water, poured into sinks or other offensive places, will neutralize unpleasant odors, and destroy unwholesome exhalations.

2. Coffee pounded in a mortar and rosted on an iron plate, sugar burned on hot coals, and vinegar boiled with myrrh and sprinkled on the floor and furniture of a sick-room are excellent deodorizers.

Depilatories - to take off superfluous hair. - i. Lime, twelve ounces; starch, ten ounces; orpiment, one ounce. Mix them to- gether.

2. Sulphuret of arsenic, one ounce; quick-lime, two ounces. This application being virulent poison, must be used but seldom.

3. Orpiment, one ounce; quicklime, nine ounces. Mix with a little soap lees and powdered starch.

4. Quicklime, two ounces; salt of tartar, four ounces; charcoal, a quarter of an ounce.

5. Quicklime, eight ounces; dry pearlash, one ounce; sulphuret of potassium, one ounce. It must not be applied more than two or three minutes.

Dessert (Simple). - Put eight crackers in a deep dish, pour enough warm water or milk over them to just cover them, and when soaked,

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 113

which will not take longer than ten minutes, sprinkle with sugar, cover with cream, garnish with preserved peaches, pears or quinces, and serve. Try it.

Dessert (Novel). - Here is a novel and pleasing way to prepare a dessert. It is especially adapted for the children's birthday dinners in those happy households where such days are kept as joyous festi- vals. Make a small hole in the end or side of a number of egg shells. Through this pour out the ^%^. Fill the empty shells with hot pud- ding; made of corn starch, arrowroot, or Irish moss. When cold break off the shells; serve on small saucers, and surround the egg- shaped pudding with jelly or jam. If you wish to take so much trouble, divide the pudding in two parts, and add to one a tablespoon- ful of grated chocolate, and in this way color part of the eggs. Sugar and cream, flavored with vanilla, is a very nice sauce with this kind of pudding.

Diamonds - to test. - The diamond may be distinguished from every other stone by its peculiar virtue of single refraction. Every other precious stone (with the exception of the garnet, from which it can otherwise be readily distinguished) possesses the quality of double refraction; a double image of a taper or small light being given off when it is viewed through their facets. This results from their in- ferior refracting, and consequently reflecting power. It can also be tested by its superior hardness. Further, if any other of the precious or artificial stones are immersed in alcohol, or even water, they lose their lustre, which the diamond does not. A simple and ready way of distinguishing precious from artificial stones is to touch them with the tongue - the stone being the best conductor of heat will feel cold - the glass much less so. Sir David Brewster invented an instru- ment to distinguish real gems, called a lithiscope. The usual mode of estimating its value is by its weight in carats (about four grains). If it is a diamond of the first water, free from flaws, and properly cut, its value is as the square of its weight in carats, multiplied by 8; i. e., a diamond of one carat is worth $40; of two carats, $160; of ten carats, $4,000, and so on. Beyond a certain weight fancy prices step in and human credibility requires a long breath. Uncut diamonds vary from $10 to $25 per carat.

Diamonds - to polish. - The plan in use at all the large diamond cutters is simply a cast iron disc of good metal, with a verticle spin- dle run through its centre, balanced, and turned, and faced true in a lathe. The disc revolves at about one thousand revolutions per minute. With a little diamond dust and oil, the stone is set in a small brass cup filled with common soft solder; it is then screwed up in the clamps and applied to the skive till the facets is formed.

Diarrhoea - remedies for. - i. A most valuable remedy for diar- rhoea is burnt rhubarb, given in port wine, milk, or water; from five to ten grains is sufficient for a dose. The manner of preparing it is to burn the rhubarb powder in an iron crucible, stirring it till it is

114 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

blackened; then covering it closely in a jar; the drug loses two-thirds of its weight by incineration, and is nearly tasteless.

2. A wineglassful of strong mint tea, with half a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda in it. To be taken three or four times a day.

3. An excellent remedy may be extemporized as follows: Half a teaspoonful of prepared chalk, ten drops of laudanum, a drop of oil of peppermint, in half a wineglassful of cold water.

Diarrhoea - cure for. - It is said the small plant commonly knowr by the name rupturewort, made into tea, and drank frequently, is ^ sure cure for diarrhoea. Rupturewort grows in nearly every open lot, and along the roads. It is a small plant, throwing out a number of shoots in a horizontal direction, and lying close to the ground, something similar to the manner of the pusleyweed, and bears a small, dark green leaf, with an oblong, purple spot in the centre. "When the stem is broken, a white milky substance will ooze from the wound. It is very palatable, and infants take it as readily as any drink. This is an old Indian cure, and may be relied on. The bo- tanical name of this plant is Eiiphrobia Maculata.

Diarrhoea - remedy. - The ingredients are: Sulphate of morphia, one grain; glauber salts, quarter of an ounce; water, two ounces. Dose: A teaspoonful twice a day. If attended with much pain and looseness, administer this medicine every two hours.

Diet During Diarrhoea. - Tea without milk, and very little sugar; mutton and chicken broths, or beef tea, thickened with a little flour or arrowroot; boiled rice, tapioca, sago; rice water or toast water to drink. If the attack is severe, or of long continuance, the patient must be kept in bed. The feet must be kept warm, and the covering to suit the feelings of the patient.

Chloride of lime, or Piatt's chlorides, or raw carbolic acid must be placed in all chamber receptacles, and everything which passes from the patient removed as soon as possible.

Diuretics - pills, drops, decoctions, etc. - Solidified copaiba, two parts; alcoholic extract of cubebs, one part; formed into pills with a little oil of juniper. Dose, one or two pills three or four times daily. This pill has been found very valuable in affections of the kidneys, bladder, and urethra, as inflammation from gravel, gonorrhoea, gleet, whites, lucorrhoea, common inflammation, etc.

Diuretic Drops. - Oil of cubebs, one quarter ounce; sweet spirits of nitre, one-half ounce; balsam of copaiba, one ounce; Har- lem oil, one bottle; oil of lavender, twenty drops; spirits of turpen- tine, twenty drops; mix. Dose, ten to twenty-five drops, as the stomach will bear, three times daily. It may be used in any of the ' above diseases with great satisfaction.

Diuretic Tincture. - Green or growing spearmint mashed, put into a bottle, and covered with gin, is an excellent diuretic.

Diuretic for Children. - Spirits of nitre - a few drops in a little spearmint tea - is all sufficient. For very young children, pumpkin seed, or watermelon seed tea is perhaps the best.

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 115

Drink for Consumptive Patients. - Ingredients: One teacup of barley water, one-half teacup of new milk, five grains of nitre, sugar candy. Let the barley water, be thick, and well boiled^ before the other ingredients are added. The drink should be taken just warm, the first thing in the morning and the last at night. If the patient be subject to night perspiration, the last dose should be taken at an earlier hour, or the nitre omitted. This drink, if persevered with, will be found to afford great relief; it is so simple that it will not in- terfere with any medical treatment.

Diphtheria - cure for. - We publish the annexed recipe from a physician, who says that of one thousand cases in which it has been used not a single patient has been lost. The treatment consists in completely swabbing the back of the mouth of the throat with a wash made thus: Table salt, two drams, black pepper, golden seal, nitrate of potash, and alum, one dram each. Mix and pulverize, put into a teacup, which half fill with boiling water, stir well, and then fill up with good vinegar. Use every half hour, one, two, and four hours, as recovery progresses. The patient may swallow a little each time. Apply one ounce each of spirits of turpentine, sweet oil, and aqua ammonia, every four hours, to the whole of the throat and to the breastbone, keeping flannel to the part.

Diphtheria - cure for. - The following recipe is given by an old gentleman of Charlottesville, Va., who states that he has often known it to be used in cases of diphtheria, and has never kno.wn it to fail in effecting a cure: Take a handful of alder root, a handful of dogwood root, a handful of the bark of persimmon root, boil with a pint of vinegar down to a half pint; then add a very little water, a small lump of alum, and a little honey. Let the patient use it frequently as a gargle.

Diphtheria - treatments of. - Diphtheria is scarcely more than a modification of scarlet fever. The patient first complains of lassitude, headache, loss of appetite; is chilly, with flushes of fever, active and quick pulse, a light furred tongue; redness of the back of the mouth, enlargement of the glands of the neck, a hot, dry, pungent skin; and in the second stage an exudation upon the mucous surface of the upper air-passages. This soon becomes organized into a tough, white or gray membrane, covering the soft palate and tonsils. These some- times degenerate into ulcers. The breathing at this stage becomes hurried and difficult; pulse quick, and frequently the asphyxia ensuing ends in death. It generally reigns as an epidemic, and is regarded by some as contagious.

The very first care should be the throat. Cut pieces of salt fat pork, and cover the throat on each side, to exclude the air and sweat the neck; make a lotion of one teaspoonful of carbolic acid, two tea- spoonfuls glycerine, two teaspoonfuls salt, half pint hot water; gargle the throat every half hour; sulphur, desertspoonful to half tea- cup of water; mix with the finger to be used as a gargle, alternate with the carbolic acid lotion; swab the throat every hour, or often

ii6

enough to dislodge the deposits, with equal parts of sulphur and tan- nic acid in dry powder mixed. Never use the same swab twice; burn it and use a fresh one. Do not let the patient go near an open door or window, or lie in a draft.

A paste made by stirring together the yolk of an egg and table salt is a most excellent application for the throat externally in all cases of inflammation.

Give quinine every four hours to keep up the strength, or, if much fever, every three hours. Give plenty of ventilation, and let the patient partake freely of fruits, both raw and cooked, new milk and cream.

Graham mush, oatmeal gruel, crackers, and soups of beef, chicken, squirrel, etc. If the patches ulcerate use sumac and wild indigo as a gargle.

Diphtheria Cure. - Dr. Chenery, of Boston, has lately discovered that hyposulphite of soda is the specific remedy against diphtheria, that so much dreaded ailment, which of late years has carried off many valuable lives. He reports a very large number of cases saved by the use of this remedy. The dose of the hyposulphite is from five to fifteen grains or more in syrup, every two to four hours, according to age and circumstances. It can do no harm, but if too much is given it will purge; as much as the patient can bear without purging is a good rule in the severer cases. The solution or mixture can be used in doses of five drops to half a dram in milk. The amount for thorough stimulation is greater than can be taken in water. The doctor usually gives it in such doses as can be easily taken in milk, using milk besides as a food for small children. One fact, however, needs to be borne in mind, namely, the hyposulphite prevents the digestion of milk, and it should be given in less than an hour after taking the medicine. They may be used alternately, how- ever, without interference, in sufficiently frequent doses.

Diphtheria Remedy. - The antiseptic treatment of diphtheria by turpentine has recently been introduced in Germany by Bosse, of Domnan. It is given in the same manner as in cases of phos- phorus poisoning, that is to say, as pure turpentine, highly rectified, in doses of a soup-spoonful twice a day to adults, a dessert-spoonful to children of more than five years of age, and a teaspoonful to young infants. Milk and wine are given abundantly at the same time. The administration of it causes a sensation of burning in the stomach, epigastric pressure, vomiting and the passage of stools strongly im- pregnated with turpentine odor. The use of turpentine was suggested by the experiments of Koch, which showed that it had an action on the problematic bacilli of diphtheria. But the treatment itself is much more than problematic.

Diphtheria - remedy and treatment. - The treatment consists in thoroughly swabbing the back of the mouth and throat with a wash made thus: Table salt, two drams; black pepper, golden seal, nitrate of potash, alum, one dram each; mix and pulverize; put into a teacup

WHA T E VER V ONE SIJO ULD KNO W. 117

half full of water; stir well, and then fill up with good vinegar. Use every half hour, one, two, and four hours, as recovery progresses. The patient may swallow a little each time. Apply one ounce each of spirits turpentine, sweet oil, and aqua-ammonia, mixed, every hour to the whole of the throat, and to the breast bone every four hours, keeping flannel to the part.

Dishes - how to wash. - The right way to wash dishes is to have three pans, one containing warm soap-suds, another warm clean water, and the other hot clear water. First, wash and wipe the glassware; second, the silver, having a plate in the bottom of the pan for the silver to rest on; third, take the dishes, one at a time, wash the side you eat off of in the suds, then place them in the warm, clear water, where there is a clean dish-cloth and wash both sides; then rinse them in the hot water and drain off.

Dishes (Cheap and Excellent) - to cook. - i. Take as many cold hard boiled eggs as are required for the size of the dish; slice them, and cover the dish with a layer of these slices. Over these grate ^ thick covering of cheese, then another layer of slices of hard ^^%\ dot about a few capers and some finely-chopped hot pickle or chutnee. Over this pour a good thick mayonnaise sauce, and cover all with grated cheese. The mayonnaise sauce maybe made as follows: Beat up the yolk of a raw ^gg and oil, dropped in slowly, to a thick cream. Whisk up the white to the consistency of cream, and mix with it. Flavor with Tarragon vinegar, pepper and salt.

2. Take the remains of any kind of fish that has been previously cooked; bone and well pound it in a mortar with a little butter, pep- per and salt to taste, and a little shallot or garlic. Roll it into balls, ^%g and bread-crumbs, and fry these a golden brown. Serve very hot with slices of lemon. The remains of lobster or crab may be served in the same way,

3. Take as many hard boiled eggs as you require, cut them in halves and scoop out the yolks. Mix the latter with some finely- minced cold chicken, mushroom, shallot, a little lemon-juice, and pepper and salt to taste. Put this mixture into the white halves, pass a piece of thread around them, roll them lightly in o.^^^ and bread- crumbs, and fry to light brown.

4. The remains of cold duck or young goose may be made very appetizing in the following way: Mince the flesh up very finely with lemon-juice, a few olives, a little of the seasoning, and some celery- salt. Make a hard crust as for a raised pie, and bake in the oven or boil in a basin. If the latter, serve with it the gravy left from the roast, flavored with a wineglass of red wine.

5. Take a fair-sized fowl, braise it well, and then cut into small pieces. Put it into a stew-pan with a quart of peas, a young good- hearted lettuce cut into quarters, a few spring onions chopped fine, a dozen button mushrooms, and a dessert-spoonful of " Yankee Relish " or Worcestershire sauce. An old fowl answers for this purpose ad- mirably.

1 18

6. Stew macaroni until it is quite tender in any kind of brown soup. Serve it in a rather deep dish with rich cheese grated thickly over it.

7. Break three or four eggs into a basin; whisk them to a thick cream. Stir in a tablespoonful of flour, a quart of milk, and two spoonfuls of curry powder. Bake till it rises and serve hot. This curry custard cannot be too strongly recommended,

8. A pie that combines economy with savoriness may find favor with the economically disposed few. Some slices of beef cut very thin, a few thicker bits out of a loin of pork. Line the slices of beef with chopped onion and fine herbs, roll them up and tie with thread. Pack the meat into the dish with a layer of leeks, white beet, and parsley between each layer. Pour a little gravy over the whole, season liberally, and bake under a good light crust.

9. A dish equal to the best steak and cheap enough for any man, is prapared from a shank of beef with some meat on it. Have the bone well broken; wash carefully to remove bits of bone, cover with cold water; watch when the boiling begins and take off the scum that rises. Stew five or six hours till the muscles are dissolved; break the meat small with a fork - far better than chopping - put it in a bread-pan, boil down the gravy till in cooling it will turn to a stiff jelly. When this is done gelatine is quite superfluous. Add salt, and, if liked, other seasoning, and pour it hot upon the meat; stir together and set aside over night, when it will cut into handsome mottled slices fof breakfast or supper.

Disinfectant - for sick-rooms. - Let a reliable apothecary put up for you in a small bottle four ounces of ninety per cent, alcohol, and one ounce of thirty-six per cent, nitric acid. One half of this mixture will disinfect a room fifty feet long, thirty feet wide and twelve feet high. One large spoonful of it (one-half ounce) will dis- infect a large bedroom containing 1,200 cubic feet of air space. Two teaspoonfuls of it (two drams) will disinfect a bedroom nine feet square and seven and one-half feet high. A teaspoonful (one dram) is suf- ficient for three hundred cubic feet air space. The method of using the mixture is as follows: Put the quantity to be used in a porcelain capsule (a tea-saucer will do), set a pan of warm water in the room to be disinfected; let the capsule or saucer containing the disinfectant float on the surface of the warm water. The mixture in the capsule or saucer will evaporate by the heat of the water, and the vapor will effectively disinfect. Don't try to evaporate on a stove, over a lamp, or by a fire; mischief would result. Use warm water to effect evap- oration and nothing else. Use only porcelain to hold the mixture, for it will corrode metal. It will also spoil a good spoon. Label the bottle " poison," for it would be very dangerous to take it instead of medicine.

Disinfectants. - i. A saturated solution of permanganate of potassa is the best of all disinfectants. Add to twenty-five grains two quarts of water. A tablespoonful of this in a soup plate of water removes

fVHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO V/. 119

any ordinary smell. No sick-room, especially one in which there is infectious disease, should be without it.

2. Heat a common iron fire-shovel hot, but not quite red-hot, and pour an ounce of carbolic acid fluid on it. The fumes will penetrate the room everywhere and cleanse the air of its impurities. This should be repeated daily so long as it is necessary.

3. The following is a refreshing disinfectant for a sick-room, or any room that has an unpleasant aroma pervading it: Put some fresh ground coffee in a saucer, and in the center place a small piece of camphor gum, which light with a match. As the gum burns allow sufficient coffee to consume with it. The perfume is very pleasant and healthful, being far superior to pastiles, and very much cheaper,

4. From an Italian journal we note that a few drops of the follow- ing mixture on a plate will pleasantly disinfect a bedroom: Cam- phor, twenty; hypochlorite of lime, alcohol and water, of each fifty; eucalyptus and oil of cloves, of each one part. The ingredients must be mixed slowly in a cool, spacious vessel.

5. Cut two or three good-sized onions in halves, and place them on a plate on the floor; they absorb noxious effluvia, etc., in the sick- room, in an incredibly short space of time, and are greatly to be pre- ferred to perfumery for the same purpose. They should be changed every six hours.

Dogs - to remove vermin from. - To remove fleas and lice on dogs, mix soft-soap with as much carbonate of soda as will make it into a thick paste. Then rub this well into the roots of the hair all over the dog's body, adding a little hot water as you go along, so as to enable you to completely saturate the skin with it. Let it remain for half an hour, then put the dog into a tub with warm water for ten minutes, letting him quietly soak, and now and then ducking his head under. Lastly, wash the soap completely out, and let him dry by exercise in the sun, choosing a warm day for the operation. This, after two or three repetitions, will completely cleanse the foulest skin. To pre- vent vermin from again accumulating, moisten the hair once a week with a teaspoonful of carbolic'acid to a half pint of water. Keep his house or resting place and bedding clean and sweet, and sprinkle it occasionally with the last mentioned solution.

Dog-bite - treatment of. - Wash the part thoroughly, then suck it freely; finally touch it all over with lunar caustic. When there is i doubt as to the health of the animal, and the dog is supposed to be mad, the only safe method to prevent the absorption of the poison is to have recourse to the surgeon's knife, by which every particle of the surface with which the saliva of the dog may have come in contact must be cut away.

Doughnuts. - One &zZi o"^ cup of sugar, one teaspoonful of but- ter, one cup of sweet milk, one teaspoonful of soda, two teaspoonfuls of cream tartar.

Doughnuts (Raised). - One pint of milk, one pint of sugar, one pint of yeast or sponge, two-thirds of a pint of shortening, two eggs,

I20 PVHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

one small teaspoonful of salt, and one teaspoonful of cinnamon. Wet up warm at night, wrap up well, and in the morning roll and cut out, let stand while the fat heats, fry, not too quickly.

Drafts, Bills of Exchange, Acceptances. - A draft or bill of ex- change is an order drawn by one person or firm upon another, paya- ble either at sight or at a stated future time.

It becomes an "acceptance" when the party upon whom it is drawn writes across the face " accepted " and signs his name thereto, and is negotiable and bankable, the same as a note, and subject to the same laws.

In many states both sight and time drafts are entitled to three days' grace, the same as notes; but if made in form of a bank check, " pay to," without the words " at sight," it is payable on presentation without grace.

Drills - to temper. - Select none but the finest and best steel for your drills. In making them, never heat higher than a cherry red, and always hammer till nearly cold. Do all your hammering in one way, for if, after you have flattened your piece out, you attempt to hammer it back to a square or a round, you spoil it. When your drill is in proper shape, heat it to a cherry red, and thrust it into a piece of resin or into quicksilver. Some use a solution of cyanuret potassa and rain-water for tempering their drills, but the resin or quicksilver will work best.

Drink - very strengthening. - Beat the yolk of a fresh ^%% with a little sugar, add a very little brandy, beat the white to a strong froth, stir it into the yolk, fill up the tumbler with new milk, and grate in a little nutmeg.

Drinks - ior fever patients. - Drinks made from fresh or preserved fruits are sometimes useful in fevers. Rhubarb tea is a very refresh- ing spring beverage. Slice about two pounds of rhubarb and boil for a quarter of an hour in a quart of water; strain the liquor into a jug, adding a small quantity of lemon-peel and some sugar to taste ; when cold it is fit for u'-e. Apple water may be made in the same manner. The apples should be peeled and cored.* Sugar should not be added to either of the above until after the liquor is removed from the fire. In the absence of fresh fruit a pleasant beverage may be prepared by stirring sufficient raspberry jam or current jelly into the required quantity of water, straining the liquor before giving it to the patient. Dropsy - remedy for. - Take one pint of bruised mustard seed, two handfuls of bruised horseradish root, eight ounces of lignumvitse chips, and four ounces of bruised Indian hemp root. Put all the in- gredients in seven quarts of cider, and let it simmer over a slow fire until it is reduced to four quarts. Strain the decoction, and take a wineglassful four times a day for a few days, increasing the dose to a small teacupful three times a day. After which use tonic m.edicines. This remedy has cured cases of dropsy in one week's time which has baffied the skill of many eminent physicians. For children the dose should be smaller.

WIT A T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 121

Dropsy - to cure. - i. In its earliest stages this malady may be ar- rested by taking one of the following pills, three times each day: Po- tassi 57^/sodii salicylidi, gr. ss.; ext. graminis (t/^-/ tarox.) q. s. Make into cxx pills.

2. The ingredients are: Acetate of squills, one ounce; nitrate of potash, sixty grains; water, five ounces. Dose, a tablespoonful every two hours.

3. A tea made of chestnut leaves, and drank in the place of water, will cure the most obstinate case of dropsy in a few days.

Drowning - to avoid. - Drowning can be avoided, and any one can remain hours in water, whether they can swim or not, by clasp- . ing their hands behind them, throwing themselves on their backs, so as to keep the nQse out of water. Presence of mind, force of will, and confidence will enable any one to assume this position, and change to an upright one by treading the water with feet and hands, keeping fingers close together. Remember and shut the mouth, breathe through the nose; never mind the ears, water cannot enter the head; keep the hands underwater, "be not afraid." act as de- scribed, and you will not sink or drown.

Drov/ning - to restore from. - The rules that ought to be observed in treating a person rescued from the water are few and simple. Dr. H. R. Silvester's methods of restoring the apparently dead or drowned - which have been approved by the royal medical and chirurgical society - are practical, easily understood, and are in accordance with common sense. The one important point to be aimed at is, of course, the restoration of breathing, and the efforts to accomplish this should be persevered in until the arrival of medical assistance, or until the pulse and breath have ceased for at least an hour. Cleanse the mouth and nostrils, open the mouth, draw forward the patient's tongue with a handkerchief, and keep it forward; remove all tight clothing from about the neck and chest. As to the patient's posi- tion, place him on his back on a flat surface, inclined a little from the feet upward; raise and support the head and shoulders on a small, firm cushion or folded article c5f dress placed under the shoulder- blades, then grasp the arms just above the elbows, and draw them gently and steadily upward, until they meet above the head; this is for the purpose of drawing air into the lungs; and keep the arms in that position for two seconds. Then turn down the patient's arms, and press them gently and firmly for two seconds against the sides of the chest (with the object of pressing air out of the lungs; pressure on the breast bone will aid this). Repeat these measures alternately, deliberately and perseveringly, fifteen times in a minute, until a spontaneous effort to respire is perceived, upon which cease to imi- tate the movements of breathing, and proceed to induce circulation and warmth. This may be done by wrapping the patient in dry blankets and rubbing the limbs upward, firmly and energetically. Promote the warmth of the body by the application of hot"flannels, bottles of hot water, etc., to the pit of the stomach, arm-pits, and to

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the soles of the feet. Warm clothing may generally be obtained from a bystander. On the restoration of life, stimulants should be given, and a disposition to sleep encouraged.

Drunkenness - cure for. - There is a prescription in use in Eng- land for the cure of drunkenness, by which thousands are said to have been enabled to recover themselves. The recipe came into notoriety by the efforts of Mr. John Vine Hall, commander of the Great East- ern steamship. He had fallen into such habitual drunkenness that his most earnest efforts to reclaim himself proved unavailing; at last he sought the advice of an eminent physician, which he followed faithfully for several months, and at the end of that time he had lost all desire for liquor, although he had been for many years led captive by a most debasing appetite. The recipe, which he afterwards pub- lished, and by which so many other drunkards have been assisted to reform, is as follows: Sulphate of iron, twenty grains; magnesia, forty grains; peppermint, forty-four drams; spirits of nutmeg, four drams. Dose, one tablespoonful twice a day.

Drunkenness - remedy for. - Let the inebriate - it matters not whether he is just getting off, is beginning it, or on a " spree" - begin by taking every two hours one dram (teaspoonful) tincture of cin- chona (Peruvian bark). This will make him feel good. He can in- crease the dose six drams (teaspoonfuls) without any danger, and take it in that proportion four to ten times a day. It will not destroy his appetite for food. In the course of a few days, the anti-periodic properties of the cinchona begin to tell, and he loses not only all taste for the tincture, but also for everything in the way of alcohol.

Drunkenness - cure for. - We give the Peruvian bark remedy, which is said to kill the disease and the inclination to drink, at one and the same time. Take one pound of best, fresh quill red Peruvian bark, powder it and soak it in one pint of diluted alcohol. Afterward strain and evaporate it down to half a pint. Dose, a teaspoonful every three hours the first and second days, the tongue to be mois- tened occasionally between the doses. If the patient has a headache in consequence of taking the medicine, reduce the dose. The third day take half a teaspoonful every three hours. Afterward reduce the dose to fifteen drops then to ten, then to five. To make a cure, it takes from five to fifteen days, and in extreme cases, thirty days. Seven days arp about the average in which a cure can be effected.

Ducks - treatment of. - Ducks do not really require a pond or stream of water; give them, especially the well advanced young ones, a shallow box, sunk into the ground, of water, which should be con- stantly supplied, and they will thrive well. Very young ducklings should be kept away from the water, merely giving them plenty to drink, fresh and pure. When they have attained a fair size, have feathered up considerably, and are three or four weeks old, introduce them to the puddle made for them, and they will be all right. Where it can be done, let the water-box be in a good sized enclosure, so that they cannot wander away and fall an easy prey to hawks, snakes,

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turtles, etc. About the same food that is given turkeys is suitable for young ducks, although they like plenty of green food as well as soft food while young. Worms, flies, bugs, etc., are eagerly shoveled in by them, and relished accordingly, in the absence of which occas- ional feeds of shreds of well cooked beef - the cheap of all parts will do - come in very nicely to supply the deficiency. Like other young poultry, they require care during the earlier stages of growth and de- velopment.

Ducks - quick growth of. - The prejudice against ducks, on ac- count of their extreme voracity, is not well founded, for if they eat enormously when half grown, they increase in weight proportionately. Quick growth is one of the things most desired in animals of all kinds that are raised for the table. If the experiment be tried of rearing chickens and ducks that were hatched the same day, in a flock to- gether, and giving them all they will eat, the latter will outstrip the chickens in growth.

Dumplings (Apple). - i. First procure good, sour, juicy apples, pare and core, leaving them in halves. Get all your ingredients ready before beginning to mix your dough; sugar, soda, milk, lard, salt, flour and apples. Now make a dough as for soda biscuits, only adding a little more lard to make it shorter. Take a bit of dough on the kneading-board, and after kneading this, roll as for pie crust; then cut in pieces long enough to cover an apple, allowing for lap- ping the edges. Put in two of your apple halves, sweeten according to taste, and cover apple and sugar with dough. Lay the dumplings in your bread-pan, the smooth side up, first having your pan well buttered. Proceed in this manner until you get your pan well filled (be sure it is a large pan, for they will go off like hot cakes), then place a small bit of butter on top of each dumpling, sprinkling a hand- ful of sugar over all; then place in a moderate oven and allow them to bake an hour. Serve with pudding sauce, or with cream and sugar.

2. Make a crust like that for soda biscuits. One quart flour, one pint milk (the crust must be soft as possible), half cup shortening, one teaspoonful soda, two teaspoonfuls cream tartar, or three teaspoon- fuls of baking powder, a little salt. Roll and cut in circular shape, large enough for two halves of apple. We do not sweeten or flavor, nor do we bake, but put in the steamer and steam, and eat, when done, with sauce, or sugar and butter, or with syrup.

3. Peel and chop fine tart apples, make a crust of one cup of rich buttermilk, one teaspoonful of soda and flour enough to roll; roll half an inch thick, spread with the apple, sprinkle well with sugar and cin- amon, cut in strips two inches wide, roll up like jelly-cake, set up the roll on end in a dripping-pan, putting a teaspoonful of butter on each; put in a moderate oven and baste often with the juice. Use the juice for the sauce, and flavor with brandy if you choose. A sauce of milk and butter, sweetened and flavored, is mostly pre- ferred.

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Dust-pan - proper shape. - When you want a dust-pan, have it made to order, with the handle turned down instead of up, so as to rest on the floor, and tip the dust-pan at a proper angle for receiving the dust. It is a great convenience, as you do not have to stoop and hold it while you are sweeping.

Dyeing (Black). - Use four ounces of copperas and one ounce log- wood extract to each pound of goods; dissolve the copperas in water sufficient to cover the cloth; wet it in clean water before putting it in the copperas water, to prevent spotting; boil it in the copperas water about twenty minutes; take it out, rinse in clean water first, then wash in soap-suds till it seems soft as before it was put in the cop- peras water; then put into the logwood dye and let it boil about twenty minutes; take out and let it dry; wash before it dries, or after, as is most convenient. It will neither crack, fade, nor grow rusty.

Dyes - for ivory, horn and bone. - Black. - Lay the articles for several hours in a strong solution of nitrate of silver, and expose to the light; boil the article for some time in a strained decoction of log- wood, and then steep in a solution of per-sulphate or acetate of iron; immerse frequently in ink until of sufficient depth of color.

Blue. - Immerse in a dilute solution of sulphate of indigo, partly saturated with potash, and it will be fully stained; steep in a strong solution of sulphate of copper.

Green. - Dip blue-stained articles for a short time in a nitro-hy- drochlorate of tin, and then in a hot decoction of fustic; boil in a solu- tion of verdigris in vinegar until the desired color is obtained.

Red. - Dip the article first in a tin mordant used in dyeing, and then plunge in a hot decoction of Brazil wood, one-half pound to a gallon of water or cochineal; steep in red ink till sufficiently stained.

Scarlet. - Use lack dye instead of the preceding.

Violet. - Dip in the tin mordant, and then immerse in a decoction of logwood.

Yellow. - Boil the articles in a solution of alum, one pound to half a gallon, then immerse for half an hour in the following mixture: Take half a pound of turmeric, and a quarter'of a pound of pearlash; boil in one gallon of water; when taken from this, the bone must be again dipped in the alum solution.

Dynamic Power of Various Kinds of Food. - One pound of oat- meal will furnish as much power as two pounds of bread, and more than three pounds of lean veal. One pound of butter gives a working force equal to that of nine pounds of potatoes, twelve pounds of milk, and more than five pounds of lean beaf. One pound of lump sugar is equal in force to two pounds of harn, or eight pounds of cabbage. The habitual use of spirituous liquors is inimical to health, and in- evitably tend� to shorten life. A mechanic or laboring man of aver* age size requires, according to Moleschott, twenty-three ounces of dry solid matter daily, one-fifth nitrogenous. Food, as usually pre- pared, contains fifty per cent, of water, which would increase the quantity to forty-six ounces, or three pounds and fourteen ounces.

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with at least an equal weight of water in addition daily. The same authority indicates as healthy proportions, of albuminous matter, 4.587 ounces; fatty matter, 2.964; carbo-hydrate, 14.250; salts, 1.058; total, 22.859 ounces, for daily use. This quantity of food will vary greatly in the requirements of individuals engaged in sedentary em- ployments, or of persons with weak constitutions or impaired diges- tion, as also whether employed in the open air or within doors; much, also, depending on the temperature. Preference should be given to the food which most readily yields the materials required by nature in the formation of the human frame. Beef contains about four pounds of such minerals in every one hundred pounds. Dried ex- tract of beef contains twenty-one pounds in each one hundred pounds. Bread made from unbolted wheat flour is also very rich in such ele- ments, much more so than superfine flour; hence the common use of graham bread for dyspepsia and other ailments. The analysis of Liebig, Johnston, and others, give, in one hundred parts, the follow- ing proportions of nutritious elements, viz.: Indian corn, 12.30; bar- ley, 14.00; wheat, 14.06; oats, 19.91. A fish diet is well adapted to sustain intellectual or brain labor. What is required may be best known from the fact that a human body weighing one hundred and fifty-four pounds contains, on a rough estimate, of water, fourteen gallons; (consisting of oxygen, one hundred and eleven pounds; of hydrogen, fourteen pounds;) carbon, twenty-one pounds; nitrogen, three pounds and eight ounces; calcicum, two pounds; sodium, two and a quarter ounces; phosphorus, one and three-quarter pounds; potassium, one-half ounce; sulphur, two ounces and two hundred and nineteen grains; fluorine, two ounces; chlorine, two ounces and forty- seven grains; iron, one hundred grains; magnesium, twelve grains; silicon, two grains. After death, the human body is, by gradual de- cay, slowly resolved into these its component parts, which elements are again used in the complex and wonderful laboratory of nature, to vivify the countless forms of vegetable life. These in their turn fulfil their appointed law by yielding up their substance for the formation of other bodies.

Dysentery (Cholera) Cordial. - Two ounces tincture cayenne, one ounce spirits camphor, one ounce tincture rhubarb, two ounces es- sence peppermint, two ounces best brandy, two drams laudanum. Dose for an adult, one teaspoonful every hour until relief is ob- tained.

Dysentery Remedy. - The &^% is considered one of the best of remedies for dysentery. Beaten up slightly, with or without sugar, and swallowed at a gulp, it tends, by its emollient qualities, to lessen the inflammation of the stomach and intestine, and, by forming a transient coating on these organs, to enable nature to resume her healthful sway over a diseased body. Two, or at most three eggs per day would be all that is required in ordinary cases; and since egg is not merely medicine, but food as well, the lighter the diet other-

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wise and the quieter the patient is kept, the more certain and rapid is the recovery.

Dyspepsia Remedy. - A sufferer from dyspepsia says: " The ker- nel of the peach pit has proved in many cases a perfect remedy for what is termed heartburn. I suffered from it hourly for years; more at some times than others. Seeing this remedy recommended in some journal, two or three years ago, I often since proposed to try it, but did not until last winter. When the suffering manifests itself, eat one or two of the kernels, and after a few days the symptoms will disap- pear. The remedy is simple, cheap, and harmless, and, best of all, effectual."

Dyspepsia - treatment of. - One of the first things to be attended to is to regulate the bowels, which in this disease are always in a cos- tive state. The best means of keeping them loose is the eating of a handful of clean wheat bran, once or twice a day. This is the most simple and efficacious method of cleansing the stomach. It may be eaten from the hand with a few swallows of water to wash it down, also use, to regulate the stomach and bowels, the daily use of com- mon salt, in teaspoonful doses, dissolved in a half tumblerful of water, taken in the morning fasting. Avoid rich diet, and use brown bread instead of that made of superfine flour.

Dyspeptics - diet for. - Dr. Milner Fothergil recommends the use of stewed fruits in many instances of gout and dyspepsia. Sugar is undoubtedly objectionable to many, but it is by no mean necessary to add sugar to stewed fruit; if the acidity be neutralized by an alkali, little or no sugar is required. Thrifty housewives have long been familiar with the fact that the addition of a small quantity of the bicarbonate of soda to stewed fruit reduces the acidity, so as to save the necessity of so much sugar. If about as much bicarbonate of potash as will lie on a shilling be added to each pound of fruit it will be found sufficient to neutralize the acidity and to bring out the natural sweetness. Milk puddings and stewed fruit are excellent for the dyspeptic, the bilious and the gouty.

Dyspepsia - cures and treatment. - The late Dr. Leared, in his recently published essay on " The Causes and Treatment of Indi- gestion," lays down as a fundmental principle that the amount of food which each man is capable of digesting with ease always has a limit which bears relation to his age, constitution, health and habits, and that indigestion is a consequence of exceeding this limit. Different kinds of food are also differently adapted to different constitutions. Dyspepsia may be brought on by eating irregularly, by allowing too long an interval between meals, and by eating too often. Frequently the meals are not gauged as to their relative amount, or distributed with a due regard for health. Thus, when we go out after taking a light breakfast and keep at our work, with a still lighter lunch only during the interval, till evening, we are apt, with the solid meal which tempts us to indulgence, to put the stomach to a harder test than it can bear. " When a light breakfast is eaten, a solid meal is requisite

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in the middle of the day. When the organs are left too long unemploy- ed they secrete an excess of mucus which greatly interferes with di- gestion. One meal has a direct influence on the next; a poor breakfast leaves the stomach over-active for dinner. The point to bear in mind is, that not to eat a sufficiency at one meal makes you too hungry for the next; and that, when you are too hungry, you are apt to overload the stomach and give the gastric juices more to do than they have the power to perform. Persons who eat one meal too quickly on another must likewise expect the stomach finally to give notice that it is imposed upon. Other provocatives of dyspepsia are imperfect mastication, smoking and snuff-taking, which occasions a waste of saliva - although some people find that smoking assists digestion, if done in- moder- ation - sitting in positions that cramp the stomach, and the pressure that is inflicted on the stomach by the tools of sometrades, as of curriers, shoemakers, and weavers. The general symptoms of dys- pepsia are well known. Some that deserve special remark are fancies that the limbs Or hands are distorted, mental depression, extreme nervousness, hyprochrondria and other affections of the mind. The cure is to be sought in avoiding the food and habits by which dys- pepsia are promoted, and using and practicing those which are found to agree best with the system of the subject. Regularity in the hours of meals cannot be too strongly insisted on. The stomach should not be disappointed when it expects to be replenished. If disappointed, even a diminished amount of food will be taken, without appetite, which causes the secretions to injure the stomach, or else impairs its muscular action."

Dyspepsia or Nervous Debility - to cure. - Change your diet and manner of living, drink neither tea or coffee, never drink at meal times, after meal, or during the meal, dissolve half a teaspoonful or more of cayenne pepper in half a glassful of milk and drink it, eat plain food; never taste pastry of any kind. If you are troubled with sleepless nights, do not try to promote sleep by taking stimulants or opiates, they do more harm than good, take a sponge bath just before retiring, and if you are unable to do it yourself, get some one to rub you well with a coarse towel; if you wake in the night and cannot get to sleep again, get up at once, not lie until you get nervous thinking about it; take a foot bath; rub your limbs well to get up a circulation; drink a glass of cold water. Do not expect to cure yourself in one weeks' time; have patience, and try one month. In bathing, use your hands to apply the water, it is much better than a sponge; soften the water with borax, it is more invigorating than salt water.

Dyspepsia - remedy for. - Powdered rhubarb, sixty grains; bi- carbonate of soda, half an ounce; powdered ginger, sixty grains; oil of anise seed, twenty drops. Make up these ingredients into twelve powders. Take a powder morning and evening.

Earache - specific for. - Olive oil, one ounce; chloroform, one grain. Mix and shake well together, then pour twenty-five or thirty drops in the ear, and close it up with a piece of raw cotton to exclude

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the air and retain the mixture. The remedy I can truly say is a specific in earache. It acts promptly and efficiently.

Earache - to cure. - Generally heat is the best remedy. Apply a warm poultice or warm oil to the ear. Rub the back of the ear with warm laudanum. In case of a fetid discharge, carefully syringe the ear with warm milk and water. In all cases keep the ear thoroughly cleansed. Relief is often given by rubbing the back of the ear with a little hartshorn and water.

Earache - remedies for. - i. Put some live coals in an iron pan, sprinkle with brown sugar, invert a funnel over it, and put the tube in the ear. The smoke gives almost instant relief.

2. Carbolic acid diluted with warm water and poured into the ear is a sovereign cure for earache.

3. Take equal parts of chloroform and laudanum, dip a piece of cotton into the mixture and introduce into the ear, and cover up and get to sleep as soon as possible.

4. Four drops of oil of amber, and two drams of oil of sweet al- monds. Four drops of this mixture to be applied to the part affected.

5. For earache, dissolve asafetida in water; warm a few drops and drop in the ear, then cork the ear with wool.

6. Cotton wool wet with sweet oil and laudanum often relieves ear- ache, it is said.

Ear-wax - deficiency of. - Deafness is sometimes the consequence of a morbidly dry state of the inner passages of the ear, the ear-wax being deficient and hard and dry. In such cases introduce a bit of cotton wool dipped in an equal mixture of oil of turpentine and oil of almonds, or in the liniment of carbonate of ammonia.

Earthenware - to prevent cracking. - Before using new earthen- ware, place in a boiler with cold water, and heatgradually till it boils; then let it remain till the water is cold. It v/ill not be liable to crack if treated in this manner.

Easter Eggs - to dye. - In Paris, where more than a million of these eggs are sold during the season, the red ones, which are the favorites, are dyed by boiling (not violently, however), about five hundred at a time, packed in a basket, in a decoction of logwood, and then adding some alum to convert the violet color to red. Vari- ous aniline dyes are also used for a similar purpose.

Economical Hints. - Look carefully to your expenditures. No matter what comes in, if more goes out, you will always be poor. The art is not in making money, but in keeping it; little expenses, like mice in a barn, when they are many, make great waste. Hair by hair, heads get bald; straw by straw, the thatch goes off the cot- tage; and drop by drop the rain comes in the chamber. A barrel is soon empty if the tap leaks but a drop a minute. When you mean to save, begin with your mouth; many thieves pass down the red lane. The ale jug is a great waste. In all other things keep within com- pass. Never stretch your legs farther than the blanket will reach, or you will soon take cold. In clothes, choose suitable and lasting stuff

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and not tawdry fineries. To be warm is the main thing; never mind looks, A fool may make money, but it needs a wise man to spend it. Remember, it is easier to build two chimneys than to keep one going. If you give all to back and board, there is nothing left for the savings bank. Fare hard and work hard when you are young, and you will have a chance to rest when you are old.

Eggs - several ways to keep. - i. Eggs may be kept for an in- definite time if packed when quite fresh in boxes with rock al^in in shape like rock salt. Put in a thick layer of alum, then the eggs, small end down cover with alum around and over them, and keep in a cool, dry place.

2. Slake fresh lime with boiling water, when cold, thin with cold water to the thickness of cream. Pack the eggs small end down, in a barrel or in stone jars, then pour on the cold white- wash, covering the eggs. Care must be used in taking them out, as they are easily cracked. This has been used with success for forty years.

3. Three gallons of water, one pint fresh slaked lime, one-half pint salt. Use perfectly fresh eggs with sound shells. If more lime is put in it eats the shell; if more salt, it hardens the yolks. Put them in carefully, they will keep perfectly good for a year or more.

4. Hold perfectly fresh eggs in boiling water while counting six. A Vire basket can be used for this purpose. Be sure to have water enough to entirely cover the eggs. Let them dry and cool, then pack in oats. Put a layer of oats on the bottom of the keg or barrel suf- ficient to support the eggs. Pack them closely, small end down, and proceed till the barrel is filled. Shake it gently to settle oats and eggs firmly. This method has given eggs, a year after packing, in as good a state of preservation as when first packed.

5. A layer of salt is placed in the bottom of a stone jar, and the eggs are laid in this, the small end down; the spaces are to be filled with salt, and the eggs well covered, then another layer is put in, and so on until the jar is filled. Place the jar in a dry place, and the eggs will keep a year. This is one of the oldest methods of preserving eggs, but it may be new to some housekeepers.

Eggs - to preserve. - Several ways of preserving eggs are. prac- ticed. The object is to prevent evaporation from the ^%%. Cutting off the air from the contents of the ^%% preserves them longer than with any other treatment. An e.^^ which has laid in bran even for a few days will smell and taste musty. Packed in lime, eggs will be i stained. Covered with a coat of spirit varnish, eggs have kept so perfectly that after the lapse of two years chickens are hatched from them.

Spirit varnish for preserving eggs is made by dissolving gum shellac in enough alcohol to make a thin varnish. Coat each e.%% with this and pack, little end down, so that they cannot move, in bran, saw- dust or sand; the sand is best. Whatever is used for packing should be clean and dry. For preserving in lime, a pickle is made of the

1 30 WIIA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

best stone lime, fine, clean salt; and water enough to make a strong brine, usually sixty or sixty-five gallons of water, six or eight quarts of salt, and a bushel of lime are used. The lime should be slaked with a portion of the water, the salt and the remainder of the Avater is added. Stir at intervals, and when the pickle is cold and the sedi- ment has settled, dip or draw the liquid off into the cask in which the eggs are to be preserved. When only a few eggs are to be pickled a stone jar will answer.

Hggs - to test. - A good ^g^ will sink in a body of water; if stale, a body of air inside the shell will frequently cause it to float. When boiled, a fresh &g^ will adhere to the shell, which will have a rough exterior; if stale, the outside will be smooth and glassy. Looking through a paper tube directed toward the light, an ^^^ held to the end of the tube will appear translucent if fresh; but if stale it will be dark - almost opaque.

Eggs (creamed). - Boil six eggs twenty minutes. Make a pint of nice cream gravy (boiling cream thickened with flour and seasoned with salt, or milk and butter thickened, if cream cannot be had.) Put a layer of this cream gravy over six slices of toast, laid on a hot platter. Cut the whites of the eggs in thin slices and lay over this, and rub half of the yolks through a seive over the layer of whites. Add another layer of whites, and another of sifted yolks, and lastly the remainder of the cream gravy. Set in the oven for a few minutes and serve.

Eggs - to color. - Take some of the narrowest colored ribbon, and bind it closely and neatly round the eggs, covering all parts, and secur- ing the ends, so that the ribbon does not get loose. This may be done with a needle and thread, or by tucking the ends well in. The same egg may be bound with pieces of different colored ribbon, so as to vary the appearance. Boil the eggs thus bound for ten minutes. When cold, remove the ribbons, and the coloring will be left on the shells. The eggs may now be varnished, which will add much to the beauty of their appearance.

Eggs - ways of cooking. - For an omelet, which is a favorite dish with many excellent cooks, use this rule: Beat the yolks of six eggs and the whites of three till they are very light; take one teacup of cream, if you can get it (milk will answer if you cannot); mix with it very smoothly one tablespoonful of flour, add salt and pepper as you please; heat your frying-pan and melt in it a large spoonful of butter; when hot pour the eggs and cream in, and set in a quick oven. When it is thick enough - which is a matter of taste - pour over it the whites of three eggs, which are beaten to a stiff froth. Let it brown slightly, and then slip it out in a hot dish; this must be done very carefully, so that the whites of the eggs will be on the top. This dish may be varied by beating the six eggs together, and then adding the cream, etc. A good rule as to quantity is to use one ^^^ for a person. One of the best ways, if not the very best, to cook eggs is to pour boiling water into a basin, set it on the hearth cf the stove, or on the tank, and put the eggs into it; let them remain in it for five minutes; the ^^^

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will be cooked enough to be delicious, it will digest easily, and in this way the wonderful elements which go to make up the ^^^ are best presented. When done, break and drop on slices of buttered toast, or put in egg-cups in which you have first put a little lump of butter!

Eg&s (baked). - Put saucers in the oven for a few minutes to heat, then put into each one a small piece of butter, and cover the saucer with it. Break two eggs into each saucer, put into the oven a few minutes until the whites are set, and serve in the saucers. They are very nice.

Another way: Break eight eggs into a well buttered dish, put in pepper and salt, bits of butter and three tablespoonfuls of cream; set in oven and bake about twenty minutes; serve very hot. ^ Eggs - a la creme. - Hard boil twelve eggs, and slice them in thin rings. In the bottom of a deep baking dish spread bits of butter, then a layer of bread crumbs, and then a layer of boiled eggs. Cover with bits of butter, and sprinkle with pepper and salt. Continue thus to blend these ingredients until the dish is full or nearly so. Crumbs over which bits of butter are spread, must cover all of these bits of eggs, and over the whole mixture a pint of sweet cream or sweet milk must be poured, before it is baked in a moderately heated oven.

Eggs - time required to boil. - In three minutes an ^g^ will boil soft, in four, the white part is completely cooked, in ten, it is fit for a salad. Try their freshness in cold water those that sink the soonest are the freshest.

Eggs - to beat. - To beat the whites of eggs quickly, put in a pinch of salt. The cooler the eggs the quicker they will froth. Salt cools and also freshens them.

Egg-nog^ - to make. - To make a quart take three eggs, nearly a pint of good fresh milk, sugar and spice to suit the taste. Put these in a pitcher, add hot water to make a quart, then stir, or change from one vessel to another until completely mixed, then add a wineglassful or more of the best whisky. Wine may be used instead of whisky. The eggs and sugar must be thoroughly beaten before being put with the hot water.

Eggs (for the nest). - Use only good sized eggs, with strong shells. Make in the small end a hole about an eighth of an inch across, and in the other end a half inch hole. By blowing through the smaller hole, the contents of the shell will be driven out. Plaster of Paris is mixed with water, thin enough to pour. The shells are to be filled with this, using a spoon to fill them if necessary. When the shells are full, they are set aside for twenty-four hours. Trim off any superfluous plaster with a knife. These eggs are in appearance ex- actly like real eggs, and being heavy, are not thrown out of the nest.

Egg-plant - ways to cook. - i. Slice the fruit crosswise, about half an inch thick, peel and stack up with a sprinkling of salt between the slices, put a plate with a weight, a flat-iron will answer, on top, or lay the slices in strong salt and water. The object in either case is to remove a slight bitterness. At the end of two hours dry the

132 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

slices on a cloth, and dip in a thin batter of ^^^ and flour, and fry to a light brown. Instead of the butter, dip first in beaten ^%^ and then in cracker powder. Serve hot.

2. Pare and boil until soft, then mash, and season with salt and pepper to taste; make into thin cakes, dip in the beaten ^^^ and cracker dust, and fry in hot lard.

3. Slice the egg-plant at least half an inch thick, pare each piece carefully, and lay it in salt and water, putting a plate upon the top- most to keep it under the brine, and let them alone for an hour or more. Wipe each slice, dip in beaten ^%%, then in cracker-crumbs, and fry in hot lard until well done and nicely browned.

Eggs (Pickled). - Boil eggs hard, and then divest them of their shells. Put them in a jar, and pour on them scalding vinegar flavored with ginger, garlic, white pepper, and allspice. This pickle is cap- ital with cold meat.

Eggs in Surprise. - Take six fresh eggs, boil quite hard; take off as much of the top as will make each stand upright; take out all the yolks, and leave them to cool; also some part of the white, so as not to break them; pound the yolks with some cooked chicken or rabbits - they do not require much. Mix salt, pepper, and a little mace with the yolk of one unboiled ^%g, then pound all together. Take the shells off the whites carefully, fill the eggs with the pounded meat, place them in a stew-pan with points upward, in some good stock. After boiling for a few minutes take them carefully out, pouring the hot gravy over them; serve hot. This is an inexpensive dish, and looks nice.

Eggs - substitute for. - It is not generally known that boiled car- rots, when properly treated, form an excellent substitute for eggs in pudding. They must, for this purpose, be boiled and mashed and pressed through a coarse cloth or hair sieve ^trainer. The pulp is then introduced among the other ingredients of the pudding, to the total omission of eggs. A pudding made in this way is much lighter than where eggs are used, and is much more palatable. On the principle of economy, this fact is worthy of the prudent housewife's attention.

Eggs (Scrambled). - Many use only eggs with butter and salt for this dish - for four eggs, one tablespoonful of butter. Melt the but- ter and turn in the beaten eggs, and stir quickly one or two minutes over a hot fire. A common practice is to increase the quantity with- out impairing the quality by adding milk - a small cupful to six eggs, and a tablespoonful of butter with salt and pepper as preferred. Stir these ingredients over a hot fire, putting in the butter first, until the whole thickens. It should be soft and creamy when done. It is very fine served on toast.

Eggs - how to increase production. - In the winter and early spring, to keep up ^^% production; the fowls must have something to work on. The best way to supply them, if there is not enough of waste meat sc;�^^ps from the breeder's table to meet the required de-

WHA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO W. 133

mand, is to get scraps from the butcher or slaughter house. The waste meat, offal, and the bloody pieces which are unsalable can be bought for a cent or two a pound. The best way to utilize these scraps and to render them more digestible and nutritious is to cut them into fine pieces, put them into a boiler with plenty of water and boil them until the bones separate from the flesh. Then stir corn- meal into it until it makes a thick mush, season with salt and pepper, and cook till done. Feed this when cold to the poultry and they will eat it with evident relish, and you have a most excellent food which will keep during cold weather.

Eggs in Winter. - If hens have been carefully fed during the moulting season their owner may fairly expect a crop of eggs when the price is highest, usually about or little after the holidays. One of the most stimulating foods is bran liberally dosed with pepper and mixed with skim-milK. In cold weather corn or other grain should be added. The best method re to mix with their food, every other day, about a teaspoonful of ground Cayenne pepper to each dozen fowls. While upon this subject, it would be well to say, that if your hens lay soft eggs, or eggs without shells, you should put plenty of old plaster, egg-shells, or even oyster-shells broken up, where they can get at it.

Electro-plating - gold solution for. - Dissolve five pennyweights ?gold coin, five grains pure copper, and four grains pure silver in three ounces nitro-muriatic acid, which is simply two parts muriatic acid and one part nitric acid. The silver will not be taken into solu- tion as are the other two metals, but will gather at the bottom of the vessel. Add one ounce pulverized sulphate of iron, one-half ounce pulverized borax, twenty-five grains pure table salt, and one quart hot rain-water. Upon this the gold and copper will be thrown to the bottom of the vessel with the silver. Let it stand till fully settled, then pour off the liquor very carefully, and refill with boiling rain- water as before. Continue to repeat this operation until the precipi- tate is thoroughly washed; or, in other words, fill up, let settle, and pour off so long as the accumulation at the bottom of the vessel is acid to the taste. You now have about an eighteen carat chloride of gold. Add to it an ounce and an eighth of cyanuret potassa, and one quart of rain-water - the latter heated to the boiling point. Shake up well, then let it stand about twenty-four hours, and it will be ready for use. Some use platina as an alloy instead of silver, under the impression that plating done with it is harder. I have used both, but never could see much difference. Solution for a dark colored plate to imitate Guinea gold may be made by adding to the above one ounce dragon's blood and five grains iodide of iron. If you desire an alloy- ed plate, proceed as first directed, without the silver or copper, and with an ounce and a half of sulphuret potassa in place of the iron, borax, and salt.

Embalming - new method of. - Mix together five pounds dry sul- phate of alumine, one quart of warm water, and one hundred grains

134 W'^^^ T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

of arsenious acid. Inject three or four quarts of this mixture into all the vessels of the human body. This applies as well to all animals, birds, fishes, etc. This process supercedes the old and revolting mode, and has been introduced into the great anatomical schools of Paris.

Emetic (Prompt-acting). - The ingredients are: Tartar emetic, one grain; powdered ipecac, twenty grains. Take the above in a wine- glassful of sweetened water.

Engravings - to clean. - It frequently happens that fine engrav- ings, despite the care taken of them, will in some unaccountable manner become stained and dirty to such an extent as to seriously impair their beauty. To those who own engravings that have been injured in this way, a simple recipe for cleaning them will prove of value. Put the engraving on a smooth board and cover it with a thin layer of common salt, finely pulverized; then squeeze lemon- juice upon the salt until a considef^ble portion of it is dissolved. After every part of the picture has been subjected to this treatment, elevate one end of the board, so that it will form an angle of about forty-five degrees with the horizon. From a teakettle or other suita- ble vessel pour on the engraving boiling water, until the salt and lemon-juice be all washed off. The engraving will then be perfectly clean and free from stain. It must be dried on the board, or on some smooth surface, gradually. If dried by the fire or sun, it will be tinged with a dingy, yellowish color.

Engravings - to mount. - Look up all your engravings and nice wood cuts, and trim them off evenly. At the stationer's you can get a cheap kind of Bristol board. Cut it up into two sizes, one large, and the other smaller, Make a smooth paste of starch, cover the back of the picture with it, taking care that the edges are all wet, but do not put on enough so that it will squeeze out. Place it on the Bristol board, taking care to get it in the middle. Have a sheet fold- ed, and lay the picture, face downward, on it. Lay a soft, thin cloth over it and press it a few minutes with a hot iron, then turn it over, and spread on the cloth as before, and press till dry.

Epilepsy - treatment of. - Prof. W. H. Gobrecht employed in the treatment of this disease the following: Sodie bromide, two ounces; zinc bromide, thirty-two grains; glycerine, one ounce; aqua cinna- monia, seven ounces. Dose, lablespoonful three times a day in a half wineglassful of water. This is an excellent prescription, not only useful in epilepsy, but in many diseases of the nervous system, especially when persons are sleepless and restless at night. One or two doses of this medicine will quiet the most excited lunatic.

Epizootic - remedy for. - One of the, simplest remedies for the epizootic, it is said, is a mixture of tar and asafetida, ten drops of which are given twice a day in the feed. Beside this a warm bran mash once a day is recommended.

Erupsions, Pimples, etc. - cure for. - Having in numberless in- stances seen the good effects of the following prescription, I can cer-

WHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W, 135

tify to its perfect remedy: Dilute corrosive sublimate with the oil of almonds; apply it to the face occasionally, and in a few days a cure will be effected.

Erysipelas - treatment of. - Erysipelas is a peculiar, unpleasant, and frequently a fatal disease, particularly so when it reaches the brain. There is no doubt but that erysipelas is infectious and inoc- ulable; its power of infection, however, is not very great, and can easily be prevented by careful observance of hygienic laws. The most common form of the disease is the simple cutaneous, and this is the kind upon which we shall endeavor to enlighten our readers. It effects all ages and both sexes, but more frequently females. It ap- pears as a peculiar spreading but circumscribed redness of the skin with inflammation and somewhat elevated condition, and is always attended with fever. The symptoms of the disease are aching and soreness of the limbs; chills, alternating with flushes, sickness at the stomach, vomiting, restlessness, weakness, appearance of eruption on second or third day or earlier, and the disease is most dangerous in face and scalp.

The treatment should be quite generally tonic, the food light, but nutritious, beef-tea, eggs, milk, cream, etc., and some stimulants may be advantageously used. Internally, give the patient thirty drops tincture of perchloride of iron every four hours; or, what is better still, give the following:

Iron and citrate quinine, forty grains; strichnine, one-eighth of a grain, made into twenty pills. Give one pill every six hours; then paint the surface over carefully five or six times a day with collodion, one dram; castor oil two ounces. Use with camel's-hair brush. Af- ter the inflammatory symptoms have subsided, the patient can have a a little brandy two or three times a day, and good, generous diet.

Erysipelas - cure. - One pint of sweet milk and a handful of poke- berry roots. This is a sure cure.

Essences - to make. - Essences are made with one ounce of any given oil, added to one pint alcohol. Peppermints are colored with tincture turmeric; cinnamon with tincture of redsanders; wintergreen with tincture kino.

Essence - from flowers. - Procure a quantity of the petals of any flowers which have an agreeable fragrance; card thin layers of cotton, which dip into the finest Florence or Lucca oil; sprinkle a small quantity of fine salt on the flowers alternately until an earthen vessel or wide-mouthed glass bottle is full. Tie the top close with a bladder, then lay the vessel in a south aspect to the heat of the sun, and in fifteen days, when uncovered, a fragrant oil may be squeezed away, leaving a whole mass quite equal to the high-priced essences.

Essence from Flowers - how to extract. - Take any flowers you choose; place a layer in a clean earthen pot, and over them a layer of fine salt. Repeat the process until the pot is filled; cover closely, and place in the cellar. Forty days afterwards, strain the essence from the whole through a crape by pressure. Put the essence thus express-

136 WHA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO W.

ed in a clear bottle, and expose it for six weeks in the rays of the sun and evening dew, to purify. One drop of this essence will communi- cate its odor to a pint of water.

Essence cf Roses. - Take four parts of clean fresh leaves of rose flowers - damask roses are best - put them into a still with twelve parts of water. Distil off one-half; repeat the process, and when a sufficient quantity of this liquid has been obtained, it must be used as water upon fresh rose-leaves, and the same process must be con- tinued four or five times until the quantity desired is obtained. If carefully done, this essence will be very powerful.

Essential Oil from Wood, Barks, Roots, Herbs, etc. - Take balm, mint, sage or any other herb, etc., put it into a bottle, and pour upon it a spoonful of ether; keep in a cool place a few hours, and then fill the bottle with cold water; the essential oil will swim upon the surface and may be easily separated.

Etching on Glass. - Druggists' bottles, bar-tumblers, signs, and glassware of ever description, can be lettered in a beautiful style of art, by simply giving the article to be engraved, or etched, a thin coat of engraver's varnish and the application of fluoric acid. Before do- ing so, the glass must be thoroughly cleaned and heated, so that it can hardly be held. The varnish is then to be applied lightly over, and made smooth by dabbing it with a small ball of silk, filled with cotton. When dry and even, the lines may be traced on it by a sharp steel, cutting clear through the varnish to the glass. The varnish must be removed clean from each letter, otherwise it will be an im- perfect job. When all is ready, pour on or apply the fluoric acid with a feather, filling each letter. Let it remain until it etches to the required depth, then wash off with water, and remove the varnish.

Etching Varnish. - Take of virgin wax and asphaltum, each two ounces; of black pitch and Burgundy, each one-half ounce; melt the wax and pitch in a new earthenware glazed pot, and add to them, by degrees, the asphaltum, finely powdered. Let the whole boil, sim- mering gradually, till such time as, taking a drop upon a plate, it will break when it is cold, or bending it double two or three times be- tween the fingers. The varnish, being then boiled enough, must be taken off the fire, and, after it cools a little, must be poured into warm water that it may work the more easily with the hands, so as to be formed into balls, which must be kneaded, and put into a piece of taffety for use. The sand blast is now in extensive use for ornament- ing on glass.

Eyes (Bad) - to cure. - Dissolve two cents' worth of refined white copperas in a pint of spring water and put it into a bottle. Wash the eyes in v>rarm water and bathe them with the above lotion. Be care- ful that none of the lotion gets into the mouth, as it is poison.

Eye - how to remove a mote from. - To remove a mote from the eye, take a horsehair and double it, leaving a loop. If the mote can be seen, lay the loop over it, close the eye, and the mote will come out as the hair is withdrawn. If the irritating object cannot be seen.

V^HA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W, 137

raise the lid of the eye and roll the ball around a few times; draw out the hair; the substance which caused so much pain will be sure to come with it. This method is practiced by ax-makers and other workers in steel.

Eyes (Inflamed) - treatment of. - Borax, half a dram; camphor water, three ounces. The above simple prescription is in common use by the highest medical authorities. It makes a wash unexcelled for the treatment of inflammation of the eyes. In using it lean the head back and drop three drops in the corner of each, and then open the eyes and let it work in. Use it as often as the eyes feel badly.

Eye Lotion. - Acetate of zinc, one-half dram; distilled water, six- teen ounces. Mix, and apply the lotion to the eyes with a piece of soft rag.

Eye Lotioa - useful in cases of sore eyes. - Three tablespoonfuls of cold spring water, four drops of Goulard extract, two drops of laudanum, fifteen drops of brandy. Mix these in a bottle, and bathe the eyes with a piece of soft sponge saturated with the mixture.

Eyelids (Inflammation of). - The following ointment has been found very beneficial in inflammation of the eyeball and edges of the eyelids: Take of prepared calomel, one scruple; spermaceti oint- ment, one-half ounce; mix them well together in a glass mortar; ap- ply a small quantity to each corner of the eye every night and morn- ing, and also to the edges of the lids if they are affected. If this should not eventually remove the inflammation, elder-flower water may be applied three or four times a day, by means of an eye-cup. The bowels should be kept in a laxative state, by taking occasionally one-quarter ounce of Epsom salts.

Eyesight - to prolong the use of. - Sooner or later our eyesight must become impaired. When beginning to use glasses, use them as short a time as possible, only in deficient light, or on minute objects. By a judicious attention to these two points, the ageing of the sight will be retarded years. And as reading is one of the luxuries of the age, and one of its most delightful pastimes, we cannot be too care- ful of the eyesight, and should study how to husband its powers.

Eyesight - to strengthen. - Let there be an occasional pressure of the finger on the ball of the eye. Let the pressure always be from the nose and toward the temples, and wash the eyes three times a day in cold water. If this simple advice is followed the day is not far distant when partial blindness shall disappear from the world.

Eyes (Sore) - prescription for. - Sulphate of zinc, three grains; tincture of opium (laudanum), one dram; rose water, two ounces; mix. Put a drop or two in the eye two or three times daily.

2. Sulphate of zinc, acetate of lead, and rock salt, of each one-half ounce; loaf sugar, one ounce; soft water, twelve ounces; mix without heat, and use as other eye waters. If sore eyes shed much water, put a little of the oxide of zinc into a phial of water, and use it rather freely. This will soon effect a cure. Copperas and water has cured sore eyes of long standing; and used quite strong, it makes an excel-

138 WHAT EVERY ONE SHOULD A'A'OIV.

lent application in erysipelas. Alum and the white of an egg is good.

Eyes (Sore) - wash for. - Dissolve sixteen grains of acetate of zinc in half a pint of soft water (rose water is best), and apply it to the eyes several times a day.

Eye Water for Horses and Cattle. - Alcohol, one tablespoonful; extract of lead, one teaspoonful; rain water, one-half pint.

Eyes - to cure weakness. - Sulphate of copper, fifteen grains; camphor, four grains; boiling water, four ounces; mix, strain, and when cold, make up to four pints with water; bathe the eye night and morning with a portion of the mixture.

Eyes (Weak) - remedies for. - i. When the eyes are weakened or distressed by overexertion, few remedies will be found more effectual than bathing them every morning with clean spring water, in which has been placed just sufficient brandy to make the mixture cause a slight stinging sensation when applied to the eyes. Thi� weak brandy-and-water lotion may be kept ready mixed in a bottle. Another useful eye water is made by mixing forty drops of laudanum with two tablespoonfuls of milk, and the same quantity of water.

2. There is no better recipe for curing weak eyes, it is said, than cold water. Sluice plentifully, not only the eyes, but the ears, es- pecially the orifice.

Facts Worth Knowing. - That salt fish are quickest and best freshened by soaking in sour milk.

That cold rain water and soap will remove machine grease from washable fabrics.

That fish may be scalded much easier by first dipping them into boiling water for a minute.

That fresh meat, beginning to sour, will sweeten if placed out of doors in the cool air over night.

That milk which has changed may be sweetened or rendered fit for use again by stirring in a little soda.

That boiling starch is much improved by the addition of sperm or salt, or both, or a little gum arable, dissolved.

That a tablespoonful of turpentine, boiled with your white clothes, will greatly aid the whitening process.

That kerosene will soften boots and shoes that have been hardened by water, and will render them pliable as new.

That clear boiling water will remove tea stains. Pour the water through the stain, and thus prevent its spreading over the fabric-

That salt will curdle new milk, hence in preparing milk porridge, gravies, etc., the salt should not be added until the dish is prepared.

That kerosene will make your tea-kettle as bright as new. Satu- rate a woolen rag and rub with it. It will also remove stains from the clean varnished furniture.

That blue ointment and kerosene, mixed in equal proportions and applied to beadsteads, is an unfailing bug remedy, and that a coat of whitewash is ditto for a log house.

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO IV. 1 39

That beeswax and salt will make your rusty flat-irons as clean and as smooth as glass. Tie a lump of wax, in a rag and keep it for that purpose. When the irons are hot rub them first with the wax rag, then scour them with a paper or cloth sprinkled with salt.

Facades (Stone) - to clean. - It has been ascertained that the jet of water thrown from a steam fire-engine has the power of removing the discoloration produced by the smoke, without injuring the face of the stone. The work is done from the ground, the force of the stream thrown by the steam fire-engine being quite sufficient to effect the necessary cleansing.

Farm Implements - to prevent decay of. - When not in use have them sheltered from the sun, wind, rain, and snow. By this means sleighs, wagons, carts, ploughs, threshing-machines, harrows, and the like, would last twice as long as they would if left in the open air, swelling from moisture one week, and shrinking the next from the influence of the sun and wind.

Feathers - to wash and curl. - Wash in warm soap-suds and rinse in water a very little blued, if the feather is white, then let the wind dry it. When the curl has come out by washing the feather or get- ting it damp, place a hot flat-iron so that you can hold the feather just above it while curling. Take a bone or silver knife and draw the fibers of the feather between the thumb and the dull edge of the knife, taking not more than three fibers at a time, beginning at the point of the feather and curling one-half the other way. The hot iron makes the curl more durable. After a little practice, one can make them look as well as new feathers. When swans down becomes soiled it can be washed and look as well as new. Tack strips on a piece of muslin and wash in warm water with white soap, then rinse and hang in the wind to dry. Rip from the muslin and rub carefully between the fingers to soften the leather.

Feathers - to dye different colors. - Black. - Immerse for two or three days in a bath, at first hot, of logwood, eight parts, and copperas or acetate of iron, one part.

Blue. - With the indigo vat.

Brown. - By using any of the brown dyes for silk or woolen.

Crimson. - A mordant of alum, followed by a hot bath of Brazil wood, afterwards by a weak dye of cudbear.

Pink or Rose. - With saf-flower, or lemon juice.

Plum. - With the red dye, followed by an alkaline bath.

Red. - A mordant of alum, followed by a bath of Brazil-wood.

Yellow. - A mordant of alum, followed by a bath of turmeric or weld.

Green. - Take of verdigris and verditer, of each one ounce; gum water, one pint; mix them well and dip the feathers (they having been first soaked in hot water) into the said mixture.

Purple. - Use lake and indigo.

Carnation. - Vermilion and smalt. Thin gum or starch water should be used in dying feathers.

MO WI/A T E VER Y ONE SlfO ULD KNO W.

Febrifuge Wine. - Quinine, twenty-five grains; water, one pint; sulphuric acid, fifteen drops; epsom salts, two ounces; color with tincture of red sandcrs. Dose: A wine j^lass three times per day. This is a world-renowned medicine.

Feetache - panacea for. - When your work is finished sit down with your feet in as hot water as can be borne, adding water if con- venient for as long a time as possible. Three or four times will effect a cure, and you will not be troubled again in a good while.

Feet (Cold) - cure for. - Use a foot-bath each night of cold water, with two i)oun(ls of fuller's earth dissolved in water.

Feet (Blistered) - remedy for. - A good remedy for feet blistered from long walking: Rub the feet, at going to bed, with spirits mixed with tallow dropped from a lighted candle into the i)alm of the hand.

Felons, Boils - simple remedy for. - Felons, which are usually termed " Whitlow " by physicians, are a very painful and often a very serious affection of the fingers, generally of the last joints, and often near or involving the nails. As the fingers are much exposed to bruises, felons are quite common among those who constantly use their hands at hard work. If allowed to continue until matter (pus) forms, and the periosteum or bone sheathing is affected, lancing is necessary; but if taken in time, a simple application of copal varnish, covering it with a bandage, is highly reccmimended. If the varnish becomes dry and unpleasantly hard, a little fresh varnish may be ap- plied from time to time. When a cure is effected, the varnish is easily removed by rubbing into it a little lard atul washing with soap and Avater. Dr. A. B. Isham suggests the use of copal varnish for felons, " run-arounds," boils, and any local acute inflammation of external parts.

Felon - cure for. - The London I.aucct gives tnc following cure for bonc-fclon: " As soon as the disease is felt, put directly over the spot a fly-blister about the si/e of yt>ur thumb nail, and let it remain for six hours, at the expiration of which time, directly under the surface of the blister may be seen the felon, which can be instantly taken out with the point of a needle or a lancet."

Felons - remedies for. - i. Take a skunk lily root, grate it with a coarse grater, moisten with water, change twice a day. Skunk lily, or toad lily, as some call it, grows in wet land and has a yellow flower with black spots on the leaves.

2. The pith from the backbone of a calf. Change twice a day.

3. Keep the sore wet with tincture of lobelia. Either of the above remedies will cure a felon.

4. If lobelia can not be conveniently obtained, rock salt pulverized, after being drieil in an oven and mixetl with an equal part of turpen- tine and applied frequently, will destroy a felon in twenty-four hours.

Felons- if recent, to cure in six hours. - Venice turpentine, one ounce; and put into it half a teaspoonful oi water, and stir with a rough stick until the mass looks like candied honey; then spread a

WIIA T E VER Y ONE SIIO ULD KNO W. 141

good coat on a cloth, and wrap around the finger. If the case is only- recent, it will remove the pain in six hours.

Felon Salve. - A salve made by burning one teaspoonful of cop- peras, then pulverizing it and mixing it with the yolk of an &^%, is said to relieve the pain, and cure the felon in twenty-four hours; then heal with cream two parts, and soft soap one part. Apply the healing salve daily after soaking the part in warm water.

Felon Ointment. - Take sweet oil, one-half pint, and stew a three- cent plug of tobacco in it until the tobacco is crisped; then squeeze it out, and add red lead, one ounce, and boil until black; when a little cool, add pulverized camphor gum, one ounce.

Fence Posts - to make durable. - I discovered many years ago that wood could be made to last longer than iron in the ground, but thought the process so simple and inexpensive that it was not worth while te make any stir about it. I would as soon have poplar, bass- wood, or quaking ash as any other kind of timber for fence posts. I have taken out basswood posts after having been set seven years, which were as sound when taken out as when they were first put in the ground. Time and weather seemed to have no effect on them. The posts can be prepared for less than two cents a piece. This is the recipe: Take boiled linseed oil and stir it in pulverized charcoal to the consistency of paint: Put a coat of this over the timber, and there is not a man that will live to see it rotten.

Ferns - varieties and treatment. - I should like to say to the person who wishes to know what ferns can be grown in the house, that I have had for three winters, in a furnace heated parlor, very handsome plants of Aspidium molle and Adiantum cuneatum; and I have a friend who has Pteris tremula, looking as well as it could in a greenhouse. I also know that Pteris hastata does well in the house; so does the Japanese climbing fern and Lygodium scandons. All re- quire to be kept comfortably warm, not too wet, and seldom sprinkled - just often enough to keep them clean. I have found that wetting the foliage often causes it to turn black.

Ferns - to preserve - I frequently see directions for bleaching ferns, but in the fall of the year we have no difficulty in finding them pretty enough without that trouble. Besides the white, there are straw color, pea green, and many beautiful shades of brown. Soon after gathering, iron them with a not too hot iron, which has been waxed with common yellow beeswax. If intended to frame or wanted to be perfectly flat, iron until dry. Frame with black velveteen or cloth for a background, either with or without a mat. For bouquets for vases or similar decorations, I think they are nicer not to be ironed perfectly dry; they will then be curled and drooping a little, much more graceful and natural; autumn leaves can be treated in the same way and remain on the branches if desired.

Fern-case - to make. - This fern -case consists of three bars crossed at the top and fastened into a triangular base. A basket is sus[;cnded from the center of the case, and the base is decorated with shells,

142

acorns, or corals. The best method of making this case is to have the base first made of wood, then lined with zinc. The sides should hold glass neatly filled into the bars, thus inclosing the plants from the outer air. The height should be about three feet, and width of base two feet on each side. Any florist can supply ferns for such a structure. Choose only the smaller growing sorts, and avoid those which branch widely.

Ferns - ornamental uses of. - Bleached skeleton ferns may be laid on photograph book covers, wooden trays, and blotting books, and varnished. They look specially well on black painted wood, when, if laid close together, they resemble an inlaying of ivory. A plain table with one drawer, makes quite a pretty writing table by staining it black, and then laying the ferns on a border around the top, and around the drawer. The ferns can also be applied to velvet frames, when the whole should be covered with white tulle of the finest and most invisible description. A blue velvet-covered board for placing in a. fireplace during the summer, may have a center bouquet of skele- ton ferns, lightly covered Avith tulle, and a border of lace quite at the edge.

Fern Work. - The handsome articles that come under this head are made simply by pinning ferns or leaves, in any form desired, upon white cloth, and drawing a comb through a small brush of indelible ink, so that minute particles will be scattered over the cloth. Upon removing the ferns their impression, uncolored, is distinct. Doylies made in this way are charming. Paper hanging and other wall orna- ments are made of white paper, and spotted with common ink. Gilt paper can be used with fine effect.

Fever - to cool. - For a fever patient, break ice into very small pieces and mix with the same quantity of lemon jelly, also cut up small. It is refreshing.

Fever - to relieve. - Where a child has a simple fever from teeth- ing or any other cause not connected with acute disease, give a tea- spoonful of syrup of rhubarb, a warm injection, and sponge baths. These will generally be all that is needed.

Fever and Ague - cure for. - One-half ounce spirits nitre, one-half ounce tincture pepper, thirty-five grains quinine, one pint of brandy. Take a wineglassful three times a day, one-half hour before meals. If for a child, give only half the quantity.

Fever and Ague - cure. - A gentleman recently from Central America (a great place for the shakes) says that he has seen many obstinate cases cured by wearing finely pulverized rock salt between the feet and stockings. We cannot vouch. for the value of this remedy, but consider it worthy of trial.

Fever Drink. - There is no more refreshing drink in cases of fever than weak green tea, with lemon juice added instead of milk. It may be taken cither cold or hot, but the latter is preferable.

Fever (Scarlet) - treatment. - Keep all who have never had the disease away from the house. If possible, send other children away.

WIT A T E VER V ONE SI 10 ULD KNO IV. 143

Do not kiss the patient, and keep others from cloinj:^ so. Rubbinp^ the body with vaseline, or oil, will allay the itchinj:^. The patient should be kept in bed until the skin has done peeling, and in his room for two weeks longer. Keep him away from other members of the family for a month from the beginning of the disease. Avoid ex- posure to cold, and carefully obey the pliysician's orders.

Fever (Scarlet) - treatment of. - An eminent physician says he cures ninety-nine out of every hundred cases of scarlet fever by giving the patient warm lemonade with gum arable dissolved in it. A cloth wrung out in hot water and laid upon the stomach should be removed as rapidly as it becomes cool. In cases where physicians are not easily obtainable, simple remedies are not to be despised.

Fever (Scarlet). - Scarlet fever is an acute inflammation of the skin, both external and internal, and connected with an infectious fever.

Syniptotns. - The fever shows itself between two and ten days after exposure. On the second day of the fever the eruption comes out in minute pimples, which are either clustered together, or spread over the surface in a general bright scarlet color. The disease begins with languor, pains in the head, back, and limbs, drowsiness, nausea and chills, followed by heat and thirst. When the redness appears, the pulse is quick, and the patient is restless, anxious and often delirious. The eyes are red, the face swollen, and the tongue covered in the middle with white mucus, through which are seen elevated points of extreme redness. The tonsils are swollen and the throat is red. By the evening of the third or fourth day the redness has reached its height, and the skin becomes moist, when the scarf-skin begins to come off in scales.

In this fever the flesh puffs up so as to distend the fingers, and disfigure the face. As it progresses, the coating suddenly comes off the tongue, leaving it and the whole mouth raw and tender. The throat is very much swollen and inflamed, and ulcers form on the tonsils. The eustachian tube which extends up to the ear, the glands under the ear and jaw, sometimes inflame and break; and the ab- scesses formed in the ear frequently occasion deafness, more or less difficult to cure. The symptoms of this disease may be known from that of measles by the absence of cough, by the finer rash, by its scarlet color, by the rash appearing on the second instead of the fourth day, and by the ulceration of the throat.

7'rcatnient. - In ordinary cases the treatment required is very simple. The room where the patient lies should be kept cool, and the bed- covering light. The whole body should be sponged with cool water as often as it becomes hot and dry, and cooling drinks should be admin- istered. A few drops of belladonna, night and morning, is all that is needed.

If there is much fever and soreness of throat, give the following tincture of hellebore often enough to keep down the pulse:

Tincture of American hellebore, one dram; tincture of black co-

144 ^^'/^^-^ T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

hosh, two ounces: mix. Take one teaspoonful three to six times a day.

It would also be useful to commence treatment with an emetic, and to soak the feet and hands in hot water containing a little mustard or cayenne pepper, continuing this bath twenty minutes, twice a day, for two or three days. The cold stage being passed, and the fever having set in, warm water may be used without the mustard or pepper. If the head is affected, put drafts upon the feet; and if the bowels be costive, give a mild physic. Solid food should not be allowed; but when the fever sets in, cooling drinks, such as lemonade, tamarind water, rice water, flaxseed tea, then gruel, or cold water may be given in reasonable quantities. To stimulate the skin, muriatic acid, forty-five drops in a tumbler filled with water and sweetened, and given in doses of a teaspoonful, is a good remedy.

Where the disease is very violent, and the patient inclined to sink immediately; where typhoid symptoms appear and there is great prostration, the eruption strikes in, the skin changes to a mahogany color, the tongue is a deep red, or has on it a dark brown fur, and the ulcers in the throat become putrid, the treatment must be differ- ent from the above. In this case it must be tonic. Quinia must be given freely; and wine whey, mixed with toast water, will be useful. Qi.lnia is made as follows: Sulphate of quinine, one scruple; alcohol, four ounces; sulphuric acid; five drops; Madeira wine, one quart; mix. Two wineglassfuls a day. Tincture of cayenne in sweetened water, may be given in small doses. Gargles are also necessary. A good one is made of pulverized cayenne, one dram; salt, one dram; boiling water, one gill; mix, and let them stand fifteen minutes. Then, add one gill vinegar. Let it stand an hour and strain. Put a tea- spoonful in the child's mouth once an hour. A warm bath should be used daily as soon as the skin begins to peel off, to prevent dropsy. If dropsv sets in, the bath once in three days is sufficient, and sweating should be promoted by giving the tincture of Virginia snake-root and similar articles; a generous diet should be allowed at , the same time, to bring up the child's strength

Fever (Typhoid'^ - symptoms. - It is generally preceded by several days of languor, low spirits, and indisposition to exertion. There is also usually some pain in the back and head, loss of appetite, and drowsiness, though not rest. The disease shows itself by a chill. During the first week there is increased heat of the surface, frequent pulse, furred tongue . restlessness, sleeplessness, headache, and pain in the back; sometimes diarrhoea and swelling of the belly, and some- times nausea and vomiting.

The second Aveek is often distinguished by small, rose-colored spots on the belly, and a crop of little watery pimples on the neck and chest, having the appearance of minute drops of sweat; the tongue is dry and black, or red and sore, the teeth are foul, there may be delirium and dullness of hearing, and symptoms every way are more serious

WHA r E VER V ONE SHOULD KNO W. 145

than during the first week. Occasionally, the bowels at this period are perforated or eaten through by ulceration, and the patient sud- denly sinks. If the disease proceeds unfavorably into the third wtek, there is low, muttering delirium, great exhaustion, sliding down of the patient toward the foot of the bed, twitching of the muscles, bleed- ing of the bowels, and red or purple spots upon the skin; if, on the other hand, the patient improves, the countenance brightens up, the pulse moderates, the tongue cleans, and the discharges look healthy.

Trcatmoit. - Give the patient good air, and frequent spongings with water, cold or tepid, as most agreeable. Keep the bowels in order, and be more afraid of diarrhoea than costiveness. Diarrhoea should be restrained by a little brandy, or by repeated doses of Dover's powder. For costiveness, give mild injections, made slightly loosen- ing by castor oil, or common molasses. To keep down the fever, and produce perspiration, give tincture of veratrum viride, ten drops every hour. If the bowels are swelled, relieve them by hot fomenta- tions of hops and vinegar. If the pain in the head is very severe and constant, let the hair be cut short, and the head bathed frequently with cold water. Give light nourishment, and if the debility is great, broth and wine will be needed. Cleanse the mouth with very weak tea - old hyson. If the fever runs a low course, and the patient is very weak, quinine may be given from the beginning. Constant care and good nursing are very important.

Typhus fever is distinguished from typhoid by there being no marked disease of the bowels in typhus.

Fig Paste - ho-w to make. - Take twelve pounds of wheat starch, and one hundred pounds of "A" sugar, or in that proportion; to that amount of sugar add half an ounce to one ounce of acetic acid, after the sugar is dissolved in sufficient water to thoroughly dissolve it; add to the starch enough water to thoroughly wet it up, and add it to the dissolved sugar; boil over coal fire in a copper kettle till done, then turn out in pans or moulds greased with beef suet. Stir con- stantly from the time the starch is put in till it is taken off the fire, or it will burn. Use a sharp-edged wood paddle to stir with. It must be thoroughly cooked, or it will soon become dry and hard. When cooked enough it remains soft, flexible and tough for months. Lem- on or other flavoring may be stirred in just after it is taken off of the fire.

The above might be reduced down to the following proportions, and the " fig paste " made in a preserving kettle: Half pound of starch, four pounds of "A" sugar, one teaspoonful of acetic acid or vinegar. Flavor with a few drops of essence of vanilla.

Founder - cured in twenty-four hours. - Boil or steam stout oat-straw for half an hour, then wrap it around the horse's leg quite hot; cover up with wet woolen rags to keep in the steam; in six hours renew the application, take one gallon of blood from the neck vein, and give one quart linseed oil. He may be worked the next day.

Fruit (Bottled). - Bottled fruit bought at stores is so generally

146

adulterated with copper, which is a deadly poison, and which is made use of to give a bright green appearance to the fruit, that we would strongly advise all careful housekeepers to bottle fruit for themselves. The following is Mr. Saddington's recipe: "The fryit is to be gathered before it is too ripe, the bottles are to be well filled with it, and closely corked; they are next to be placed in a vessel containing cold water, which should reach as high as the necks of the bottles; heat is then to be applied, and the temperature raised from one hun- dred and sixty to one hundred and seventy degrees, and maintained at this for half an hour; lastly, the bottles are to be filled to within an inch of the corks with boiling water; they are to be well corked imme- diately, and laid upon their sides, so that the water may swell the corks, whereby the entrance of the air will be effectually prevented.

Fruit Trees - how to protect from mice. - Take tar, one part; tallow, three parts; mix. Apply hot to the bark of the tree with a paint brush.

Files and Rasps - to re-cut. - The worn files are first cleaned with potash and hot water, after which they are left for five minutes in a solution composed of one part of sulphuric acid and seven parts of water; a quantity of nitric acid equal to the sulphuric is then added to the solution, and as much water also, and the files are left in the solu- tion for about forty minutes longer. They are now ready for use, but, if to be stored, they must be brushed over with a little oil or grease to prevent rusting. The files are not allowed to touch each other in the solution, being supported by their tangs only. In order to obtain the most complete results possible, the proportions of acid are varied according to the size of the files; for example, for large files, one-sixth acid; for bastard files, one-eighth, one-ninth, to one- eleventh; and for the finest, oae-twelfth to one-thirteenth.

Files - to re-sharpen. - Remove the grease and dirt from your files by washing them in warm potash water, then wash them in warm water, and dry with artificial heat; next, place one pint warm water in a wooden vessel, and put in your files, add two ounces of blue vitirol, finely pulverized, two ounces borax, well mixed, taking care to turn the files over, so that each one may come in contact with the mixture. Now add seven ounces sulphuric acid and one-quarter ounce cider vinegar to the above mixture. Remove the files after a short time, dry, sponge them with olive oil, wrap them up in porous paper, and put aside for use. Coarse files require to be immersed longer than fine.

Filigree Work on Silver - to clean. - A toothbrush is just the thing for cleaning the filigree of jewelry, and will answer as well for silverware.

Filling Composition for Painters and Grainers Use - (12 kinds). - I. Work finished in oil should receive a substantial filling consist- ing of equal parts by weight of whiting, plaster of Paris, pumice- stone, and litharge, to which may be added a little French yellow, asphaltum, Vandyke brown, and terra di sienna. Mix with one part

IVHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 147

japan, two of boiled oil, and four of turpentine. Grind fine in a mill. Lay the filling on with a brush, rub it in well, let it set twenty min- utes, then rub off clean. Let it harden for some time, rub smooth, and, if required, repeat the process. When the filling is all right, finish with linseed oil, applying with a brush, wipe off, and rub to a polish with fine cotton, and finish with any fine fabric. Some fill with rye flour, wheat flour, corn starch, Paris white, etc., ground fine in oil and turpentine, but when work is to be varnished, such filling should previously receive one or two good coats of shellac.

2. Boiled linseed oil, one quart; turpentine, three quarts; corn starch, five pounds; japan, one quart; calcined magnesia, two ounces. Mix thoroughly.

3. Whiting, six ounces; japan, one-half pint; boiled linseed oil, three-fourths pint; turpentine, one-half pint; corn starch, one ounce; mix well together and apply to the wood. On walnut wood add a little burned umber; on cherry a little Venetian red, to the above mixture.

4. On furniture apply a coat of boiled linseed oil, then immediately sprinkle dry whiting upon it, and rub it in well with your hand or a stiff brush, all over the surface; the whiting absorbs the oil, and fills the pores of the wood completely. For black walnut, add a little burned umber to the whiting; for cherry, a little Venetian red, etc., according to the color of the wood. Turned work can have it ap- plied while in motion in the lathe. Furniture can afterward be fin- ished with only one coat of varnish.

5. Terra alba is a very good and very cheap filling. Many paint- ers have been most shamefully imposed on by parties selling the stuff at a high price.

6. Furniture Pastes. - Beeswax, spirits of turpentine and linseed oil, equal parts; melt and cool.

7. Beeswax, four ounces; turpentine, ten ounces; alkanet root to color; melt and strain.

8. Beeswax, one pound; linseed oil, five ounces; alkanet root, one- half ounce; melt and add five ounces turpentine; strain and cool.

g. Beeswax, four ounces; resin, one ounce; oil of turpentine, two ounces; digest until sufficiently colored, then add beeswax till dis- solved, then add beeswax scraped small, four ounces; put the vessel into hot water, and stir till dissolved. If wanted /^A- the alkanet root should be omiited.

10. (White). White wax, one pound; liquor of potassa, one-half gallon; boil to a proper consistency.

11. Beeswax, one pound; soap, one-quarter pound; pearlash, three ounces, dissolved in water, one-half gallon; strain and boil as the last.

12. Yellow wax, eighteen parts; resin, one part; alkanet root, one part; turpentine, six parts; linseed oil, six parts. First steep the alkanet in oil with heat, and, when well colored, pour off the clear on the other ingredients, and again heat till all are dissolved.

I4S WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

13, Furniture Cream. - Beeswax, one pound; soap, four ounces; pearlash, two ounces; soft water, one gallon; boil together until mixed.

Finger-nail Wash - Dr. [Scott's wash to whiten the nails. - Diluted sulphuric acid, two drams; tincture of myrrh, one dram; spring water, four ounces. Mix. First cleanse with white soap, and then dip the fingers into the wash.

Fire - precautions in case of. - Should a fire break out send off to the nearest engine or police-station.

Fill buckets with water, carry them as near the fire as possible, dip a mop into the water, and throw it in showers on the fire until assist- ance arrives.

If a fire is violent, wet a blanket and throw it on the part which is in flames.

Should a fire break out in the kitchen-chimney, or any other, a wet blanket should be nailed to the upper ends of the mantel-piece, so as to cover the opening entirely, the fire will then go out of itself; for this purpose two knobs should be permanently fixed in the upper ends of the mantel-piece on which the blankat may be hitched.

Should the bed or window-curtains be on fire, lay hold of any woolen garment and beat it on the flames until extinguished.

Avoid leaving door or window open in the room where the fire has broken out, as the current of air increases the force of the fire.

Should the staircase be burning so as to cut off all communications, endeavor to escape by means of a trap-door in the roof, a ladder lead- ing to which should always be at hand.

Avoid hurry and confusion; no person except a fire policeman, friend, or neighbor should be admitted.

If a lady's dress takes fire she should endeavor to roll herself in a rug, carpet, or the first woolen garment she meets.

It is a good precaution to have always at hand a large piece of baize, to throw over a female whose dress is burning, or to be wet and thrown over a fire that has recently broken out.

A solution of pearlash in water, thrown upon a fire, extinguishes it instantly. The proportion is a quarter of a pound dissolved in hot water and then poured into a bucket of common water.

It is recommended to householders to have two or three fire -buckets and a carriage mop with a long handle near at hand; they will be found essentially useful in case of fire.

All householders, but particularly hotel, tavern, and inn-keepers, should exercise a wise precaution by directing that the last person up should perambulate the premises previous to going to rest, to ascer- tain that all fires are safe and lights extinguished.

Fire - to release animals in case of. - It is a well-known fact that animals, especially horses, are so stupefied at fire, that they will not only make no effort to move, but in general resist all attempts to make them move. Experience has proved that the only effectual plan to get horses out of a stable in case of fire, is to put their harness

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO IV. 149

on, and when this is done they will quietly follow the groom. No time should be lost in carrying this plan into effect; if done in time, it has never been known to fail.

Fire - what to do in case of. - Do not get confused; admit no one to your house except firemen, policemen or neighbors.

If a lady's or child's dress takes fire, endeavor to roll the person up in a rug, carpet, or any piece of woolen stuff.

Keep all doors and windows closed until the firemen arrive.

If smoke enters the room and it is difficult to stand erect, get your mouth as close to the floor as possible and breathe easy, as there is always a fresh current of air near the floor. A wet cloth over the mouth will greatly aid breathing.

The most rapid manner to extinguish flames when the clothing catches fire is to wrap the patient, or yourself, in a heavy woolen rug or blanket, and roll on the floor as rapidly as possible.

Fire Kindlers. - To make very nice fire kindlers, take resin any quantity, and melt it, putting in for each pound being used, from two to three ounces of tallow, and when all is hot stir in pine sawdust to make very thick; and, while yet hot, spread it out about one inch thick, upon boards which have fine sawdust sprinkled upon them, to prevent it from sticking. When cold, break up into lumps about one inch square. But if for sale, take a thin board and press upon it, while yet warm, to lay it off into inch squares; this makes it break regularly, if you press the crease sufficiently deep; grease the marking board to prevent it from sticking.

Fish Balls. - In the first place, the fish must be good. A great many people haven't the least idea of a good salt fish; they must first learn what a good fish is if they would have good balls. Cut up your fish and raw potatoes, taking twice the quantity of potatoes you have of fish, and boil them together half an hour; when done, drain off the water immediately, and beat the fish and potatoes thoroughly together. Now add pepper and salt, and if you have used half a pint of fish, one egg and a piece of butter half the size, beat all together, roll into balls and fry like doughnuts. Serve immediately. The fat must be as hot as for doughnuts. Faithfully follow this rule and then fish balls are good.

Fish Culture. - How to secure nearly double the usual product in fish raising. - I have closely observed the habits of many of the fishes that inhabit our southern streams, and among others the trout. Here they are migratory, or at least they leave the small streams in October, and return to them in March. They spawn in April, and the young brood are hatched out in a few days. Now my plan for increasing the yield is to have the eggs of the trout and other fishes well protected in their natural bed, where deposited by the mother, by placing over it a frame of fine wire net or cloth. But little atten- tion is needed to find the nest of the trout or other fish; then as soon as the eggs are all deposited you have onlv to put the wire net over the nest and it will keep off nearly all of the fish and insects that prey

I50 IVJIA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

on the eggs. In this way I think �� ou may be sure of seventy-five per cent, of the eggs producing young trout, and as these remain near the nest till old enough to escape from most of the dangers of their infant state, the wire net will save nearly all of them.

Fish - to fry. - Small fish are to be fried whole; large fish have the fleshy portions cut off with a very sharp knife and divided into strips (fillets) of a convenient size for serving. When cleaned and ready for cooking, wipe dry, and roll them in powdered cracker or bread crumbs. (Cracker, ready pulverized, is now sold at most grocery stores, under the name of "cracker dust.") Dip the fish, or pieces, in well beaten ^^%, and again roll them in cracker dust or crumbs, re- moving any lumps, so as to leave the surface smooth. Have the fat hot, and drop in the pieces, Avatching them carefully until they cook to a golden brown; then lift from the fat antl lay upon thick paper to aborb the fat. Fillets of fish with the bones in, may be treated in the same way. By this method the fish are well flavored and much more digestible for weak stomachs. Fish are nourishing, and not only sup- ply good food for the muscles, but also furnishes much phosphorus, which is a good brain-making material.

Fish - to preserve them alive for transportation from place to place. - Stop up the mouths of the fish with crumbs of bread steeped in brandy, and pour a very small quantity of brandy into them; pack them in clean straw. The fish will become quite torpid, and in this state may be kept ten or twelve days.

Fish - (steamed.) - Fish should never be boiled but steamed, so that no fine properties are dissolved in the water.

Fits - treatment of. - When these are brought on by indigestion, place the child in a warm bath immediately, give warm water, or a lobelia emetic, rub the skin briskly, etc., to get up an action. In brain disease the warm water is equally useful. In fact, unless the fit is constitutional, the warm bath will relieve the patient by drawing the blood to the surface.

Fits (Fainting). - Fits are sometimes very dangerous, and at others perfectly harmless; the question of danger depending altogether upon the causes which have produced them, and which are exceedingly various. For instance, fainting produced by disease of the heart is a very serious symptom indeed; whereas that arising from some slight cause, such as the sight of blood, etc., need cause no alarm whatever. The symptoms of simple fainting are so well known that it would be quite superfluous to enumerate them here. The treatment consists of laying the patient at full length upon his back, with his head upon a level with the rest of his body, loosening everything about the neck, dashing cold water into the face, and sprinkling vinegar and water about the mouth; applying smelling-salts to the nose; and, w-hen the patient is able to swallow, in giving a little warm brandy and water or about twenty drops of sal-volatile in water. Should the attack be due to disease of the heart, place the perstm in an upright position, and give half a tumbler of cold brandy and water - half brandy, half water. If

WHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO VV. 151

the attack arises from debility, place the person in an upright posi- tion, and administer a glass of sherry. Should excitement or an overheated room be the cause, a reclining posture, and the adminis- tration of a wineglassful of camphor julep, to which twenty drops of sal-volatile have been added, are the best means of recovery.

Fits (Fainting). - Fainting is caused by the blood leaving the brain. Plac-e the patient flat and allow the head to be lower than the body. Sprinkle cold water on the face. Hartshorn may be held near the nose, not to it, A half teaspoonful of aromatic spirits of ammo- nia, in a wineglassful of water, will tend to revive the patient. If the symptoms recur, send for a physician.

Flannel - to wash. - Cut up what soap may be needed and dissolve in a skillet of boiling water. Let it stand on the stove and simmer till every particle is dissolved. Never rub soap on the flannel, or al- low a bit to settle on them. Nothing "fulls " flannel so badly as rub- bing soap on it, or letting bits of it settle on the cloth. A place on which a bit of soap has lodged or been rubbed will have a different shade from the rest when dried, making the whole garment look spotted.

Take a small tub not quite half full of scalding hot or boiling water. Into this pour enough of the dissolved soap to make a rich suds, also some ammonia, a teaspoonful and a half to ten or twelve quarts of suds is a fair proportion. Stir this and the soap into the hot water till it is all thoroughly incorporated. Then put in the flannels. Two or three articles are enough to soak at one time. Press them well under the water, but turn them over in the suds occasionally while soaking. Let them remain in the water till it is cool enough to put the hands in without discomfort. While washing keep a good quan- tity of water at boiling heat on the range for rinsing purposes, and to keep the suds as hot as it can be used. Before one piece is washed and ready to be wrung out fill a small tub half full of clear hot water. Into this stir a little more " bluing" than would be used for cotton or linen. Shake out each piece as soon as washed, quickly, and throw at once into the hot rinsing water.

Rub the flannel as little as possible, but draw it repeatedly through the hands, squeezing rather than rubbing. Harsh rubbing thickens and injures the fabric. Never wring with a wringer, as the pressure mats the nap down so closely as to destroy all the soft, fleecy look of good flannel. Wring with the hands as dry as possible, then rinse and wring out again; and when as dry as it can be made by hand, snap out, stretch and pull out into the true shape; dry in the open air, if possible. Bring in when not quite dry, roll up a short time, and iron while still a little damp, so that each part can be more readily brought into shape. Pressing, when ironing, is better for the flannel than rubbing. It does not make the fabric feel so hard and wiry.

Scarlet flannel is poisonous to some skins if used before washing, and as one is not always sure how one may be affected by it, it is safer to give it a scald in hot water with a little soap - not enough to

152 IVIIA T E VER V ONE SHOULD KNO W.

make a strong suds. Let it stand and soak a few niinutes, then wring out and treat like other flannels.

Flannel - to whiten. - It is said that flannel, which has become yellow by age, may be restored to its original whitqness by the use of a solution of one and a half pounds of white Marseilles soap in fifty pounds of soft river water, to which is added two-thirds of an ounce of spirit of aqua ammonia, and the whole thoroughly mixed. The flannel is to be immersed in this solution and well stirred around, and afterward washed off in pure water. The same result may also be obtained still more quickly by immersing the flannel for an hour in a dilute solution of acid sulphate of soda, and then stirring in dilute hydrochloric acid in the proportion of one part of acid to fifty of water. The vessel is then to be covered over and allowed to remain for a quarter of an hour, when the articles are to be removed and thoroughly washed.

Flat-irons - to smooth. - If your flat-irons arc rough, rub them with fine salt, and it will make them smooth.

Flaxseed Tea - w^ays to make. - Put two tablespoonfuls whole flaxseed in a pint of boiling water and boil fifteen minutes; cut up one lemon and put in a pitcher with two tablespoonfuls of sugar. Strain the tea boiling \\oX. through a wire strainer into the pitcher and stir together. Good for cough and sore throat.

2. Take three tablespoonfuls of linseed, about one pint of water, ^ and boil for ten minutes. Strain off the water, put in a jug with two lemons, cut in thin slices; put in also some brown sugar. A wine- glassful of wine is an improvement. This has been found most nout^ ishing for invalids.

3. Macerate one ounce flaxseed and half an ounce of bruised liquorice root in one pint of boiling water for two hours, in a tightly- > closed vessel; filter, and add one fluid ounce of lemon juice. This is.: a good drink in cases of catarrh. \A'J

Flesh-w^orms on the skin. - When black spots, " flesh-worms^." as. > they are called, become troublesome, it would be advisable to adopt the following remedy, which, though simple, is very cihcacious: Mix some flour of sulphur in a little milk, let it stand for a couple of hours, and then, without disturbing the sulphur, use the milk as a lotion; to be well rubbed into the skin with a towel. Almost immedi- ately afterward, the skin may be washed with soap and cold water. Cold cream should be rubbed in at bedtime. The spots will shortly disappear.

Flies - to destroy. - Take half a teaspoonful of black pepper, one teaspoonful of brown sugar, and one .tablespoonful of cream; mix them well together and place them in a room on a plate, where the flies arc troublesome, and they will soon disappear.

Floating Island. - Put a quart of milk over the fire in a shallow kettle, let it come to a boil; beat the whites of four eggs to a froth anil add some white sugar; let the whites of the eggs scald a moment in the milk, then dip out; beat the yolks of the eggs with sugar to suit

IVirA T E VEK Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 153

the taste; stir this into the boilinp milk; as soon as it boils turn into a shallow dish; lay the whites on top. Ornament with colored sugar sands if you like. .jt

Floating Island- how to make. - Put on the stove a quart of milk sweetened and flavored to taste. Just as soon as it reaches boiling point, stir in the well-beaten yolks of five eggs and allow it to come to a boil again, stirring all the lime. Then remove from the hre and set aside to cool. Three of the whites will be sulTlcient for the islands. Beat to a stiff froth with a fork, which is better than an cgg-ljcater fdr this particular purpose, and place in a colanilar. Now comes the " kink." Have ready a tea-kettle of boiling water, from which jjour Mpidly but thoroughly upon the beaten, whites, until the water has touched every part. Set down for a few moments to finish draining, after which you can take a knife and cut into little blocks and lay upon your custard, which has been previously poured into the dish from which it is to be served: By this means, the whites will retain their form, and not aggravate you by dissolving into thin air at a critical juncture. It also does away with that raw taste. Hits of jelly dropped upon each island, give the dish an inviting appearance.

Float, or French Custard. - Beat the yolks of five eggs with ten tablespoonfuls of sugar, and stir in a quart of new milk; place over the fire and stir until it creams. Do not cook too long. Pour into a dish that can be covered. Spread over the top the whites of the five eggs, beaten to a stiff froth, with a taidespoonful of pulverized sugar. Both custard and whites of the eggs should be flavt)red with lemon or vanilla.

Floors - to stain and polish. - A correspondent who thinks that carpets are too expensive for daily use, and that something that is cheaper and at the same time more easily kept clean is needed, says that a friend's hall and kitchen were floored, as he supposed with black walnut and pine; but he was informed that the owner had caused the floors to be smoothly laid, and with his own hands had stained each alternate board a dark color, and then with shellac had finished the whole with a fine polish. He says: " I shall have my hall and dining-room floors plained smoothly and evenly by a car- penter, and then myself rub carefully with a sponge or brush, avoid- ing any daubs over the seam, into each alternate board a stain pre- pared as follows: One-quarter of a pound of asphaltum and half a pound of beeswax; if too light in color, add asphaltum, though that must be done with caution, as very little will graduate the shade, and black walnut is not what its name indicates, but a rich dark brown; or burned umber in alcohol, to the proper consistency of easy appli- cation, may be used without the beeswax; and, after a thin coat of shellac has been laid over the whole and the surface smoothed (wer with sandpaper, a coat of common varnish will give it a si)Iendid finish. A breadth of carpet or matting, or a piece of oilcloth laid down, will protect it where the greatest wear comes. The narrower

154 ^^A T E VER V ONE SHOULD KNOW.

the floor the finer will be the effect; but in any case it will excite your own and your friends* admiration and prove a joy forever."

Floors - stai� for. - To strong lye of wood ashes add enough cop- peras for the required oak shade. Put this on with a mop and var- nish afterward.

Florida Water. - Half pint proof spirits, two drams oil lemon, half dram oil rosemary. Mix.

Flounders - how to select. - Flounders, and all white fiat fish, are rigid and firm when fresh; the under side should be of a rich cream color. When out of season, or too long kept, this becomes a bluish white, and the flesh soft and flaccid. A clear, bright eye in fish is also a mark of being fresh and good.

Flour - how to select. - Look at its color; if it is white, with a slightly yellowish or s-raw colored tint, it is a good sign. If it is very white, with a bluish cast with white specks in it, the flour is not good. Examine its adhesiveness; wet and knead a little of it between the fingers; if it works dry and elastic, it is good; if it works soft and sticky, it is poor. Flour made from spring wheat is likely to be sticky. Throw a little lump of dry flour against a dry, smooth, per- pendicular surface; if it adheres in a lump, the flour has life in it; if it falls like powder, it is bad. Squeeze some of the flouT in your hands; if it retains the shape given by the pressure, that, too, is a good sign. Flour that will stand all these tests it is safe to buy.

Flour - boiled for invalids. - Tie a pound of fine flour tightly and compactly in a linen cloth, throw it into boiling water, and let it boil for three hours; when it is cold it will be found to be a hard, dry mass, from which the outside layer will peel like a skin. Grate a part of the remainder, and use it to thicken boiling milk or to make a gruel.

Flour - to brown. - Spread on a tin plate, set on the stove or in a very hot oven, and stir constantly after it begins to color, until it is brown all through. Keep in a glass jar, shake occasionally, and use for gravies, etc.

Flour (Self-raising). - Kiln-dried flour, one hundred pounds; tar- taric acid, ten ounces; mix thoroughly. After two or three days add of bi-carbonate soda, twelve ounces; lump sugar, one half pound; common salt, one and one-half pounds; mix, and pass through the "dressing machine." Have all the articles perfectly dry, and separately reduced to fine powder before adding to the flour. Mix with cold water, and bake at once. It produces light and porous bread.

Flowers - arrangement of. - Flowers may be arranged either ac- cording to the harmony or contrast of colors. Red harmonizes with orange, orange with yellow, violet with red, indigo with violet, blue with indigo, and green with blue. Green is the contrast of red, sky- blue to orange, yellow to violet, blue to orange-red, indigo to orange- yellow, and violet to bluish-green. To find the contrast to any flower, cut a small circular piece out of its petals, place it upon white paper, look at it steadily with one eye for a few seconds, without letting the eye-lids close, then look from the colored circle to another part of

WHA T E VER \ ' ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 155

the white paper, when the circle of another color will be apparent. This color is the true contrast, or complimentary color. Tastes differ as to whether the effect of arranging the flowers according to contrast or complimentary color is more pleasing to the eye than according to harmonies. The former, however, is the most in favor. To carry it out, a blue flower should be placed next to an orange flower, a yel- low near a violet, and a red or a white should have plenty of foliage around it. White contrasts with blue or orange, or still better, with red or pink, but not with yellow or violet.

Flowers and Ferns - for ornamenting. - Nothing beautifies a room more sensibly than a few tastefully arranged flowers or plants. In summer flowers are always available, and in winter their place may be agreeably supplied by sprigs of evergreens, dried grasses, or im- mortelles. A few creeping plants, or ivy, can be obtained at any time during cold weather, and a few twigs of these brought into use whenever required. Those who keep house-plants always have the materials at hand for decorations, and they should be used liberally and constantly, varying the arrangement as often and widely as pos- sible. A charming house ornament is supplied by a fern-case, which may be constructed quite inexpensively, while the plants required, be- ing indigenous to our woods and meadows, can be easily collected, so that the pleasure of having a case well filled with finely grown plants can be enjoyed by those who do not wish to expend largely for this purpose.

Flowers - to preserve. - By the following process flowers may be preserved without losing their beauty of lint or form: Get a quantity of fine sand, wash it until the last water that runs off is quite clear, then put the wet sand on a board placed aslant over a pan to drain the water off. Dry the sand perfectly by the fire, or in the sun. Sift it twice, once through a fine sieve, next through a coarse one; thus the sand will become nearly all of the same sized particles, and be very fine. Cut the flowers when full blown, and in dry weather, not moist with dew or rain. Get a box of sufficient size, fill it with dry sand so high that the flowers may stand erect in it by their imbeded stems. Then put some sand in the sieve, and tenderly sift it over the flowers, so as not to break them; do not crumple or displace a petal. Keep the box in a warm, dry place, but not too hot. The tempera- ture should never exceed one hundred degrees. The sand absorbs the moisture of the flowers. As soon as you think the flowers are thoroughly dry, open the box and slant it so as to let the upper sand run out gently; then lift them out by their stems. The flowers will be perfect, but a little brittle. In time the atmosphere will make them less so.

Flowers - for exhibition. - To place flowers on exhibition andiceep fresh, and to show off to good advantage, get large flakes of moss from logs, and, after putting an inch or so of sand in the bottom of a shallow box, lay on this the moss, and thrust into this the flower stems; then, by watering occasionally, they keep perfectly fresh for a

156 IFHA T E VER Y ONE STIO ULD KNO W.

number or days. Crosses, rings, etc., can be formed in these boxes, and having- sprigs of evergreens tacked on the sides of the boxes the effect is beautiful. Moss placcil in fancy-shaped baskets and in this the flowers make a pretty show.

Flowers and Fruit - how to preserve. - Fruit and flowers may be preserved from ilecay and fading by immersing them in a solution of gum arabic and water two or three times, waiting a sufficient time between each immersion to allow the gum to dry. This process cov- ers the surface of the fruit with a thin coat of gum, which is entirely Impervious to the air, and thus prevents the decay of the fruit or the gathering of the tlower. Roses thus preserved have all the beauty of freshly plucked ones, though they have been separated from the par- ent stock many months.

Flowers - to revive v/hen withered. - Plunge the stems into boil- ing water, and keep them there till the water is cold. They will quite revive. The stems may then be cut, and the llowers put to stand in cold water.

Flowers - to preserve in water. - Mix a little carbonate of soda with the water in which llowers are immersed, and it will preserve them for a fortnight. Common saltpetre is also a very good pre- servative.

Flower Seeds - autumn sowing of. - Persons say that the finest flowers they ever had of certain annuals were from "volunteer" plants from self-grown seeds. The real reason for their superiority is woi due to the manner, but to the time of sowing. Seeds are "self- grown " soon after they are ripe, and the superiority of the plants from these suggests autumn sowing. The annual flowers classed as " hardy " should as a general thing, if practicable, be sown in autumn. Larkspurs and pansics are incomparably finer w^hen thus sown. Clarkia, whitlavia, gilia, and nearly all the rest of the Cali- fornia annual, to give the best results, should be sown in autumn.

Fiow^ers - to pack for shipment. - Cut flowers should be packed in a perfectly tlry condition, and whatever packing materials are used should also be dry. Considerable quantities are sent in boxes by rail to distances varying from fifty to three hundred miles in the follow- ing manner with perfect success: The bottom and sides of the box is lined with spray and fern fronds; upon that at the bottom is placed a compact layer of buds and such flowers as will not sufl'er from a little pressure; then ci>mes another layer with the more delicate flowers enveloped singly in a thin piece of wadding, all packed closely. This is followed by a sheet of silver paper, upon which a third and last layer of padded flowers is placed. A thin sheet of soft wadding is placed upon the top, and the lid fastened in the same manner as the fruit boxes.

Flovirer Stand - to make. - A very pretty flower stand can be made out of a table, a bucket, and half a dozen old tin cans. Place the bucket in the center of the table. Punch several holes in the bottom of each can, and screw them firmly to the table by screws in the holes.

IVIIA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO W. 157

Arches of stout wire may be made across the top of the cans. For ferns planted in the cans, which require a great deal of water, cover the top of the table with a shallow pan to catch the drip. Other plants should only have the soil kept damp. Geraniums are fine for winter blooming, as are also coleus, fuchsias, and petunias. Some kind of a vine should be planted in each of the corner cans. Trailing plants produce a good effect.

Flowers - to arrange. - A very good device for arranging flowers consists of a piece of cork of about a quarter of an inch thick, circu- lar in form, and perforated with holes like the nose of a watering-pot. The diameter is to correspond to the size of the saucer or shallow dish with which it is to be used. The cork floating on the top of the water supports the flowers, whose stems are inserted through the holes. For the display of small flowers, and those having short stems, this method seems well adapted; possibly it may be better than damp sand, though that is doubtful; but, as the cork may be preserved, it would always be at hand, and it might not be con- venient sometimes to procure sand.

Fluid - for -vvashing cloths. - For washing alpaca, camel's hair, and other woolen goods, and for removing marks made on furniture, carpets, rugs, etc.: Foar ounces ammonia, four ounces white castile soap, two ounces alcohol, two ounces glycerine, two ounces ether. Cut the soap fine, dissolve in one quart of water over the fire; add four quarts of water. When nearly cold, add the other ingredients. This will make nearly eight quarts. It must be put in a bottle and stoppered tight. It will keep good any length of time.

Fluid (Silver Plating.) - Dissolve one ounce of nitrate of silver, in crystals, in twelve ounces of soft water; then dissolve in the water two ounces cyanuret oi potash; shake the whole together, and let it stand till it becomes clear. Have ready some half-ounce vials, and fill half full of Paris white, or fine whiting; and then fill up the bottles with the liquor, and it is ready for use. The whiting does not in- crease the coating powder; it only helps to clean the articles, and save the silver fluid, by half filling the bottles.

Fluid - for soldering and tinning. - The following compounds are useful for soldering or tinning: Tin - one part muriatic acid, with as much zinc as it will dissolve; add two parts of water and some sal ammoniac. Brass and copper - one pound muriatic acid, four ounces zinc, five ounces sal ammoniac. Zinc - one pound muriatic acid, and two ounces sal ammoniac, with all the zinc it will dissolve, and three pints of water. Iron - one pound of muriatic acid, six ounces sperm tallow, four ounces sal ammoniac. Gold and silver - one pound muri- atic acid, eight ounces sperm tallow, and eight ounces sal ammoniac.

Fluid (Soldering). - Take two ounces muriatic acid; add zinc till bubbles cease to rise; add one-half teaspoonful of sal-ammoniac.

Fluid (Washing). - Take five quarts of water, one-half pound of lime, one pound of sal-soda, and let it come to a boiling point; then settle, pour off and bottle. Use one and a half cups of this to a wash-

1 58 WIIA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO IK

injj: of five persons. Soak clothes in cold water over night. After piittiii>^ fluid in a boiler of cold water, let it come to a boiling point; put in clothes and bi)il half an hour. If any rubbing is necessary it will be very easy; then rinse in two waters. The above will not in- jure the clothes.

Fluted Reamer - to dip properly. - Dip it perpendicularly to a short distamc lieyond the fluting - that is to say, about half an inch and withdraw atul return it several times. This hardens all the lips, and prevents it cracking off at the water's edge, which is the case wluM a piece of steel is dipped in to a certain depth, and alK)wed to cool without moving.

F'uid (Washing). - Take one-half pound soda ash, and a half a pound of unshiked lime, and put them in a gallon of water; boil twenty miiuites; let it stand till cool, then drain off and put in a jug or jar. Soak your dirty clothes over night, or until they arc wet through, theti wring, and rub on plenty of soap on the dirtiest places, and, in one boiler of clothes, well covered with water, add one teacup- ful of the iluid; boil half an hour or more; rul) through one water, and rinse well, and your clothes will look better than by the old way of washing twice before boiling. This is the original recipe; but to economize, I put one quart of good lye, made from wood ashes, in tlio i)lace of soda ash, ami 1 ft)und that it was just as good, and cheaper.

Fly (Green) - to destroy. - The stems and leaves of the tomato are well l)oiled in water, and when the liquor is cold it is syringed over }>lanls attacked by insects. It at once destroys black or green fly, caterpillars, etc.; and it leaves behind a peculiar odor which prevents insects from coming again f(^r a long time. The author states that he found this remedy more effectual than fumigating, washing, etc. Through neglect, a house of camelias had become almost hopelessly infesteil with black lice, but two syringings with tomato plant decoc- tion thoroughly cleansed them.

Fly in Turnips - to prevent. - From experiments lately made, it has been ascertaineil that lime sown by hand, or distributed by a ma- chine, Is an infallible i)rotection to turnips against the ravages of this destructive insect. It should be applied as soon as the turnips come up. and in the same daily rotation in which they were sown. The lime should be slaked immediately before it is used, if the air be not sullicienlly moist to render that operation unnecessary.

Fly Paper. - Coat paper with turpentine varnish, and oil it to keep the varnish fiom drying.

Food for Singing Birds. - Blanched sweet almonds, pulverized, one-half pound; pea meal, one pound; ?saffron, three grains; yolks of two hanl boiled eggs. Reiluce all to a powder by rubbing through a sieve. Place the mixture in a frying-pan over a fire, and add two (umces butter and two ounces honey. Slightly cook for a few min- utes, stirring well, then set off to cool, and preserve in a closely corketi bottle.

W/IA T E VER V ONE SIIO Ul.D h'NO n . 159

Foot-bath.- Remember never to have the foot-bath so hot as to occasion a disaf^reeable sensation; this wouhl drive the blood to the head, instead of drawing it from it. If possible, when bathing the feet, have a warm bath for the hands also; the object being to bring the heat to the extremities.

Foot Sprains - remedy for. - The instej) is very liable to be sjirained, and so indeed are other parts of the foot. Whenever sprains occur, let the following simple remedy be tried, as it will frecjuently give relief. Grease the thumbs of both hands, or dip them in any soap liniment; then slide the fingers of each hand under the foot, at the same time press the sprained part with the thumbs as they move along. Continue this for a quarter of an hour, and, if necessary, re- peat the operation; increase the pressure of the thumbs very grad- ually, especially if there is nuich i)ain.

Forcing the Beard - liquid for. - Cologne, two (junces; li(]uid harts- horn, one dram; tincture cantharides, two drams; oil rosemary, twelve drops; lavender, twelve drops. Apply to the face daily and await results. Said to be reliiible.

Forest leaves - for stables and yards. - We do not thi^nk that farmers set as much value upon forest leaves as they should do. They possess many good qualities. They have a pleasant smell, ab- sorb the moisture, and through the winter are converted into excel- lent manure. They can be most conveniently gathered after the first snow, or at least bef(jre the wintry blasts have scattered them. They then lay compactly, and being moist can be handled with great facility. A cart with a few standards stuck in the sides will hold a considerable quantity, and the best thing to gather them or load them is a wooden hand rake; a wooden four lined straw fork is also very handy when the leaves are moist. They can be gathered-too when other labor about the farm is slack. There arc leaves, also, about the garden, yard and orchards, that should be gathered and used. They are good for covering vines, cabbage, and half hardy shrubbery after being laid down. They do not admit much moisture, and are excellent protection against frost.

Founder - remedy for. - Draw about a gallon of blood from the neck; then drench the horse with linseed oil, one quart; now rub the fore-legs long and well with water as hot as can be borne without scalding.

Fowls - how to select. - Common domestic fowk, when young, have the legs and combs smooth; when old, they are rough, and on the breast long hairs are found instead of feathers. Fowls and chick- ens should be plump on the breast, fat on the back, and white legged.

Fowl- to broil. - Split the fowl down the back; season it very well with pepi)er and put it on the gridiron, with the inner part next the fire, which nuist be very clear. Hold the gridiron at a considerable distance from the fire, and allow the fowl to remain until it is nearly half done; then turn it, taking great care that it does not burn; broil it of a fine brown, and serve it uj) with stewed mushrooms. A duck

i6o WHA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO W.

may be oroiled in the same way. If the fowl is very large, half roast it, then cut it into quarters, and finish it on the gridiron. It will take from half to three-quarters of an hour to cook.

Fo-wls - to fatten in a short time. - Mix together ground rice well scalded with milk, and add some coarse sugar. Feed them with this in the daytime, but not too much at once. Let it be rather thick. Chopped onions are excellent for all kinds of fowl, and quickly drive all kinds of vermin away.

Frames (gilt) - to clean. - When the gilt frames of pictures or looking-glasses, or the gilt molding of rooms, have got specks of dirt upon them, from flies or other causes, they can be cleaned with the white of egg, gently rubbed on with a camel's hair pencil.

Frangipanni. - Spirits, one gallon; oil bergamot, one ounce; oil of lemon, one ounce; macerate for four days, frequently shaking; then add water, one gallon; orange-flower water, one pint; essence of vanilla, tv/o ounces. Mix.

Freckles - to remove. - Those anxious to get rid of freckles can make a compound which commonly removes them if they will grate horseradish fine, let it stand a few hours in buttermilk, and strain it and use to wash night and morning. Or squeeze the juice of a lemon in a goblet of water and use in the same way. The regime should be attended to, and should be of such a nature that the bowels and kidneys will do their duty. Daily bathing, with much friction, should not be neglected, and the Turkish bath taken occasionally ^ if it is convenient.

Freckles - cure for. - Wash in fresh buttermilk every morning, and rinse the face in tepid water; then use a soft towel. Freckles may also be removed by applying to the face a solution of nitre and water. Another good wash for freckles is made by dissolving three grains of borax in five drams each of rose water and orange-flower water. There are many remedies for freckles, but there is none that will banish them entirely.

Freckles - to remove.- Take half a dram of muriate of ammonia, two drams of lavender, and half a pint of distilled water. Apply this mixture with a sponge two or three times a day.

Freckles and Tan - to remove. - Tincture of benzoin, one pint; tincture tolu, one-half pint; oil rosemary, one-half ounce. Put one teaspoonful of the above mixture in one-quarter pint of water, and with a towel wash the face night and morning.

Freckles and Sunburn. - After washing in cold water, use a little of the following lotion: Mix a tablespoonful of diluted muriatic acid with an ounce of rose-water, eight ounces of water, and one ounce of rectified spirits of wine.

Freezing Preparation. - Common sal-ammoniac, well pulverized, one part; saltpetre, two parts; mix well together. Then take com- mon soda, well pulverized. To use take equal quantities of these preparations (which must be kept separate and well covered previous to using) and put them in the freezing pot; add of water a proper

i6i

quantity, and put in the article to be frozen in a proper vessel; cover up, and your wants will soon be supplied. For freezing cream or wines this cannot be beat.

French Milk of Roses. - Two and one-half pints of rose-water, one-half pint of rosemary water, two ounces of tincture of storan, two ounces of tincture of benzoin, one-half ounce of esprit de rose. First mix the rose-water and rosemary water, and then add the other ingredients. This is a useful wash for the complexion.

Fresh-blown Flowers in Winter. - Choose some of the most per- fect buds of the flowers you wish to preserve, such as are latest in blooming and are ready to open; cut them off with a pair of scissors, leaving to each, if possible, a piece of stem about three inches long; cover the end of the stem immediately with sealing-wax, and when the buds are a little shrunk and wrinkled wrap each of them up separately in a piece of paper, perfectly clean and dry; then lock them up in a dry box or drawer, and they will keep without corrupt- ing. In winter, or at any time, when you would have the flowers blow, take the buds at night and cut off the end of the stem sealed with wax, and put the buds into water wherein a little nitre of salt has been diffused; the next day you will have the pleasure of seeing the buds open and expand themselves, and the flowers display their most lovely colors and breathe their agreeable odors.

Fritters (Orange), - One pound of flour, one pint o^ milk with a teaspoonful of salt in it, and one-quarter of a pound of melted butter, and three eggs beaten very light. Prepare four oranges by remov- ing the yellow rind and every particle of white pith; divide into small pieces without breaking the skin. In each spoonful of batter put a piece of orange, and fry a golden brown; sift powdered sugar over as soon as taken from the pan.

Frosting - ^for cake. - To the white of one ^^g beaten to a froth, add two heaping teaspoonfuls of corn-starch and as much dry pow- dered sugar as you can stir in. Bake your cake first, then make your frosting, then remove the cake from the baking pan and spread the frosting over the top of the loaf, making it smooth with a knife or spoon, and put it in a warm (not hot) oven until it hardens so that the frosting will not adhere to the finger in touching it, take it out, and put in a cool, dry place, and it will be hard enough to cut in if few hours. The above makes one loaf. I have no rule as to the quantity of sugar to be used.

Frosting (Chocolate). - Whites of three eggs, one and a half cups of sugar, one teaspoonful of vanilla, three heaping teaspoonfuls of scraped chocolate.

Frosting - ways to make. - To the white of one ^^^ allow one cup of sugar, and the same proportion for any number of eggs according to the quality of frosting to be done. Beat the mixture a great deal, and when the frosting remains in position, it is a test that it has been mixed enough. Fine granulated sugar gives a nicer gloss than pow- dered. If desired, add the juice of one lemon. The beating necessa-

i62

ry doper-ds upon the freshness of the eggs, and the strength and physical endurance of the mixer. The sugar must be added to the en^s very gradually, else too much will be added, and the frosting be too hard" The first frosting on cake should be put on when the cake is hot; it will then stick, as the frosting v>ill enter the pores of the cake. The second coating can be put on when the first is " set " or hard. Do not press hard against the cake, but simply spread lightly with a spoon. Mark into slices with the blade of a knife, but be sure the blade is tree of frosting every time it is drawn over the cake. The decorating frosting must be stiff er than that used for the simple cov- ering; this is done by adding more sugar. Ornamental frosting bags are made of a square piece of rubber cloth, placing the opposite cor- ners together and sewing up the side; keep the seam on the outside. Cut asmiill funnel-shaped tube in the small end of the bag, and put in the frosting; twist up the large end of the bag, and by pressing on the top the tlow of frosting can be regulated. Frosting bags cost sixty-two cents each at the stores, but a quarter of a yard of rubber cloth, costing twenty-five cents, will make four bags. The decorat- ing frosting will hr^rden in two hours. If any is left over, it will, if kept in an air-tight jar. do to use for the first frosting next time, but not for decorating.

Frosting - Vvith gelatine. - Dissolve a large pinch of gelatine in six tablespoonfuls of boiling water, strain, thicken with sugar and flavor with lemon. Enough for two cakes.

Frost-bites - treatment of. - For frost-bites, rub the affected parts with pure oil of peppermint. It will also prevent the after effect of chilblains. Care should be taken to use only the pure oil, and not the essence of peppennint, as the essence will not have the desired effect.

Frost Feet - to cure. - For frosted feet, mix together one ounce of turpentine and three-eighths of an ounce of oil of sassafras. Apply the solution morning and evening.

Frozen Limbs - cure for. - Dissolve from one-quarter to half a pound of alum in a gallon of warm water, and immerse the feet or hands in it when frozen, for ten or fifteen minutes, and a cure will be effected.

Fruit Trees - hints on pruning. - From an experience of nearly fifty years in pruning fruit trees, I would say my preference would be to prune in winter, and next to that, after the leaves are all out and as late as the middle of June. It is true that the wounds from winter pruning do not heal as rapidly as from summer pruning, but I cannot see, after all, but the winter-pruned trees heal as sound as the summer-pruned ones. In all cases of pruning I would recommend a coat of thick paint, or graft ing-wiix, to be spread over the wounds, especially when the limb cut is over an inch in diamatcr. I never could find any difference in the productiveness of fruit on account of different seasons of pruning. My motto is, low heads for all kinds of fruit trees, with an opening in the top of apple trees. Rhode Island

WIIA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 163

Greening trees do not need low heads at starting, as the lower limbs always incline toward the ground, and the top limbs never run high. Pear trees of most varieties should be headed back on the top or top limbs, as they frequently grow entirely too high, and the lower limbs are not often in the way. Peach trees need very little pruning, and I would not advise, while planting them, the cutting off of all limbs and the top, leaving nothing but a stump or cane with the roots; this is a common custom, or has been here, but this method has been weighed in the balance and found wanting. I allow the main stem of the peach to run up as far as it will, and try while the tree is small to form a symmetrical head. A very little trimming will accomplish this. Do not cut off large limbs from any kind of fruit or ornamental tree close to the trunk or large limb of the tree; if large limbs are cut, they should be cut one or two feet from the trunk or larger limb, and these stumps should be shortened in according as they will bear it, at two or three different times, within the space of from six to ten years. I know these stumps are unsightly, but I prefer health in trees to sight- liness. I have apple trees that were treated in this way over six years ago, and are not cut short enough yet, and the stumps have none of them died as far back as the trunk or limbs they were taken from. I know of quite a number of apple trees with the large limbs cut close (since mine were treated as above stated) that are now dead, caused by the rot eating into the trees from the close cr.ts, while my trees are in the best of health. The theory of this is, that the trees continue to grow as usual while the stump grows but very little, and the tree gets so much larger than the stump that the cutting of the stump affects the tree but very little.

Fruit Canning. - Those housekeepers who have not been success- ful in their atternpts at fruit canning, will find the following an excel- lent recipe: Place the fruit in either a granite, iron, or porcelain ket- tle; never use common iron, brass, or tin for this purpose. Allow it to boil for about five minutes. Have the jars in readiness, and stand- ing in a vessel of warm water, so that they may be heated gradually. Just before filling the jar with fruit, dip a towei in boiling water and wrap it around the jar, and tuck the corners under the bottom for the jar to rest upon. Fill the jar quickly, and when full, thrust a knife to the bottom and stir it around several times, and the air bubbles will rise to the top. Seal as tight as possible, and stand the jar on the top in a moderately cool place. In a few hours turn the jar up, and try to seal tighter, standing it again on the top. Continue this several times, or until the cover is tightly screwed on. Stand the jars in a cool, dark place in the cellar, looking at them occasionally for a few days.

Fruit (Canned) - to remove. - To any one so unfortunate as to be obliged to move, it may be of value to know that canned fruit may be transported without fear of loss, if the glass jars are securely packed in sawdust. This must be very firmly pressed down so that the jars cannot be moved by the jarring of the wagon or car.

i64 WHAT EVERY OKE SHOULD KNOW.

Fruit - to can -without cooking. - Heating the fruit tends more or less to the injury of the liavor, ami it has been found that by filling the jars with fruit, and then with pure cold water, and allowing them to stand until all the confined air has escaped, the fruit will, if then sealed perfectly, keep indefinitely, without change or loss of original flavor.

Fruit-jars - to prevent breaking. - Canning fruit is hot enough work without any hot water or hot jars around. Instead of this, wrap the jars with a towel saturated with cold water, and pour in your hot fruit. Any one who has not tried it will naturally say: " That is the sure wav to break the jars." I would say, just try one jar and see. We have canned hundreds of jars, one and two quarts, and have never broken one in filling. I can't explain why, but simply know that it is the fact.

Fruit-jars - to render air-tight. - When canning fruit have a cup of flour paste ready; if your rubbers are old, or the zinc rings or covers are bent a little, you may still make them air-tight with the paste. If you are at all doubtful about the condition of your can it is a good notion to use the paste.

Fruit-cans (Tin) - to utilize. - Perhaps one of the most appro- priate uses of an old fruit-can that can be devised is to make it con- tribute to the growth of new fruit to fill new cans. This is done in the following manner: The can is pierced with one or more pin holes, and then sunk into the earth near the roots of the strawberry or to- mato or other plants. The pin holes are to be of such size that when the can is filled with water the fluid can only escape into the ground very slowly. Thus a quart can. properly arranged, will extend its irrigation to the plant through a period of several days; the can is then refilled. Practical trials of this method of irrigation leave no doubt of its success. Plants thus watered flourish and yield the most bounteous returns throughout the longest droughts. In all warm localities, where water is scarce, the planting of old fruit-cans, as here indicated, will be found profitable as a regular gardening opera- tion.

Fruit - how to dry. - Pare and core peaches, pears, quinces, or citron; make a syrup flavored with lemon peel; boil the fruit till done; drain it in a colander and spread on dishes. Place in the sunshine or a moderately heated 'oven until nearly dry. Sprinkle with loaf sugar, dry a little more, then pack them in boxes and put in a cool place. Citron must be boiled in clear water till you can pierce it with a fork, and drained through a colander before it is put in the syrup; then let it boil until it is clear. Pour boiling water on the lemon rind and let it stand over night before flavoring the syrup with it, and it can be dried with the fruit.

Fruit Drying Hints. - Families of farmers engaged in drying fruits are reminded that the solar heat is not sutficiently intense to destroy insect eggs that may have been deposited in the fruit when green, or in the process of drying. If put in a moderately warm

WHA T E VER Y ONE SIIO ULD KNO W. 165

oven for ten minutes all parasites and their eggs would be destroyed. In countries where fruits are extensively dried the treatment is prac- ticed generally.

Fruit Extracts, etc. - how to make. - Good alcohol, one quart; oil of lemon, two ounces. Break and bruise the peel of four lemons, and add to them alcohol for a few days, then filter. For currants, peaches, raspberries, pine-apples, strawberries, blackberries, etc., take alcohol and water half and half, and pour over the fruit, entirely covering it, and let it stand for a few days. For essence of cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, vanilla, etc., pulverize either article thoroughly, and put about two ounces of the resulting powder to each pint of reduced alcohol, agitate the mixture frequently for two weeks, then filter and color as desired.

Fruits - to keep fresh. - Resin, two pounds; tallow, two ounces; beeswax, two ounces. Melt slowly over the fire in an iron pot, but don't boil. Take the fruit separately, and rub it over with pulverized chalk or whiting (to prevent the coating from adhering to the fruit), then dip it into the solution once, and hold it up a moment to set the coating, then pack away carefully in barrels, boxes, or on shelves, in a cool place. Unequaled for preserving apples, pears, lemons, etc.

Fruit Juice - to preserve -without heat. - Ingredients: Ten pounds of fresh-gathered, picked, red-ripe currants, or other fruit, two quarts cold water, five ounces tartaric acid, six pounds of coarse sifted sugar. Put the fruit in a large earthen pan, pour the water with the tartaric acid dissolved in it over the fruit, cover the pan with some kind of lid, and allow the whole to steep for twenty-four hours in a cold place, and it would be all the better if the pan containing the fruit could be immersed in rough ice. Next, pour the steeped fruit into a suspended stout flannel bag, and when all the juice has run through, tie up the open end of the bag, and place it on a large earthen dish, with another dish upon it; place a heavy weight upon this, to press out all the remaining juice, and then mix it with the other juice. You now put the sifted sugar into the juice, and stir both together occasionally, until the sugar is dissolved, and then bottle up the syrup, cork, and tie down the bottles with wire, and keep them in the ice well or in a cold cellar, in a reclining position.

Fruits - to pack for long distances. - Take a box of the proper size, soft paper, and sweet bran. Place a layer of bran on the bot- tom, then each bunch of grapes is held by the hand over a sheet of the paper; the four corners of the paper are brought up to the stalk and nicely secured; then laid on its side in the box, and so on until the first layer is finished. Then dust on a layer of bran, giving the box a gentle shake as you proceed. Begin the second layer as the first, and so on until the whole is full. The bloom of the fruit is thus preserved as fresh, at the end of a journey of five hundred miles, as if they were newly taken from the tree. Never fails to preserve grapes, peaches, apricots, and other fruit.

Fruit - to preserve without sugar. - Fill some stone wide-mouthed

i66 WHA T E VER V OA'E SHO ULD KNO W.

bottles with the fruit carefully picked, and set them in a copper or large kettle; then fill the kettle with cold water nearly up to the mouths of the bottles. Corks should be prepared to fit the bottles, and a cloth should be put under the bottoms of the bottles to prevent their cracking with the heat. Light the fire under the kettle, and heat the water to one hundred and sixty or one hundred and seventy degrees. This heat should be continued for half an hour, when the fruit will be sufficiently scalded; after that, fill up the bottles with boiling water to within an inch of the cork, and cork them tightly. Lay the bottles on their sides; change the position of the bottles once or twice a week during the first tAvo months, turning them round to prevent any fermentation that might take place. Fruits could also be kept by the process mentioned above for meats, remembering that they are to be scalded only, not boiled, as in the case with meats.

Fruit Trees - to clear from insects. - In three or four gallons of water, mix one-half pound of tobacco, one-half pound of sulphur, one- quarter peck of unslaked lime. Sj^ringe the trees well with this mix- ture, and it will effectually destroy blight.

Fruit Trees - to preserve. - Fruit trees caa be pruned at any time, provided only small limbs or twigs have to be cut. The rule should be to so prune the trees that no large limbs would have to be cut. Cuts made in June wuU heal sooner than at any other time, but it requires more care at that time, as the bark peels so easily.

Fruit Pests - to drive away. - At a time when fruit trees are blos- soming, and when the sparrows and bull-finches have commenced their annual raids upon them, the French have a way of driving away these diminutive plagues. This consists of lime-washing the trees. When thus whitened, the birds disappear, and there is no further oc- casion to dread their attacks.

Fuel - economy in using. - The best of all means of saving fuel is the following: Cut a piece of sheet-iron one eighth of an inch thick, of a shape and size to reach within one inch of each side of the grate bottom, and to project one and a half inches in the front. Lay this over the bottom grating. In making the fire, half fill the grate with coals; then put some shavings or paper, and over this some sticks or bits of charcoal. On the top lay a few of yesterday's cinders, and finally some pieces of coal, not shoveled on, but carefully laid by hand. Many servants will ridicule thus lighting a fire " at the top," and will tell you the fire will not "catch" downwards through the coal. But try it, and you will find that this plan not only saves an incredible quantity of coal, but that it saves the housemaid trouble, and the room is far better warmed. The fire is to be replenished at the bottom, by putting pieces on the ledge and pushing, them in, also wherever an opening occurs among the live coals, but never on the top. The shovel and poker must be discarded, and only tongs used.

Fungi - to preserve. - Take two ounces of sulphate of copper, or blue vitriol, and reduce it to powder, and pour upon it a pint of boil- ing water, and when cold, add half a pint of spirits of wine; cork it

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 167

well, and call it "the pickle." To eight pints of water add one pint and a half of spirits of wine, and call it " the liquor." Be provided with a number of wide-mouthed bottles of different sizes, all well fitted Vv^ith corks. The fungi should be left on the table as long as possible, to allow the moisture to evaporate; they should then be placed in the pickle for three hours, or longer if necessary; then place them in the bottles intended for their reception, and fill with the liquor. They should then be well corked and sealed, and arranged in order with their names in front of the bottles.

Furniture - to remove finger marks from. - Sweet oil will re- move finger marks from varnished furniture, and kerosene from oiled furniture. Patient rubbing with chloroform will remove paint from black silk or any other goods, and will not hurt the most delicate color or fabric.

Furniture - to clean. - An old cabinet maker says the best prepara- tion for cleaning picture frames and restoring furniture, especially that somewhat marred or scratched, is a mixture of three parts lin- seed oil and one part spirits of turpentine. It not only covers the disfigured surface, but restores wood to its natural color, and leaves a luster upon its surface. Put on with a woolen cloth, and when dry, rub with woolen.

Furniture - to remove bruises from. - Wet the part in warm water; double a piece of brown paper five or six times, soak in warm water, and lay it on the place; apply on that a warm, but not hot, flat-iron till the moisture is evaporated. If the bruise be not gone, repeat the process. After two or three applications the dent will be raised to the surface. If the bruise be small, merely soak it with warm Avater, and hold a red-hot iron near the surface, keeping the surface con- tinually wet - the bruise will soon disappear.

Furniture (Carved) - to clean. - The best duster with which to clean carved furniture is a new paint brush; it will remove all the dust with it.

Furniture - to remove marks from. - To take marks off varnished furniture, wet a sponge in common alcohol camphor, and apply it freely to the furniture. It has nearly, if not quite, the same effect that varnish has, and is much cheaper. �

Furniture - to remove white stains from. - Have ready three pieces of woolen cloth, with one well dipped in lamp oil (or if that is not convenient, linseed oil,) rub the spot briskly, v/et the second with alcohol and apply to oily surface, rubbing quickly, as too much alco- hol will destroy the varnish, and finally polish with the third cloth, moistened with oil or furniture polish.

Furniture Polish. - For -a polish to clean up and brighten old furniture, pianos, etc., dissolve four ounces orange shellac in one quart of ninety-five per cent, alcohol; to this add one quart of linseed oil, and one pint turpentine; when mixed add four ounces of sul- phuric ether, and four ounces of aqua ammonia; mix thoroughly and

i6S IV HA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO IF.

well before using. Apply with a cloth or sponge, and rub the surface to which it is applied until the polish appears.

Furs - to clean - For dark furs: warm a quantity of new bran in a pan, taking care that it docs not burn, to prevent which it must be briskly stirred. When well warmed, rub it thoroughly into the fur with the hand. Repeat this two or three times, then shake the fur, and give it another sharp brushing until free from dust. For white furs: lay them on a table, and rub well with bran made moist with warm water; rub until quite dry, and afterward with dry bran. The wet bran should be put on with flannel, then dry with book muslin. Light furs, in addition to the above, should be well rubbed with mag- nesia or a piece of book muslin, after the bran process, agaii^st the way of the fur. Soiled white fur can be nicely cleaned by rubbing it thoroughly in white flour. It should then be hung out of doors for abtuit thirty minutes. Repeat the process several times, and the fur will be cqaial to new.

Furs - to dye. - Any dye that will color wool will also color furs. In buying furs, examine the density and length of the down next the skin; this can easily be done by blowing briskly against the set of the fur; if it is very close and dense, it is all right, but if it opens easily and exposes much of the skin, reject it.

Furs - to preserve. - Any of the following recipes may be used: i. Lay up along with the furs to be preserved a tallow candle.

2. Take out the furs from the drawer, etc., frequently, beat them well, expose them to the air, and scent the box where they are kept with spirits of turpentine, camphor, Russia leather, or cedar wood.

3. Pepper them well before putting them away.

4. Wash them over with a very weak solution of corrosive subli- mate. If this solution leave a white powder on the fur when dry, it is too strong; ten grains to the pint will be enough.

Furs - to revive. - Thoroughly sprinkle every part with hot flour and sand, and brush well wath a hard brush. Then beat with a cane; comb it smooth with a wet comb, and press it carefully with a warm iron. For ermine use plaster of Paris instead of Hour and sand, and treat in the same way.

Galls - from saddle or harness - to heal. - White lead and linseed oil, mixed as for paint, is unrivaled for healing saddle, harness, or collar galls and bruises. -Try it, applying with a brush. It soon forms an air-tight coating and soothes the pain, powerfully assisting nature.

Gcmc - to improve the flavor of. - Game of any kind which has been kept too long to be pleasant, which is frequently the case with grouse, may be very much improved by being placed for a night in milk, so as to soak thoroughly, after they have been picked, drawn, and washed clean in warm water. The game will cook a great deal better for the soaking, and the high flavor be much diminished.

Game - to remove fishy taste from. - Pare a fresh lemon very carefully without breaking the thin white inside skin; put inside a

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. i6g

wild duck and keep it there forty-eight hours, and all the fishy taste so disagreeable in wild fowl will be removed. Every twelve hours remove the lemon and replace with a fresh one. A lemon thus pre- pared will absorb unpleasant flavors from all meats and game.

Gapes in Chickens - to remove. - Camphor pills will cure a chicken of the gapes. No medicine can reach them unless it does so by vapor. An hour after the chicken has swallowed the pill it smells of camphor. Camphor is a very strong vermifuge, and the worms die.

Gapes in Fowls - to cure. - The parasite that causes gapes in fowl is of a red color and about three-quarters of an inch long. The reme- dies are numerous, but chiefly consist in removing the worms. One way is to moisten a feather from which all but the tip of the web has been stripped, with, oil, salt water, or a weak solution of carbolic acid, introduce it into the windpipe, twist it around once or twice, and then withdraw it. A teaspoonful of sulphur mixed with a quart of corn meal and water, and fed to the fowls morning and evening, is also a good remedy.

Garden (Hanging) - to make. - A hanging garden of sponge is one of the latest novelties in gardening. Take a white sponge of large size, and sow it full of rice, oats, or whe?t. Then place it for a week or ten days in a shallow dish; and, as the sponge will absorb the moisture, the seeds will begin to sprout before many days. When this has fairly taken place, the sponge may be suspended by means of cords from a hook in top of the v/indow, where a little sun will enter. It will thus become a living mass of green, lequiring a little occasion- al moisture.

Gardeners - hints to. - The handles of pruning knives, and all other impliments liable to be lost, should be painted of a bright red. The handles of knives and other small tools are usually of a color so near that of the soil, or that of the branches of trees and vines, that it is not easy to find them, if misplaced.

Gargling Oil (Merchants'). - Take two and a half gallons linseed oil, two and a half gallons spirits of turpentine, one gallon western petroleum, eight ounces liquor potass, one ounce sap green, mix all together, and it is ready for use.

Gargle - for sore throat. - i. A large tablespoonful of salt to half a tumbler of water, used as a gargle for sore throat just before mea! time, is an excellent remedy for such complaint. A little red pepper should be added if the salt water does not prove successful. Red pepper, honey or sugar, and sharp vinegar, simmered together, and then tempered with water so as not to be too strong, is a good reme- dy easily obtained.

2. For sore throat, three drops of carbolic acid in a tablespoonful of water, used freely as a gargle, is a simple remedy one can keep in the house, and saves many a doctor's bill.

Garget in Cows - cure for. - It is said that eight drops of tincture of aconite dropped on a piece of bread and mixed with the food at

I70

night, and next morning four drops more given in the same manner, will generally complete the cure of garget in cows.

Garments (White Knitted) to clean. - Take those not needing w^ashing, being only slightly soiled, place them in a pillow-case, one at a time, sprinkle flour through it, and shake well, until it looks as bright as new. Borax is excellent to wash flannels with, dissolved in lukewarm water.

Gas-meter - to prevent from freezing. - Half a pint of gooc glycerine is said to prevent the freezing of one gallon of water, though at least double the proportion is preferable in the country, whatever the temperature in the winter may happen to be.

Geese - how to select. - In old birds the bills and feet are red, in young ones they are yellow. When fresh killed, the feet are pliable; when long kept, they become quite stiff. It is said that geese will thrive better, and their flesh be more delicately flavored if fed upon raw potatoes, than upon any other substance.

Gems. - One ^^^ well beaten, one cup sweet milk, a little salt, and sufficient Graham flour to form a rather stiff batter, will make excel- lent gems. The gem-pans must be heated well, greased thoroughly, then filled even full with the batter, and put into a very hot oven to bake quickly.

Gems (Corn). - One scant pint of meal, two tablespoonfals of sugar, a teaspoonful of salt, and a generous pint of boiling milk. Stir thoroughly and let stand until cool, then stir in three beaten eggs, and bake in buttered gem-pans.

Gems (Graham). - i. Get fine Graham flour which you know to be made of the whole wheat, with the skin cut fine instead of being in large flakes. Into a dish of pure, cold, fresh water, say one quart, stir this flour, sifting in with one hand, and stirring with a spoon in the other, until it is a little too thick to settle flat when you stop stir- ring. Have your French roll-pans hot, fill them v/ith the batter, put them at once into a hot oven and bake them on the top first. This prevents the escape of the air, by the expansion of which they are made light. After ten or fifteen minutes place on the bottom of the oven and bake as much longer, or till they are done, when they will readily loosen from the pan. Serve warm or cold.

2. One pint sweet milk, stir in Graham flour until the batter is a little thicker than for griddle cakes; add salt, one teaspoonful of sugar, and one egg well beaten. Cast-iron gem-pans are best. Grease and make very hot before the batter is put in; bake immedi- ately, in a hot oven.

3. To one pint of sour milk take one ^gz, one spoonful of sugar, well beaten, and one teaspoonful of soda, and good fresh Graham flour enough to make a stiif batter. To be baked in iron gem-pans with a quick, hot fire. They will be delicious, light, puft'y, and tender.

Gentian - medical uses of. - Gentian is an excellent tonic and stomachic; but when given in large doses, it acts as an aperient. It

IVHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W, ijt

fs used internally in all cases of general debility, and, when com- bined with bark, is used in intermittent fevers. It has also been em- ployed in indigestion, and it is sometimes used, combined with volatile salt, in that disease; but at other times alone, in the form of infusion. After diarrhoea it proves a useful tonic. Used externally, its infusion is sometimes applied to foul ulcers. Dose: Of the infu- sion, one and a half to two ounces; of the tincture, one to four drams; or the extract, from ten to thirty grains.

Geraniums (Scarlet) - to preserve the old plants through the winter. - Take them out of the borders in autumn, before they have received any injury from frost, and let this be done on a dry day. Shake off all the earth from their roots, and suspend them, with their heads downward, in a cellar or dark room, where they will be free from frost. The leaves and shoots will become yellow and sickly; but when potted about the end of May, and exposed to a gentle heat, they will recover and vegetate luxuriantly. The old plants, stripped of their leaves, may also be packed closely in sand; and in this way, if kept free from frost, they will shoot out from the roots, and may be repotted in the spring.

German Paste - useful food for singing-birds. - Take one pint of pea-flour, in which rub a new-laid egg; then add two ounces of fresh lard and three ounces of honey or treacle; continue to rub this well, so as to prevent its being in large lumps; when got to a fine powder, put it into a clean earthen pipkin, and place it over a slow and clear fire, until warmed through, stirring it all the while to prevent its burning. When sufficiently hot take it off and pass it through a fine wire sieve; then add about two ounces of maw-seed, and if hemp- seed is thought essential, give the small Russian whole, in preference to the common sort bruised, as it only tends to bring on the husk or dry cough. Birds will eat it whole, and it will do them equal good,- and prevent nasty and troublesome complaints, which oftentimes stop them when in full song, until they bring up the small particles of the hulls of the bruised hempseed.

Gherkins. - Take small cucumbers (not young), steep for a week in very strong brine; it is then poured off, heated to the boiling point, and again poured on the fruit. The next day the gherkins are drained on a sieve, wiped dry, put into bottles or jars, with some spice, gin- ger, pepper, or cayenne, and at once covered with strong pickling vinegar.

Gilt Cornices - to clean. - Wash them well with warm milk, and polish them with a soft wash-leather.

Gilding China and Glass. - Powdered gold is mixed with borax and gum-water, and the solution applied with a camel's-hair pencil. Heat is then applied by a stove until the borax fuses, when the gold is fixed and afterward burnished.

Gilding - to clean. - Remove all dust with a soft brush ; then wash the gilding lightly and rapidly with warm water in which an onion has been boiled. Dry it by rubbing with soft cloths.

I ;3 U'JIA T � VER Y OXE SHO ULD KNO IK

Gilt Frames - to clean. - When the gilt frames of pictures or look- ing-glasses, or the moldings of rooms, have specks of dirt upon them from flies or other causes, they may be cleaned with white of egg, laid on with a camel's-hair pencil.

Gilt Frames - to brighten. - Take sufficient flour of sulphur to give a golden tinge to about one and one-half-pints of water, and in this boil four or live bruised onions, or garlic, which will answer the same purpose. Strain off the liquid, and with it, when cold, wash with a soft brush any gilding which requires restoring, and when dry it will come out as bright as new work.

Gilt Frames - reviver for. - White of eggs, two ounces; chloride of potash or soda, one ounce; mix well; blow off the dust from the frames; then go over them with a soft brush dipped in the mixture, and they will appear equal to new.

Gilding Liquid.- - Take of fine gold, five ounces (troy); nitro-mu- riatic acid, fifty-two ounces; dissolve by heat, and continue the heat until red or yellow vapors are evolved; decant the liquid into a proper vessel; add of distilled water, four gallons; pure bicarbonate of potash, twenty pounds; boil for two hours.

Gilding - without a battery. - Clean the silver or other article to be gilded with a brush and a little ammonia water, until it is evenly bright and shows no tarnish. Take a small piece of gold and dissolve it in about four times its volume of metallic mercury, which will be accomplished in a few minutes, forming an amalgam. Put a little of the amalgam on a piece of dry cloth, rub it. on the article to be gilded. Then place on a stone in a furnace, and heat to the beginning of red- ness. After cooling, it must be cleaned with a brush and a little cream of tartar, and a beautiful and permanent gilding will be found.

Gilding on Wood. - To giid in oil, the wood after being properly prepared is covered with a coat of gold size, made of drying linseed oil mixed with yellow ochre; when this has become so dry as to ad- here to the fingers without soiling them, the gold leaf is laid on with great care and dexterity and pressed down with cotton wool; places that have been missed are covered with small pieces of gold leaf, and when the whole is dry, the ragged bits are rubbed of! with the cotton. This is by far the easiest mode of gilding; any other metallic leaves may be applied in a similar manner. Pale leaf gold has a greenish yellow color, and is an alloy of gold and silver. Dutch gold leaf is only copper leaf colored with the fumes of zinc; being much cheaper than true gold leaf, it is very useful when large quantities of gilding are required in places where it can be defended from the weather, as it changes color if exposed to moisture, and it should be covered with varnish. Silver leaf is prepared every way the same as gold leaf; but when applied should be kept well covered with varnish, other- wise it is liable to tarnish; a transparent yellow varnish will give it the appearance of gold. Whenever gold is fixed by means of linseed oil, it will bear washing off, which burnished gold will not.

Ginger Snaps. - One cup of lard, one cup of molasses, one cup of

173

sugar, one teaspoonful of ginger, one teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a little water. Boil the sugar, molasses and lard five minutes; let it cool, then add the other ingredients, and flour to make stiff; bake in a quick oven and keep in a dry, open place.

Glass - how to cut. - It is not generally known that glass may be cut, under water, with a strong pair of scissors. If a round or oval be required, take apiece of common window glass, draw the shape upon it in a black line; sink it with your left hand under water as deep as you can without interfering with the view of the line, and with your right use the scissors to cut away what is not required.

Another way is to dip a worsted thread in spirits of turpentine, and tie it close round the glass where it is intended to be cut; then set fire to the thread, and, while it is burning, plunge the glass into cold water, or well wet the thread with it. The glass will break easily in the direction of the thread.

Glass and China^ - to drill. - To drill china use a copper drill and emery, moistened with spirits of turpentine. To drill glass, use a steel drill tempered as hard as possible and camphor and water as a lubricant. Moisten the tool Avith dilute sulphuric acid. This last is better than turpentine.

Glasses - hints upon using. - Persons finding their eyes becoming dry and itching on reading as well as those who find it necessary to place an object nearer than fourteen inches from their face to read, need spectacles. Persons under forty years of age should not wear glasses until the accommodating power of the eyes has been sus- pended and the exact state of refraction determined by a competent ophthalmic surgeon. The spectacle glasses sold by peddlers and by jewelers generally are hurtful to the eyes of those who read much, as the lenses are made of inferior sheet glass and are not symmetrically ground. No matter how perfectly the lenses may be made, unless they are mounted in a suitable frame and properly placed before the eye, discomfort will arise from their prolonged use.

There are three systems of grading spectacle lenses, the English, the metric and the Prussian. Those made to supply the demands of the trade in this country are carelessly made, and are poor imitations of either the English or the metrical system. The metrical scale has no English equivalent, is not graded by any uniform rule of dividing the inter-focal spaces, and is therefore unsuited to the exacting de- mands of science.

Persons holding objects too near the face endanger the safety of their eyes, and incur the risk of becoming near-sighted.

The near-sighted eye is an unsound eye, and should be fully cor- rected with a glass, notwithstanding the fact it may need no aid for reading. The proper time to begin wearing glasses is just as soon as the eyes tire on being subjected to prolonged use.

Glass (Imitation Ground). - i. Dissolve ninety grains of sandarac and twenty grains of mastic in two ounces of washed ether, and add, in small quantities, a sufficiency of benzine to make it dry with a suit-

174 ir^^^i T EVERY ONE SHOULD KNOW.

able grain - too little making the varnish too transparent, and excess makes it crapcy. The quantity of benzine required depends upon its quality - from one-half to one and one-half ounces, or even more, but the best results are got with a medium quality. It is important to use washed ether, free from spirit.

2. To make imitation ground glass that steam will not destroy, put a piece of putty in muslin, twist the fabric tight and tie it into the shape of a pad; well clean the glass first, and then putty it all over. The putty will exude sufficiently through the muslin to render the stain opaque. Let it dry hard; and then varnish. If a pattern is re- quired, cut it out in paper as a stencil, place it so as not to slip and proceed as above, removing the stencil when finished. If there should be any objection to the existence of the clear spaces, clear with slightly opaque varnish. In this way very neat and cheap signs may be painted on glass doors.

Glass Stoppers - to loosen. - Put one or two drops of sweet oil rouTul the stopper, close to the mouth of the bottle; then put it a little distance from the fire. When the decanter gets warm, have a wcioden instrument with a cloth wrapped tightly round it; then strike the stopper, first on one side, then on the other; by persevering a little while, you will most likely get it out. Or you may lay the bottle in warm water, so that the neck of the stopper may be under water. Let it soak for a time, then knock it with a wooden instrument as be- fore. To remove a glass stopper, drop some glycerine in the sur- rounding crevice, antl after an hour or two it will loosen.

Glass Tubes - to bend. - Hold the tube in the upper part of the flame of a spirit-lamp, revolving it slowly between the fingers; when red hot it may be easily bent into any desired shape. To soften large tubes a lamp w'ith a double current of air should be used, as it gives a much stronger heat than the simple lamp.

Glass - to prevent cracking. - i. While pouring \-ery hot water into a tutnblcr, or i>ther glass vessel, never hold the tumbler in your hand, but leave it on a tray or table. It is advisable also to warm the glass before using it, and to keep a spoon in it during the time of pouring. These are the best methods to prevent the cracking of the glass.

2. Place your tumblers, chimneys, or vessels which you desire to keep from cracking in a pot filled with cold water and a little cooking salt; allow the mixture to boil well over a fire, and then cool slowly. Glass treated in this way is said not to crack, even if exposed to very sudden changes of temperature. Chimneys become very durable by this process, which may also be extended to crockery, stoneware, por- celain, etc. The process is simply one of annealing, ami the slower the process, especially the cooling portion of it, the more cfTective will be the work.

Glass ^Soluble). - Take of pure sand, fifteen parts; charcoal, one pari; and purified potash, ten parts. Mix and heat in a fireproof melting-pot for five hours, or until the whole fuses uniformly. Take

WIIA T E VER V OA^E SHO ULD KNO W, 175

out tl]c melted mass; and, when cold, powder it and dissolve it in boilinfi^ water.

Glass - to ornament. - In niakinpf scrolls, eagles, etc., on glass, some painters put on the outlines and shades first, and then lay the gold leaf over all; another good way is to scratch the shades on to the gold leaf after it is dry, and put the colors on the back of the gol(l. Silver leaf may be used in the same manner as gold, but it will not wear as well. A very pretty letter may be made l)y incorpo- rating silver with gold: take paper and cut any fancy design to fit the parts of the letter; stick it on the size before laying the leaf, allowing it to dry and wash off as before; then with a i)enknife raise the paper figure, and the exact shape or form of the figure will be found cut out of (he gold letter; clean off nicely, apply more size, and lay silver leaf to cover the vacant spots; wash off when dry, and a very hand- some letter will be the result. Colors may be used instead of silver, if desired, or a silver letter edged or "cut up" with gold, will look well

Glass and Porcelain Gilding. - Dissolve in linseed oil an equal weight either o{ copal or amber; add as much oil of turpentine as will enable you to apply the compound or size thus formed, as thin as possible, to the parts of the glass intended to be gilt. The glass is to be placed in a stove till it will almost burn the fingers when handled; at this temperature the size becomes adhesive, and a piece oi gold leaf, applied in the usual way, will immediately stick. Sweep off the supcrlluotis portions of the leaf, and when quite cold it may be bur- nished; taking care to interpose a piece of India paper between the gold and the burnisher.

Glass Powder. - To reduce glass to a fine powder, first heat it in a furnace to a slightly red heat; then throw it into cold water for a few minutes; dry it, and after this preparation it may readily be beaten to a fine powder. �*

Glass - to drill and ornament. - Glass can be easily drilled by a steel drill, hardened but not drawn, and driven at a high velocity. Holes of any size, from the sixteenth of an inch upward, can be drilled, by using spirits of turpentine as a drip ; and, easier still, by using camphor with the turpentine. Do not press the glass very h.ard against the drill. If you require to ornament glass by turning in a lathe, use a goo

Glass - grinding for signs, shades, etc. - After you have etched a name or other design upon uncolored glass, and wish to have it show off to better advantage by permitting the light to i)ass only through the letters, you can do so by taking a piece of flat brass sufficiently large not to dip into the letters, but pass over them when gilding upon the surface of the glass; then, with flour of emery, and keeping it wet, you can grind the whole surface, very quickly, to look like the ground glass globes often seen upon lamps, except the letter, which is eaten below the general surface.

176 IVHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO JF.

Gloss on Linen - to produce. - Put boiling water in a vessel, and add pieces of white wax and spermaceti about the size of a half dol- lar, boil well together, and then remove from the fire and add starch m.ixcd with cold water. Stir well while mixing, and put it back on the fire, boil two or three minutes, stirring well. Rub well into the clothes, and when ironing, use a common iron, and then take a damp 'oth, wrung out well in hot water, and rub over the shirt and collar, . ad use the polisher right away, and I can really say you will have as liicc a polish as any one could wish for.

Gloss on Black Silk - to remove. - When the gloss is caused by constant wear, moisten the silk with a sponge, lay a damp cloth over it, and pass a hot iron quickly over the cloth several times till it is quite dry.

Gloves (Kid) - to clean. - i. Make a thick mucilage by boiling a handful of flax-seed, add a little dissolved soap, then when the mix- ture cools; with a piece of white flannel wipe the gloves, previously fitted to the hand; use only enough of the cleaner to take off the dirt, without wetting through the glove.

2. A simple method of cleaning white or light-colored kid gloves, is to dip a bit of flannel in a lather made of milk and curd-soap, and gently rub the gloves till the soils disappear; a wooden mold of a hand of suitable size greatly facilitates this operation, but if you have none, you must put the glove on your own hand.

Gloves (Black Kids) - to clean. - To clean black kid gloves take a teaspoonful of salad oil, drop a few drops of ink in it, and rub it over the gloves with the tip of a feather; then let them dry in the sun.

Glue Directions. - Good glue should be of a light brown color, semi-transparent, and free from waves or cloudy lines. Glue loses much of its strength by frequent melting; therefore, glue which is newly made is preferable to that which has been re-boiled. The hot- ter the glue the better the joint. In all large and long joints it should be applied immediately after boiling. Emploj' pressure until it is set or hardened.

Glue (Bank-note). - Dissolve one pound of fine glue or gelatine in water; evaporate it till moLL of the water is expelled; add half a pound of brown sugar, and pour it into molds.

Glue (Fire and Waterp-oof). - Mix a handful of quick-lime with four ounces of linseed oil; thoroughly lixiviate the mixture; boil it to a good thickness, and spread it in thin plates in the shade; it will be- come very hard, but can be dissolved over a lire, like common glue, and is then fit for use.

Glue (Family). - Crack the glue and put it in a bottle, add common whisky, shake up, cork tight, and in three or four days it can be used. It requires no heating, Avill keep for almost any length of time, and is at all times ready to use, except in the coldest of weather, when it v.-ill require warming. It must be kept tight, so that the Vv'hisky v;ill not evaporate. The usual corks or stoppers should not be used. It

WffA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 177

will become clogged. A tin stopper, covering the bottles, but fitting as closely as possible, must be used.

Glue - for inlaying or veneering-. - Select the best light brown glue, free from clouds or streaks. Dissolve this in water, and to every pint add half a gill of the best vinegar and half an ounce of isinglass.

Glue - for labelling on metals. - Boiling water, one quart; pulver- ized borax, two ounces; gum shellac, four ounces. Boil till dissolved. Use for attaching labels to metals, or it will do to write inscriptions with, and dust or dab on a little bronze powder over it, varnishing over the bronze.

Glue (Liquid). - i. In a wide-mouthed bottle dissolve eight ounces of best glue in half pint of water, by setting it in a vessel of water and heating it till dissolved; then add slowly, constantly stirring, two and a half ounces of strong aquafortis (nitric acid). Keep it well corked, and it will be ready for use. It is a handy and valuable com- position, as it does not gelatinize, nor undergo putrefaction and fer- mentation, and become offensive, and is always ready for use.

2. Dissolve one part of powdered alum in a hundred and twenty parts of water; add one hundred and twenty parts of glue, ten of acetic acid, and forty of alcohol, and digest. Prepared glue is made by dissolving common glue in warm water, and then adding acetic acid (strong vinegar) to keep it. Dissolve one pound of best glue in one and a half pints of water, and add one pint of vinegar. It is then ready for use.

3. To one ounce of borax in a pint of boiling water, add two ounces of shellac, and boil till the shellac is dissolved.

4. A useful glue for fastening papers together only by being wetted by the tongue, is made as follows: Dissolve one pound of glue or gelatine in water, add half a pound of brown sugar, and boil them to- gether. Make into cakes by pouring into shapes. It becomes solid when cold.

Glue - to manufacture. - This article is usually made from the parings and waste pieces of hides and skins, the refuse of tanneries, the tendons and other offal of slaughter houses. They ought to be obtained and kept in the dry state, to prevent decomposition. For use, they are first steeped for fourteen or fifteen days in milk of lime, ind then drained and dried; this constitutes the cleaning or the pre- paration. Before conversion into glue they are usually steeped in weak milk of lime, well worked in water, and exposed to the air for twenty-four hours. They are then placed in a copper boiler two- thirds filled with water and furnished with a perforated false bottom, to prevent them from burning, and as much is piled on as will fill the vessel and rest on the top of it. Heat is next applied, and gentle boiling continued until the liquor on cooling becomes a gelatinous mass. The clear portion is then run off into another vessel, where it is kept hot by a water bath, and allowed to repose for some hours to deposit, when it is run into the congealing boxes and placed in a cool situation. The next morning the cold gelatinous mass is turned

I7S IF7/A T EVERY ONE SHOULD KNOW.

out upon boards wetted with water, and are cut horizontally in thin cakes with a stretched piece of brass wire, and into smaller cakes with a moistened flat knife. These cakes are placed upon nettings to dry, after which they are dipped one by one into hot water and slightly rubbed with a brush wetted with boiling water, to give them a gloss; they are lastly stove-dried for sale. During this time the undissolved skins, etc., left in the copper is treated with water and the whole operation is repeated again and again, as long as any gelatinous matter is extracted. The first runnings produce the finest and best glue. The refuse matter from the tanners and leather dressers yields on the average, when dried, fifty per cent, of its weight in glue.

Glue (Marine). - i. India rubber, one part; coaltar, twelve parts; heat gently; mix, andadd twenty parts of powdered shellac; pour out to cool; when used, heat to about two hundred and fifty degrees.

2. Glue, twelve parts; water suflicient to dissolve; add yellow resin, three parts; melt; then add turpentine, four parts; mix thorough- ly together

Glue - to resist moisture. - Glue, five parts; resin, four parts; red ochre, tw(^ parts; mix with smallest possible quantity of water.

Glue (Parchment). - Parchment shavings, one pound; water, six quarts. Boil till dissolved, strain and evaporate to right consist- ency.

Glue (Portable) - for draughtsmen. - Glue, five ounces; sugar, two ounces; water, eight ounces; melt in a water bath; cast it in molds. For use dissolve in warm water.

Glue - to prevent cracking. - To prevent glue from cracking when dry, adil al)out one tablespoonful of glycerine to a pint of solution while it is hot.

Glue (Waterproof). - i. Boil one pound of common glue in two cjuarts of skinmRHl milk. This withstands the action of the weather.

2. Melt common glue with the smallest possible quantity of water; add, by degrees, linseed oil, rendered drying by boiling with litharge. While the oil is being added, the ingredients must be well stirred, to incorporate them thoroughly.

Glycerine Preparation. - New rum, one quart; concentrated spirits of ammonia, fifteen drops; glycerine oil, one ounce; lac sulphur, five and one-half drams; sugar of lead, five and one-half drams; put the liquor into a bottle; add the ammonia, then the other components. Shake the compound occasionally for four or five days.

Gold Articles - to restore color. - Tarnished gold colored articles may be restored by the following method: Dissolve one ounce of bi- carbonate of soda, one-half an ounce of chloride of lime, and one-half an ounce of common salt in about four ounces of boiling water. Take a clean brush, and wash the article with the hot solution for a few seconds and rinse immediately in two clean waters. Dry in warm sawdust, and finally rub over with tissue paper.

Gold - artificial.- This is a new metallic alloy which is now very extensively used in France as a substitute for gold. Pure copper,

WHA T E VER Y ONE SIIO ULD KNO W, lyg

one hundred "parts: zinc, or, preferably, tin, seventeen parts; mag- nesia, six parts; sal-ammoniac, three-sixths parts; quick-lime, one- eighth part; tartar of commerce, nine parts; are mixed as follows: The copper is melted first, and the magnesia, sal-ammoniac, lime and tartar are then added separately, and by degrees, in the form of pow- der; he whole is now briskly stirred for about half an hour, so as to .nix horoughly; and then the zinc is added in small grains by throw- ing it on the surface, and stirring till it is entirely fused; the crucible is then covered, and the fusion maintained for about thirty-five min- utes. The surface is then skimmed, and the alloy is ready for cast- ing. It has a fine grain, is malleable, and takes a splendid polish. It docs not corrode readily, and for many purposes is an excellent sub- stitute for gold. When tarnished, its brilliancy can be restored by a little acidulated water. If tin be employed instead of zinc, the alloy will be more brilliant.

Gold-fish - hints on. - Where gold-fish are kept in vessels in rooms, they should be in spring water. The water will require to be changed, according to the size of the vessel or the number of fish kept therein; but it is not well to change the water too often. In a vessel that will hold a common sized pail of water, two fish may be kept by changing the water once a fortnight; and so on in proportion. If any food is supplied them, it should be a few crumbs of bread dropped into the water once or twice a week.

Gold (Green) - to make. - Melt together nineteen grains of pure gold and five grains pure silver. The metal thus prepared has a beau- tiful green shade.

Gold (Imitation) - to make. - The following recipes for metals resembling gold are said to produce a metal which will so nearly ap- proximate the genuine as almost to defy detection, without a resort to thorough tests: Fuse, together with saltpetre, sal-ammoniac, and powdered charcoal, four parts platinum, two and one-half parts pure copper, one part pure zinc, two parts block tin, and one and one-half parts pure lead. Another good recipe calls for two parts platinum, one part silver, and three parts copper.

Gold - to clean. - Dissolve a little sal-ammoniac in urine ; boil your soiled gold therein, and it will become clean and brilliant.

Gold Lacquer. - Gold lacquer, closely resembling the real Chinese article, is made by first melting to a perfectly fluid mixture two parts copal and one part shellac. To this add two parts good boiled oil. Remove the vessel from the fire, and gradually mix in ten parts oil of turpentine. To give color, add a solution of gum guttfc in turpen- tine for yellow, or of dragon's blood for red; a suflScient quantity of coloring material being used to give the desired shade.

Gold Plating Solution - to make and apply. - Dissolve one-half ounce of gold amalgam in one ounce of nitro-muriatic acid. Add two ounces of alcohol, and then, having brightened the article in the usual way, apply the solution with a soft brush. Rinse and dry in sawdust, or with tissue-paper, and polish up with chamois-skin.

i8o IFHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

Gold - to refine. - If you desire to refine e^old from the baser met- als, swedge or roll it out very thin, then cut into narrow strips and curl up so as to prevent its lying flatly. Drop the pieces thus pre- pared into a vessel containing good nitric acid, in the proportion, of acid, two ounces; and pure rain-water, one-half ounce. Suffer to re- main until thoroughly dissolved, which will be the case in from one- half an hour to one hour. Then pour off the liquid carefully, and you will find the gold, in the form of yellow powder, lying at the bottom of the vessel. Wash this with pure water till it ceases to have an acid taste, after which you may melt and cast into any form you choose. Gold treated in this way may be relied on as perfectly pure. In melting gold use none other than a charcoal fire, and during the process sprinkle saltpetre and potash into the crucible occasionally. Do not attempt to melt with stone coal, as it renders the metal brittle and otherwise imperfect.

Gonorrhoea - positive cure for. - Liquor of potass, one-half ounce; bitter apple, one-half ounce; spirits of sweet nitre, one-half ounce; balsam of copaiba, one-half ounce; best gum, one-quarter ounce. To use, mix with peppermint watei*; take one-half teaspoonful three times per day. Cure certain in nine days.

Goose (Roast). - Boil and mash some potatoes ; fill the goose with them. When half roasted, take out the potatoes and have ready a stuffing of sage, bread-crumbs, parboiled onions; fill the goose and finish roasting. This is a great improvement on the old mode, as it draws out the fat, and makes the fov/1 very delicate.

Gout Remedy. - Half an ounce of nitre (saltpetre), half an ounce of sulphur, half an ounce of flour of mustard, half an ounce of Turkey rhubarb, a quarter of an ounce of powdered guaicum. Mix, and take a tablespoonful every other night for three nights, and omit three nights, in a wineglassful of cold water, water which has been previously well boiled.

Gout (Chronic) - to cure. - Take hot vinegar, and put into it all the table salt which it will dissolve, and bathe the parts affected with a soft piece of flannel. Rub in with the hand and dry the foot, etc., by the fire. Repeat this operation four times in twenty-four hours, fifteen minutes each time, for four days; then twice a day for th� same period; then once, and follow this rule whenever the symptoms show themselves at any future time.

Gout Tincture. - Veratrum viride (swamp hellebore), half an ounce; opium, one-quarter ounce; wine, half a pint. Let them stand for several days. Dose, fifteen to thirty drops, according to the robust- ness of the patient, at intervals of two to four hours.

Grafting Wax - to make. - Common grafting wax is made by taking one part of tallow, three of beeswax and four of resin, and melting them together over a slow fire. Melt the resin first, and put in the other ingredients after, stirring well together.

Graham Wafers - for the sick. - One cup of Graham flour, one and one-third cups of boiling water, and one-half teaspOonful of salt.

JVHA T E VER V ONE SI/0 ULD KNO W. i8i

Put the salt into the boiling water, pour the water gradually on the Graham, beat thoroughly, and set away to cool. When cool, spread on sheets or pans as thin as the blade of a knife. Bake in a moder- ate oven about twelve minutes. Sick people can eat this when they can eat no other bread.

Granite - to imitate. - For the ground color, stain your white lead to a light lead color with lampblack and a little rose pink. Throw on black spots, with agraniting machine, a pale red, and fill up with white before the ground is dry.

Grape Ambrosia. - Make a batter as for gems. Line a pudding dish with the batter half an inch deep. Put on this a layer of grapes, with sugar to sweeten, (the less the better) and a slight sprinkling of flour, then another layer of grapes, not making the dish more than half full. Cover the whole with batter and bake one hour, on the top first, then on the bottom. Be careful not to let the juice run away. Serve warm or cold.

Grapes - to keep. - If grapes mature perfectly they may be kept"^ for a considerable length of time if cut without bruising, and hung up in a dry, cool, and rather dark cellar. The stem should be covered, when cut, with Avax, and hung with the stem up. Immature grapes will not keep in this way or any other.

Grapes - to preserve all winter. - By the following process a Frenchman, M. Charmeaux, preserves grapes so that they are as fresh in the spring and early summer as when picked from the vine:

" The grapes are allowed to remain on the vines as long as the weather permits. They are then cut in such a manner that apiece of the vine remains on both sides of the stem of each bunch. It is best to leave two buds or nodes above, and three or four below. The upper end is carefully sealed with wax, the lower is inserted in a suit- ably sized vial filled with water, to which, in order to prevent decay, a quantity of charcoal powder is added. The neck of the vial is then closed around the bit of vine by means of wax. The grapes thus prepared are either hung up, or laid on straw or cotton, in a cool, not freezing room, where they k^ep with no other care than removing such berries as will from time to time occasionally decay."

Grapes - to preserve. - Take a cask or barrel which will hold wa- ter, and put into it, first, a layer of bran, dried in an oven, or of ashes, well dried and sifted; upon this place a layer of grapes well cleaned, and gathered in the afternoon of a dry day, before they are perfectly ripe; proceed thus with alternate layers of l)ran or ashes and grapes, till the barrel is full, taking care that the grapes do not touch each other, and let the last layer be of bran or ashes; then close the barrel, so that the air may not penetrate, which is an essential point. Grapes thus packed will keep for nine or even twelve months. Tore- store them to freshness, cut the end of the stock of each bunch of grapes, and put it into red wine, as you would fiowers into water. White grapes should be put into white wine.

Grapes (Wax) - to make. - To make wax grapes, take annealed

1 82 JVIIA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

wire that is stiff enough to support it - I don't remember the number - wind a little cotton on one end, double it over to prevent its pulling off; then, for what is called Black Hamburg, color common resin with lamp-black and melt gradually, then dip the cotton end in the resin, then in cold water, and press it tight with the fingers; when it is cold continue to dip it in the resin, then in the water to cool, until it is as large as wanted, being careful to turn it when just out of the resin to get the required shape and size; lastly, dip in hot wax previ- ously colored with blue and red paint, and hold grape in cup so it will drain. Ivich kind has its color of paint.

Grapevines - winter care of. - All varieties of grapevines not thoroughly hardy shoidd receive some winter protection to secure best results, and it is claimed by many that it pays to give protec- tion to the hardiest kinds even. Some growers attribute their success with Delaware, Duchess, Roger's Hybrids, etc., simply to covering, while their neighbors signally fail with the same varieties. As the treatment in both cases is exactly alike, the different results can only be attributed to the protection given in one case and its omission in the other: The process is simple, and depends on the extent of the operation. After the vines have shed their leaves and matured their wood, they should be pruned, and, on the approach of cold weather, loosened from the trellis, bent down on the ground, and held there with stakes, rails, or something similar. This is sometimes found sufficient, especially when snow lies till late in the spring. If not satisfied with this dependence, a slight covering with leaves, straw, cornstalks, limbs of evergreens, will prove effectual. If danger is to be apprehended from the depredations of mice, which in some sections are very troublesome, a slight covering of earth on the top is all that is necessary. It should be remembered that it is the young wood of the present season's growth that is to be protected - this contains the buds in which are the embryo fruit cluster for next year's crop. Of course, similar protection would not hurt the old wood, but it is not always feasible to provide it. But the main question necessarily preceding all this, on which depends the success or entire failure of the whole operation, is the maturity and thorough ripening of the wood.

Grasses - "ways to crystalize. - i. Ladies who admire beautiful bouquets of grass, will appreciate the following recipe; Take one and one-half pounds of rock alum, pour on three pints of boiling water; when quite cool, put in a wide-mouthed vessel, hang in your grasses, a few at a time. Do not let them get too heavy, or the stems will not support them. You may again heat alum and add more grasses. By ailding a little coloring matter it will give a pleasing variety.

2. 1 make a brine by boiling one quart of common salt in two and one-half quarts t)f water for fifteen inituites. 1 tie my grasses in small bunches, and suspend as many as I can in a wide-mouthed jar. The salt will not quite all dissolve, but stir it, and pour while hot over the grass. Place in a dark room, or the cellar, where it will not be

IV HA T. E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 183

shaken. I let it stand twenty-four hours, then gently lift the grasses out and hang them up to dry. In a few hours they will be white and glistening as the " driven snow."

Gravel. - Steep one-half pound of hops in a quart of water and give it as hot as the horse can stand it.

Gravel and Kidney Complaints - drops for. - Oil of origanum, one ounce; oil of hemlock, one-quarter ounce; oil of sassafras, one- quarter ounce; oil of anise, one-half ounce; alcohol, one pint; mix. Dose, from one-half to one teaspoonful three times a day, in svi^eet- ened water, will soon give relief when constant weakness is felt across the small of the back, as well as gravelly affections causing pain about to kidneys.

Gravel Houses - how to build. - Thir, is the best building material in the world. It is four times cheaper than wood, six times cheaper than stone, and superior to either. Proportions for mixing: To eight barrows �f slaked lime, well deluged with water, add fifteen barrows of sand; mix these to a creamy consistency, then add sixty barrows of coarse gravel, which must be worked well and completely. You can throw stones into this mixture of any shape or size, up to ten inches in diameter. Form mold for the walls of the house by fixing boards horizontally against upright standards, which must be im- movably braced so that they will not yield to the immense pressure outward as the material settles; set the standards in pairs around the building where the walls are to stand, from six to eight feet apart, and so wide that the inner space shall form the thickness of the wall. Into the molds thus formed throw in the concrete material as fast as you choose, and the more promiscuously, the better. In a short time the gravel will get as hard as the solid rock.

Grease - to remove. - Aqua ammonia, two ounces, soft water, one quart; saltpeter, one teaspoonful; shaving soap in shavings, one ounce; mix together; dissolve the soap well, and any grease or dirt that cannot be removed with this preparation, nothing else need be tried for it.

Grease Spots - to remove from carpets. - Cover the spots with flour, then pin a thick paper over; repeat the process several times, each time brushing off the old flour and putting on fresh.

Grease - to remove from v/oolen. - Fuller's earth or tobacco-pipe clay, being put wet on an oil spot, absorbs the oil as the waiter evap- orates, and leaves the vegetable or animal fibers of the cloth clean on being beaten or brushed out. When the spot is occasioned by tallow or wax, it is necessary to heat the part cautiously by an iron, or the fire, while the cloth is drying. In some kinds of goods, blotting-paper, bran, or raw starch may be used with advantage.

Grease Spots - to remove from cloth. - An excellent mixture to remove grease spots, from boys' and men's clothing particularly, is made of four parts of alcohol to one part of ammonia and about half as much ether as ammonia. Apply the liquid to the grease spot, and then rub diligently with a sponge and clear water. The chemistry of

iS4 // 'HA T E VER ) " c'>.\ '/�; SHO I 'LD KXO Jf '.

the operation seems to be that the alcohol and ether dissolve the grease, anil the ammonia forms a soap with which it is washed out r.'ith Ihe water. The result is much more satisfactory than when sometliinij^ is useil which only seems to spreatl the spot ami make it fainter, but does not actually remove it. If oil is spiled on a carpet antl vou immediately scatter corn meal over it, the oil will be ab- sorbed by it. Oil may also be removed from car{)ets on which you do not dare put ether or ammonia by laying- thick blotting paper over it and pressing a hot thit-irot\ on it. Repeat the operation several limes, using a cleai\ paper each time. Machine grease can be remov- ed from fabrics by the use of cold water and soap.

Grease - to remove from paper. - If you wish to remove grease from paper, scrape finely some pipe clay, and completely cover the spot to be cleaned. Then pass a hot iron over it for a few seconds, ami with a perfectly clean piece of India rubber, rub off the clay. In most cases, one application will be sufficient, but if not, Tepeat it.

Grease Heel. - Lye made from wood asiics, and boil white oak bark in it till it is quite strong, both in lye and bark ooze; when it is cold, it is tit for use. Wash off the horse's legs with castile soap; when dry, api^ly the above lye with a swab fasteneii on a long stick to keep out of his reach, as the smart caused by the application might make him let lly without much warning; but it is a sure cure, only it brings off the hair. Vo restore the hair after the cure is effected, make ami apply a salve by stewang elder bark in old bacon; then form the salve bv adding a little resin, according to the amount of oil when stewed, or one-half pouiul resin to each pound of oil.

Green Blinds (Faded) - to restore. - Green blinds that have failed may be nuide to look like new by oiling over with a brushing; of linseed oil.

Green Corn - to keep. - Gather the corn when in good eating state; place the corn, cob and all in a vessel and i^our boiling water over it. Let il remain in the hot water from throe to five minutes, tiien cut the corn from the cob; put a layer of corn, then a layer of salt in large stone jars. When full, weight down; keep adding layers as the corn sinks down in the jar; the salt nu\kes a brine without v�ater; when used, soak all night in clear, cold water.

Griddle Cakes. - Beat two eggs, add a pint (or a little more) of sour n\ilk and a teaspoonful of salt. Then sift in suiiicient flour to make proper consistency, and lastly, beat in well a rounding tea- spoonful of soda.

Grindstones from Common Sand. - Riversand, thirty-two pounds; shellac, ten parts; powdered glass, two parts; melt in an iron pot, tnd cast into molds.

Ground Glass (Imitation cf> - -ways to paint. - i. Grind and mix wliite lead in tlucc-fourths of boiled oil and one-fourth spirits of tur- pentine, and to give the mixture a very drying quality, add sufiicient quantities of burned white vitriol and sugar of lead. The color must be exceedingly thin, and put on the panes of glass with a large sized

WIIA T E VER V ONE SIIO ULD KNO W. 1 85

paint brush in as even a manner as possible. When a number of the panes are thus painted, take a dry duster quite new, dab the ends of the bristles on the glass in quick succession, till you give it a uniform appearance. Repeat this operation till tlic work appears very soft, and it will then a[)pear like ground glass. When the glass requires fre-ih painting, get the old coat off first by using strong pearl-ash water.

2. Spirits of salts, two ounces; oil of vitriol, two ounces; sulphate of copper, one ounce; gum arabic, one ounce; mix all well together,. and dab on the glass v/ilh a brush.

Guano - test for its purity. - The weight affords the easiest test for the purity of guano. A bushel of pure Peruvian guano, accord- ing to most authorities, should weigh almost exactly seventy pounds. If heavier than seventy-three pounds, it is adulterated with clay, sand, marl, or some other impurity.

Guano - home-made. - .Save all your fowl manure from sun and rain. To prepare it for use, spread a layer of dry swamp muck (the blacker it is the better) on your barn floor, and dump on it the whole of your fowl manure; beat it into a fine powder with the back of your spade; this done, add hard wood ashes and plaster of Paris, so that the compound shall be composed of the following proportions: Dried muck, four bushels; fowl manure, two bushels; ashes, one bushel; plaster, one and one-half bushels. Mix thoroughly, and spare no labor; for, in this matter, the effort expended will be well paid for. A little before planting, moisten the heap with water, or, better still, with urine; cover well over with old mats, and let it lie till wanted for use. Apply it to beans, corn, or potatoes, at the rate of a handful to a hill; and mix with the soil before dropping the seed. This will be found the best substitute for guano ever invented, and may be depended on for bringing great crops of turnips, corn, pota- toes, etc.

Gum - for backing labels. - Mix pure dextrine witii boiling water until it assumes the consistency of ordinary mucilage. Aj^ply with a full bodied, evenly made camel's hair brush. The paper should not be too thin o^ unsized. It will dry quickly and adhere when slightly wet.

Gums (Thej - an excellent paste for. - Finely powdered alum, one- eighth ounce; sulphate of quinine, ten grains. Make these ingre- dients into a rather thick paste, with which rub the gums occasion.'.lly.

Gums- swollen or scorbutic. - Take of infusion of roses six ounces; borax, one (;unce; honey of roses, one ounce. Mix, and use the mixture twice a day as a wash for the gums.

Gums - tincture for. - Gumboils, frequently so troublesome, and also pains in the gums, may be prevented by the occasional use of the following tincture. Six ounces of tincture of Peruvian bark, one- half ounce of sal-ammoniac. Make a mixture of these in a phial, and shake it well before using. The best mode of applying the tinture

1 86 WJJA T EVERY ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

to the gums is with a piece of soft sponge or the finger. The mouth should afterward be rinsed with warm water.

Guns and Rifles - to clean. - Guns and rifles may be easily cleaned from lead by the following: If a muzzle-loader, stop up the nipple or communication hole with a little wax, or if a breach-loader insert a cork in the breach rather tightly; next pour some quicksilver into the barrel, and put another cork in the muzzle, then proceed to roll it up and down the barrel, shaking it about for a few minutes. Thp mer- cury and the lead will form an amalgam, and leave the barrel as clean and free from lead as the first day it came out of the shop. The same quicksilver can be used repeatedly by straining it through wash- leather; for the lead will be left behind in the leather, and the quick- silver will be again fit for use.

Habits of Neatness in Children. - A little more care iru training the children to habits of neatness would reduce the size of the wash- ing almost one-half. What need is there of washing a tablecloth for every day in the week ? Put a newspaper or an oilcloth at the corner for baby's plate. If the little ones are given luncheon between meals, put big oilcloth bibs on them, covering the entire front of their aprons, and you will not have one-third as many gingham pieces in the wash. A little forethought will save a headache, backache, and cross words.

Hair Dressing. - Take two ounces of olive oil. four ounces of good bay rum, and one dram of oil of almonds. Mix and shake well. It renders the hair dark and smooth.

Hair Brushes - to clean. - As hot water and soap soon softens the hairs, and rubbing completes their destruction, use soda dissolved in cold water. Soda, having an affinity for grease, cleans the brush with very little friction. After well shaking them, stand them on the points of the handles in a shady place.

Hair (The) - to cleanse. - To one gill of warm water, add twenty drops of aqua ammonia, and with a bit of flannel or a sponge, wash the head and hair, dividing it into partings, so as to rub out the dan- druff thoroughly. Then comb the head with a fine-tooth comb, and let it dry in the air. This hair wash has been tried for years, and will not only keep the head very clean if used twice a month, but preserve the color and thickness of the hair.

Hair (The) - how to care for. - The hair is the covering of the roof of "The home of thought and palace of the soul." Where baldness, which sometimes occurs in quite young persons, is hereditary, it is doubtful if anything can be done to prevent or remedy it. Avoid "restoratives " and other nostrums, and as a rule do not use poma- tums or oils upon the head. The thorough use of a moderately stiff brush will greatly promote the health of the scalp and prevent the falling of the hair. The hair should be occasicmally washed, and if there is much dandruff, the yolk of an egg will be most efficient in re- moving it. Work an egg with the fingers well into the hair, a little at a time, to bring it in contact with the scalp; then wash it out

- rVHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO ^. 187

thoroughly with water, and the hair will be left beautifully Cxcan and soft. Avoid all shampooing liquids; those used by barbers are strong potash solutions. They call it " salts of wormwood" and " salts of tartar," and use it without knowing its real nature. It is very effect- ive in cleaning but ruinous to the hair. If the falling of the hair is not prevented by thorough brushing, some stimulating application may be made. Cantharides is most commonly used. Half an ounce of the tincture of cantharides added to a quart of bay rum will answer better than most '"hair tonics."

Hair (The) - to crimp. - Ladies who have difficulty "in making their hair remain crimped will find the following of use: Let five cents' worth of gum arable be dissolved in a very little hot water and left to stand over night in enough alcohol to make it thin; then bottle. The hair should be wet with the mixture before being crimped.

Hair (The) - to dye black. - Take sifted lime, sixteen ounces; white lead., two ounces; litharge in fine powder, one ounce. Mix well together and keep dry. When required for use, mix a little powder with water to the consistency of cream, and apply carefully with a sponge.

Hair Dye (Batchelor's). - i. To one ounce of pyro-gallic acid, dis- solved in one ounce of alcohol, add one quart of soft water.

2. To one ounce nitrate of silver, dissolved in one ounce of con- centrated ammonia, add four ounces of soft water. Apply each num- ber alternately, with separate brushes, to the hair.

Hair Dye (Christadoro's). - i. To one ounce of pyro-gallic acid, dissolved in one ounce alcohol, add one quart soft water.

2. To one ounce crystalized nitrate of silver, dissolved i.i one ounce concentrated aqua-ammonia and one ounce soft water, add one-half ounce gum arable and three ounces soft water. Keep cov- ered from the light.

Hair Dye (Phalon's Instantaneous). - i. To one ounce pyro-gallic acid, and one-quarter ounce of tannia, dissolved in two ounces of al- cohol, add one quart of soft water.

2. To one ounce crystallized nitrate of silver, dissolved in one ounce concentrated aqua-ammonia, add one ounce gum arable, and fourteen ounces soft water. Keep in the dark.

Hair Dye (Harrison's). - i. To one ounce pyro-gallic acid, one 1 ounce of tannia, dissolved in two ounces alcohol, add one quart soft water.

2. Tc or^e ounce crystallized nitrate of silver, dissolved in one ounce of concentrated aqua-ammonia, add five ounces soft water and one-half ounce gum arable.

3. One ounce hydra-su'pbate of potassa, dissolved in one quart of f oft water. This last ingredient is intended to produce a deep black color if the others should fail. Keep away from the light.

Hair Dye (Phalon's) - one preparation. - To one ounce crystal- lized nitrate of silver, dissolved in two ounces of aqua-ammonia, add five ounces soft water. This is not an instantaneous dye; but after

i88 WFTA T E VER V OXE SRO ULD KNO W.

exposure to the light and i'w. u dark colcr is produced upon tne sur- face to which it is applied. Remcmbe:' to remove all grease, etc., from the hair before applying these dyes.

Hair (The) - ways to keep from falling out. - i. Wash the head every week in salt water and rub the skin of the head with a dry- coarse towel. Then apply a dressing composed of bay rum and sweet oil,, with which a drop of tincture of cantharides has been min- gled. This will stimulate the skin, and keep the hair from falling out and turning gray. The dressing for the hair may be scented with cinnamorroil, or some such warming essence.

2.. To stop the hair from coming out, take a bottle two-thirds full of sweet oil, filling the other third with ammonia. If the scalp be tender, use more oil and less ammonia, as the ammonia causes a smarting sensation, which makes the scalp more healthy, while the oil prevents its injuring the hair or scalp in any way. Use once a day by rubbing carefully into the roots of the hair with the hand.

3. To prevent the hair from falling out, apply once a week a wash made of one cpiart of boiling water, one ounce of pulverized borax, and half an ounce 01 powdered camphor. Rub on with a sponge or a piece of tlanne'.

4. Thoroughly wetting the hair once or twice a week with a weak solution of salt water will prevent it falling out.

Hair Oil (Barbers' Star). - Castor oil, six and one-half pints; alco- hol, one and one-half pints; citronella, and lavender oil, each half an ounce.

Hair (Gray) - to prevent. - When the hair begins to change color, the use of the following pomade has a beneficial effect in preventing the disease extending, and has the character of even restoring the color of the hair in many instances: Lard, four ounces; spermaceti, four drams; oxide of bismuth, four drams. Melt the lard and sper- maceti together, and when getting cold stir in the bismuth. To this can be added any kind of perfume, according to choice. It should be used whenever the hair requires dressing. It must not be imagined that any good effect speedily results; it is in general a long time tak- ing place, the change being very gradual.

Hair Invigorator. - One quart bay rum, one pint alcohol, one ounce castor oil. one ounce tincture cantharides, one pint sweet oil. Bottle and label.

Hair (The) - to preserve. - Take three cuinces of pulverized sage and turn a pint of cold, soft water over it; have it in a tin dish with a cover; let it steep over the fire ten or fifteen minutes; strain it off and add a teaspoonful of pulverized borax, and the same quantity of salt. Keep in a tight corked bottle, and apply with a sponge or soft cloth, by rubbing gently all over the head; then brush lightly. Use it night and morning. For everything but hereditary baldness it acts like a charm.

Hair (The) - to promote the growth of. - For strengthening and promoting the growtfi of the hair, use half an ounce of spirits of am-

189

monia, one ounce of olive oil, one dram of eau de cologne, one dram of tincture of Spanish flies; mix together, and rub on the head once a day.

Hairs (Superfluous) - to remove. - Some few hairs will frequently grow where they arc not wanted, and are often diflicult to get rid of. Close shaving and cutting strengthens them and increases their num- ber; the only plan is to pull them out individually with a pair of iweezers, and afterward to dress the part two or three times a day in the following manner: Wash it first with warm soft water, l)ut do not use soap; then apply with a piece of soft rag, immediately after the washing, a lotion of milk of roses, made according to the follow- ing directions, and rub the skin gently till it is dry with a warm soft cloth: Beat four ounces of sweet almonds in a mortar to a paste with half an ounce of white sugar; then work in, in small quantities, eight ounces of rosewater; strain the emulsion through a muslin, put the liquid into a bottle, return the rcsidum to the mortar, pound it again, and add half an ounce of sugar and eight ounces of rosewater; then strain again, and repeat the process a third time. This will give thirty-two ounces of fluid, to which add twenty grains of bichloride of mercury dissolved in two ounces of alcohol. Shake the whole for five minutes, and the lotion will be ready for use.

Hair - to thicken. - One quart of white wine, one handful of rose- mary-flowers, one-half pound of honey, one-quarter pint of oil of sweet almonds. Mix the rosemary and honey with the wine, distil them together, then add the oil of sweet almonds and shake well. When using it, pour a little into a cup, warm it, and rub it into the roots of the hair.

Hair Tonic. - One ounce of chloroform, one ounce of strong water of ammonia, one ounce of glycerine, five ounces of alcohol. The lotion to be rubbed on the head after thorough friction with the brush. It may be applied two or three times a week. If too strong, or strong enough to make the head smart, it may be diluted with water. This is the best tonic for the hair ever used.

Hair Restoratives. - i. A tea made by pouring one pint of boiling water on two tablespoonfuls of dried rosemary leaves, with a wine- glajssful of rum added, is excellent.

2. Four drams oxide bismuth, four drams spermaceti, four ounces pure hogs' lard, The lard and spermaceti should be melted together. When nearly cool, stir in the bismuth and perfume. Put in pots and label. Prevents the hair from turning gray; restores gray hair.

Hair Restorative (Phalon's). - To eight ounces of ninety per cent, alcohol, colored by a few drops tincture of alkanet root, add one ounce of castor oil, and perfume with a compound of bergamot, neroli, verbena, and orange.

Hair Restorative (Mrs. Allen's). - To sixteen ounces of rosewater, diluted with an equal part of salt water, add one-half ounce of suK phur and one-quarter ounce of sugar of lead. Let the compound stand five days before using.

TOO WIT A T EVERY ONE SHOULD KNOW.

Hair Wash - several kinds. - i. Take one ounce of borax, half an ounce of camphor; powder these ingredients very fine and dissolve them in a quart of boiling water; when cool the solution will be ready for use; dampen the hair frequently. This wash effectually cleanses, beautifies and strengthens the hair, preserves the color and prevents early baldness. The camphor will form into lumps after being dissolved, but the water will be sufficiently impregnated.

2. Take a small quantity of rosemary, strip the leaves from the stalks, and put them into a jar with nearly half a pint of cold water, place the jar near the fire, and let the contents simmer gently for an hour or two, without setting or burning. When the water is some- what reduced, the infusion will be sufficiently strong. Then add half a pint of rum, and simmer the whole for a little while longer. When cold, strain the liquor from the leaves, and keep it in a bottle to be ready for use. Apply it to the roots of the hair with a small sponge or piece of flannel.

3. One dram of tincture of lytta, half an ounce of spirits of wine, half an ounce of spirits of rosemary. Put these into a bottle, and add half a pint of cold water.

Hair Wood - to imitate. - For the ground color, take white lead and thin with turpentine, and sHghtly staid it with equal quantities of Prussian blue and lampblack. For the graining color, grind in ale a mixture of Prussian blue and raw sienna; when the ground is dry, spread a transparent coat of the graining color on the surface of the work, and soften; then, with the cork, mottle by rubbing it to and fro across the work, to form the fine long grain or mottle. When this is done, soften and top grain in wavy but perpendicular direc- tions; varnish and dry.

Halter Pulling. - A new way to prevent horses pulling at the halter, is to put a very small rope under the horse's tail, bringing the ends forward, crossing them on the back, and tying them on the breast. Put the halter strap through the ring, and tie the rope in front of the horse. When the horse pulls, he will, of course, find him- self in rather an uncomfortable position, and discontinue the effort to free himself.

Hammock - how to make. - I Avill tell you how to make a com- fortable, inexpensive hammock. Bring your old flour barrel from the cellar or storeroom, knock it to pieces, clean, and paint the staves. I like red. Procure a rope four times the length, each place where it is to be suspended, and in size - a little larger than a clothesline. Now halve the rope, double each piece in the middle, and commenc- ing two yards or so from the end, weave it over and under each stave about three inches from the end of each one, which will bring the rope crossed between each; do both sides the same, and your hammock is complete. I like one end of the rope fastened up higher than the other. There, isn't the cfi'ect pretty? The bright red con- trasts so strongly with the green leaves. At first, this may not seem

TVHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 191

firm, but when there is any weight on it, the rope becomes " taut," as the sailors say, consequently there will be no openings.

Ham - to bake. - First put into cold water and bring it almost to a boil; then pour off the water and fill again with cold water. "When scalding hot, drain off the second time. Again cover with cold water and set over the fire where it v/ill simmer slov/ly till nearly done. Then take off the skin, rub in half a teacupful of sugar, cover with a layer of fine bread crumbs in which a little more sugar and some black pepper have been mixed. Bake half an hour, so that the crumbs may be nicely browned. When the ham is prepared for baking, lay a grating in the pan to raise the ham so that it may not be soaked with the fat that wdll run from it. Put no water into the pan.

Hams - to cure. - As soon as the hams are cut, tie them up by the hock for three days; then make a pickle thus: One ounce of saltpeter, half an ounce of salt prunella, one pound of common salt, one pound of coarse sugar, one ounce of juniper berries, and one gallon of strong beer; boil altogether, and when cold, pour it over the hams. Turn them every day for a fortnight. This quantity of pickle will be sufficient for two hams.

Ham - to cook tender. - Ham and lean of bacon, which is usually hard and tough, may be cooked so as to be perfectly tender, and without waist of fat, by not allowing the water to boil.

Ham - to cook (Aunt Sally's way). - First cut the slice, not quite one-half of an inch thick. Then trim off the outside edges very care- fully and neatly. These edges she slightly scores so that they appear when cooked like a sort 0/ fringe around each piece. When thus prepared place in the frying pan some luke-warm water in which lay the slices, allowing them to remain on the fire about three minutes. Then, throwing this water off, put in its place some hot water - just enough to cover the slices - allow it to come to a boil, then empty it into a clean bowl, leaving the slices in a pan, which fry for about four or five minutes. When done, place them upon a hot dish, and pour over them the heated water as gravy.

Hams - to keep. - A very good way of keeping hams is to wrap them in strong brown paper so that the ashes cannot come in contact with them. Then pack them in clean, hard wood ashes, in dry boxes or barrels. This will keep well cured hams quite sweet, as the ashes serve as a protection against insects. The boxes should be set in a cool, dry place.

Hams (Premium) - method of keeping, etc. - To four gallons of water, add eight pounds of coarse salt, one quarter ounce potash, two ounces saltpeter, two pounds brown sugar. Boil together, skim when cold, put on the above quantity to one hundred pounds meat; hams to remain in eight weeks; beef, three weeks. Let the hams dry several days before smoking. Meat of all kinds, salmon and other fish, lobsters, etc., may be preserved for years by a light application of pyroligneous acid applied with a brush, sealing up in cans as usual.

192 WHAT EVERY ONE SHOULD A'NOJV.

It imparts splendid flavor to the meat, is very cheap, and an effectual preventative against loss.

Hams - to preserve from flies. - The best way to preserve hams from llics is, as soon as I hey arc smoked, to wrap them in two old newspapers, first with one end and again with another, and tie the ends of the paper or paste them dow n. Let the string to hang them up by come through the paper, being very careful that the hole shall only be large enough to let the string through. No insect can get through paper. Woolens and furs can be kept perfectly in the sauie way. being careful that the egg of the moth is not previously de- jiosiled.

Hands (The) - to presei've soft. - In order to preserve the hands soft and white, they should always be washed in warm water, with fine soap, and carefully dried with a moderately coarse towel, being well rubbed every time to insure a brisk circulation, than which noth- ii\g can be iiiore effectual in procuring a transparent and soft surface. If engaged in any accidental ]nirsuit which niay hurt the color of the hands, or if they have been exposod to the sun, a little lemon-juice will restore their whiteness for the time; and lemon-soap is proper to wash them with. Almond paste is of essential service ii\ preserving the delicacy of the hands. The following is a serviceable pomade for rubbing the hatuls on retiring to rest: Take two ounces of sweet al- monds; beat with three drams of white wax. and three drams of sper- maceti; put up carefully in rose-water. Gloves should be always worn on exposure to the atmosphere, and are graceful at all tmies for a lady in the house, except at meals. Lemon-juice and glycerine will cleanse and soften the hands.

Hands (The) - to soften. - To whiten and soften the hands take four parts of glycerine, five parts yolk of eggs; mix thoroughly and rub ot\ after washing the hands. Good also for abrasions of the skin.

Hands (Chapped^ - remedy for. - i. One-half ounce of glycerine with same amount of alcohol. Mix, and aild-four ounces of rose- water. Kottle, and shake well. An excellent remedy for rough or chapped hands.

2. Keep some oat-meal on the wash-stand, and as often as the hands are washed, rub a little oat-meal over them; then rinse off, and, when dry, put on a little bit of pomade, made as follows: Take three cents' worth of white wax, three cents" worth of spermaceti, three cents' worth of powdered camphc)r, and olive oil enough to make it the thickness of soap; put it in a gallipot, and let it stand in an ovct\ tc) melt; mix it up. and when cold it will be found very good for the hands. Gloves worn either in the tlay or night, will help to keep the hands white.

3. The raw wituis of early spring often proiluce in the hands of those who are much exposed to them that roughness and cracking of the skm known as chapping. If nothing is done to prevent, and the person is obliged to have his hands frequently wet and dried, the cracks often get deep and painful. As both a precaution and cure

WHA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO W. 193

for chapped hands, we have used the following with benefit: Wash the hands, and face .also if it is inclined to chap, with borax water, and afterward rub with an ointment made l)y meltinp^ mutton tallow, or suet, and then j^radually adding an equal quantity of glycerine, stirring the two together until cool. For the hands this inixlure can be best applied at night, using it freely and warming it by the fire, after which an old pair of gloves can be put on to keep the bed-clothes from being soiled, and also make the skin of the hands softer.

Hands (Chapped) - to cleanse. - Keep a dish of Indian meal on the toilet stand near the soap, and rub the meal freely on the hands after soaping them for washing. It will surprise you, if you have not tried it, to find how it will cleanse and soften the skin, and prevent chap- ping.

Hands (The) - to soften. - Before retiring, take a large pair of old gloves and spread mutton tallow inside, also all over the hands. Wear the gloves all night, and wash the hands with olive oil and white castile soap the nexc morning.

Hands - to remove stains from. - If you have been picking or handling any acid fruit, and have stained your hands, wash them in clear water, and wipe them lightly, and while they are yet moiststrike a match and shut your hands around it so as to catch the smoke, and the stain will disapi>car.

Hanging Baskets. - What looks more lovely than a plant sus- pended from a small rustic basket in the center of the upper part of the window ? It interferes with nothing, and nothing interferes with it. There's an element of beauty in that simple fact. Plants which have slender branches, which naturally hang down, are at home in this situation. The mother-of-thousands; the Wan

Hanging Baskets - to water. - Plants in hanging baskets are with difficulty kept moist enough when watered in the ordinary way. It has been recommended to immerse the basket in a tub of water for a few minutes. then_take it out and allow it to drii) before returning it to its usual place.

Hanging Basket (Imitation Coral)- to make. - Take old hoops with the covering on; bend and tie in any shape desired; tie with wrapjiing twine, with ends of the twine left one-fourth of an inch

194 JVIIA 7' E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO W.

long; cover the basket when formed with knots or ties about one inch apart all over the basket. Then take one-half pound of beeswax, melt it in a shallow pan, stir in enough Japanese vermilion to get the color you wish, then roll the basket in the melted Avax until it is cov- ered completely. We have made one in this way, that has hung ex- posed to the weather for two years, and is still good as new.

Harness Blacking. - Three ounces turpentine, two ounces white wax, to be dissolved together over a slow fire; then add one ounce of ivory-black and one dram of indigo, to be well pulverized and mixed together. When the wax and the turpentine are dissolved, add the ivory-black and the indigo, and stir till cold. Apply very thin; brush afterward, and it will give a beautiful polish. This blacking keeps the leather soft, and, properly applied, gives a good polish. It is excellent for buggy tops, harness, etc. Old harness, if hard, may be washed in warm water, and when nearly dry, grease it with neats- foot oil.

Harness - to care for. - A harness that has been on a horse's back several hours in hot or rainy weather becomes wet; if not properly cleaned the damage to the leather is irreparable. If, after being taken from the horse, it is hung up in a careless manner, traces iund reins twisted into knots, and the saddle and bridle hung askew, the leather when dried retains the same shape given it when wet, and when forced into its original form damage is done the stitching and leather. The first point to be observed is to keep the leather soft and pliable. This can be done by keeping it well charged with oil and grease; water is a destroyer, but mud and the saline moisture from the animals are even more destructive. Mud in drying absorbs the grease and opens the pores of the leather, making it a prey to water, while the salty character of the perspiration from the animal injures the leather, stitchings and mountings. It therefore follows that, to preserve the harness, the straps should be washed and oiled whenever they have been moistened by sweat or soiled by mud. If the harness is thoroughly cleaned twice a year, and, when unduly ex- posed, treated as we have recommended, the leather will retain its softness and strength for many years.

Harness Leather - grain black for. - First stain in tallow; then take spirits of turpentine, one pint; cream of tartar, one ounce; soda, one ounce; gum shellac, one-half ounce; thick paste, reduced thin, two quarts. Mix well. This will finish twelve sides.

Harness Wounds on Horses. - The best cure for harness wounds on horses is burned leather. Rub the ashes on the sore, and a cure is soon effected.

Harvest Drink, - Mingle together five gallons of pure water, one- half gallon molasses, one quart of vinegar, and two ounces of pow- dered gni^er. Tills drink is very \\. igorating.

Hash - to make. - Hash made of bits of roast beef or of lamb may be given a very good flavor by using raw potatoes instead of cold boiled. Chop the potatoes very fine, in the proportion of two-thirds

WHAT EVERY ONE SHOULD KNOW 195

of these to one-third of meat. This will require a longer time to cook, of course, but it is a dish much liked by many people.

Hats - waterproof stiffening- for.- Mix eighteen pounds shellac with one and one-half pounds of salt of tartar (carbonate of potash), and five and one-half gallons of water. These materials are to be put in a kettle, and made to boil gradually till the lac is dissolved, when the liquid will become as clear as water, without any scum upon the top, and if left to cool, will have a thin crust upon the surface, of whitish cast, mixed with the light impurities of the gum. When this skin is taken off, the hat body is to be dipped into the mixture in cold state, so as to absorb as much as possible of it; or it may be ap- plied with a brush or sponge. The hat body, being thus stiffened, may stand till it becomes dry, or nearly so; and after it has been brushed, it must be immersed in very dilute sulphuric or acetic acid, in order to neutralize the potash, and cause the shellac to set. If the hats are not to be napped immediately, they may be thrown into a cistern of pure water, and taken out as wanted.

Hay Fever - relief for. - Patients suffering from this most distress- ing complaint will find almost immediate relief by bathing the nose and closed eyes with a lotion of spirits of camphor and warm water. The strength of the lotion will be soon learned by experience. The eyes must be carefully closed.

Hay for Hogs. - Very few are aware of the fact that hay is very beneficial to hogs; but it is true, nevertheless. Hogs need rough food as well as horses, cattle, or the human race. To prepare it you should have a cutting-box (or hay cutter), and the greener the hay the better. Cut the hay short and mix with bran, shorts, or middlings, and feed as other food. Hogs soon learn to like it, and if soaked in swill or other slop food, it is highly relished by them. In winter use for hogs the same hay you feed to your horses, and you will find that, while it saves bran, shorts, or other food, it puts on fiesh as rapidly as anything that can be given them.

Head (The) - to free from dandruff. - Take a quart bottle, fill it with borax to the depth of one inch, then fill with water, and as often as you take out, put more water in, occasionally adding borax; then once in three or four weeks take a tablespoonful of this mixture to a pint of clear water, bathe the scalp and dry with a towel.

Headache - new remedy for. - A new remedy for headache has been found by Dr. Haley, an Australian physician, who says that for some years past he has found minimum doses of iodide of potassium of great service in frontal headache; that is, a heavy, dull headache, situated over the brow, and accompanied by languor, chilliness, and a feeling of general discomfort, with distaste for food, which some- times approaches to nausea, can be completely removed by a two- grain dose dissolved in half a wirxCglassful of water, and this quietly sipped, the whole quantity being taken in about ten minutes. In many cases, he adds, the effect of these small doses has been simply wonderful, as, for instance, a person, who a quarter of an hour ago

196 WHAT EVERY ONE SHOULD KXOIV.

was feeling most miserable, and refused all food, wishing only for quietness, would now take a good meal and resume his wonted cheer- fulness.

Headache and Cold Feet. - There are many who suffer from head- aches and cold feet. If they would plunge their feet in cold water every morning, and use the flesh-brush every night, it would relieve them bt)ih.

Headache - several cures for.- i. Coarse brown paper soaked in vinegar and placed on the forehead is good for a sick headache. If the eyelids are gently bathed in cool water the pain in the head is generally allayed.

2. In Potosi the most violent headaches, so very common there, are cured by putting the feet in hot water.

3. A mixture of ice and salt, in proportion of one to one-half, ap- plied to the head, frequently gives instant relief from acute headache. It should be tied up in a small linen cloth, like a pad, and held as near as possible to the seat of the pain.

4. We have known some extreme cases of headache cured in half an hour by taking a teaspoonful of finely powdered charcoal in half a tumbler of water. It is an innocent yet powerful alkali.

5. For sick-headache, take a tumbler two-thirds full of finely crushed ice, the juice of one lemon, and one teacupfulof white sugar. The mixture, eaten by degrees, or all at once, will allay the feverish thirst, atid quiet the disturbed, qualmish stomach, as it is not sweet enough to be nauseous.

6. Sick headache can often be greatly relieved, and sometimes en- tirely cured, by the application of a mustard plaster at the base of the neck. The plaster should not be kept on more than a quarter of an hour.

Headache (Billious) - cure for. - Dissolve and drink twoteaspoon- fuls of finely-powdered charcoal in half a tumbler of water; it will relieve in fifteen minutes. Take a seidlitz powder an hour after- ward.

Headache (Nervous) - relief for. - Many persons find speedy re- lief for nervous heatlachc by washing the hair thoroughly in weak soda water. I have known severe cases almost wholly cured in ten minutes by this simple remedy. A friend finds it the greatest relief in cases of " rare cold," the cold symptoms entirely leaving the eyes and nose after one thorough washing of the hair. The head should be thoroughly dried afterward, and avoid draughts of air for a little while.

Head Cheese. - Take the head, ears and tongue, and any other small pieces of young, fresh pork; have the skin taken off and boil in water, with a little salt added, until the bones are loosened from the meat; chop fine, season with salt, black pepper, cloves, alspice, sage and sweet marjoram; mix all well together; put in around, deep pan, putting on a cover that will fit the pan and heavy weights on it. Let stand two or three days.

WIT A T E VER V ONE SHO ULD K'NO TV. 197

Head (Clean) - a preventative of contagious diseases. - A distin- guished physician, who liad spent mucli time- at (|iiatantine, said that a person wiiose hc;ad was thorouj^lily washed every day rarely took contagious diseases, but where the hair was allowed to l)ecome dirty and matted it was hardly possible to escape infection.

Head Wash. - Sage tea is one of the very best washings and dress- ings for hair. The hair sliould be carefully bruslicd, and braided in two firm braids, then the roots rubbed with a sponge dipped in luke- warm s^ge tea; after which the braids can be washed and dried with a towel. This preserves the color of the hair and keeps the scalp clean.

Health - secrets for. - First, keep warm. Second, eat regularly and slowly. Third, maintain regular bodily habits. Fourth, take early and very light suppers, or, better still, none at all. Fifth, keep a clear skin. Sixth, get plenty of sleep at night. Seventh, keep cheerful and respectable company. Eighth, kecf) out of debt. Ninth, don't set your mind on things you don't need. Tenth, mind your own business. Eleventh, don't set up to be a sharp of any kind. Twelfth, subdue curiosity.

Health Hints. - It is not a gocjd habit to keep a lamp burning in the bedroom.

A good laugh is wc^rth a hundred groans in any state of the mar- kets.

File the top of an ingrowing toe nail very thin and place cotton under the ingrown part.

If ice is to be applied to the head of a patient, the l)est way is to have it broken in small ])ieces, and tied up in a bladder.

Never go to bed with cold feet, but first soak them in hot water, then dash on cold water, followed by thorough frictif)n.

Common baking soda is the best of all remedies in cases of scalds and burns.

For earache fold and dip a small towel in hot water, wring and lay on the ear; then cover with two or three folds of flannel; repeat until relieved.

If you will cut the hind legs of your chair a little shorter than the front ones the fatigue of sitting will be lessened, and your spine will be in a better position.

If wakeful at nights get up, walk about the room, go to the window and take a dozen deep breaths, rub your skin all over with a coarse towel or with the hands; then crawl into bed and go to sleep.

Have a thermometer in the living-room and do not let the mercury go above seventy degrees. I higher than that is too high for health. Any room that is too warm and dry for window plants is unfit to live in.

In biting off a needleful of thread, it is often noticed that the silk tastes sweet. This should warn the sewer to use her scissf)rs, and not her teeth, as the sweet taste comes from the sugar of lead used in dyo-� ing and weighing the silk.

iqS what every o-ne should know.

Heavy suppers of rich food, with coffee, ai:e damaging to heahh, and sooner or later will undermine the strongest constitution. Be- cause one can stand it one or five years is no sign they will not floor him at last. Eat a light supper.

Warm flannels, perfect protection for feet and legs, abundant cloth- ing, a saddle horse six or eight hours a day, in the open air in all weathers, wheat, oats, and beef in generous quantities, much friction of the skin and plenty of sleep, cure a person threatened with con- sumption. When a doctor has given his advice to such a patient he has done all he can for him.

Buckskin lining in shoes is nice for ladies and girls who suffer with cold feet. Thin soles of cork ought also to be placed between the leather soles, to keep dampness out. If not too lazy, to go out on the porch and hop around for fifteen minutes; this for those who suffer from chronic cold feet. If you have headache it comes most likely from cold feet, defective vision that needs rectifying glasses, or disordered stomach from eating too much rich food.

To those accustomed to "bolt" their food, nothing tastes good which is not highly flavored or spiced. Everything must be peppered or sugared unless already highly seasoned, in order to make some im- pression upon the nerves of taste, located in the mouth, as the food hurries through. While to persons accustomed to chew their food deliberately, the plainest forms of well-cooked, wholesome food afford great pleasure to the pnlate. Children should be encouraged to cat without drinking, in order that they may be led to moisten their food with saliva, thus preparing it for good digestion.

If you need a light through the night, cut a circular piece of thin w^rapping paper, twist the center of it into a small point for a wick, lay it in a saucer and pour melted lard around it. This should be done in the daytime that the lard may harden before night.

Put some ice in a towel, and crush it till it is as fine as snow, and of an even fineness. Then squeeze on it the juice of an orange, or lemon, whichever is desired by physician, or patient, and sprinkle over it a little sugar. It is a very pleasant food for persons with scarlet fever, or sore throat, and a lady of our acquaintance claims to have cured her children of diphtheria by its aid.

Profuse spitting is injurious in several ways. The saliva is poured into the mouth to do a specific work, and then should pass into the stomach to be absorbed. If it is constantly ejected from the mouth, the system is drained of what it was not intended to lose, and the mouth then becomes an organ of excretion, thus taking away from the kidneys a part of the work they are designed to do.

Health in Youth. - Late hours, irregular habits, and want of atten- tion to diet, are common errors with- most young men, and these gradually, but at first imperceptibly, undermine the health, and lay the foundation for various forms of disease in after life. It is a very difficult thing to make young persons comprehend this. They fre- quently sit up as late as twelve, one, or two o'clock, without ex-

h^IIA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 199

periencing any ill effects; they go without a meal to-day, and to-mor- row eat to repletion, with only temporary inconvenience. One night they will sleep three or four hours, and the next nine or ten; or one night, in their eagerness to get away into some agreeable company, they will take no food at all; and the next, perhaps, will eat a hearty supper and go to bed upon it. These, with various other irregulari- ties, are common to the majority of young men, and are, as just stated, the cause of much bad health in mature life. Indeed, nearly all the shattered constitutions with v/hich too many are cursed, are the result of a disregard to the plainest precepts of health in early life.

Health - rules for the preservation of, - Pure atmospheric air is composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and a very small proportion of car- bonic acid gas. Air once breathed has lost the chief part of its ox- ygen, and acquired a proportionate increase of carbonic acid gas; therefore, health requires that we breathe the same air once only.

The solid parts of our bodies are continually wasting, and requires to be repaired by fresh substances; therefore, food, which is to re- pair the loss, should be taken with due regard to the exercise and waste of the body.

The fluid part of our bodies waste constantly; there is but one fluid in animals, which is water; therefore, water only is necessary, and no artifice can produce abetter drink. The fluid of our bodies is to the solid in proportion as nine to one. A like proportion should prevail in the total amount of food taken.

Light exercises an important influence upon the growth and vigor of animals and plants. Our dwellings should freely admit the solar rays.

Decomposing animal and vegetable substances yield various nox- ious gases which enter the lungs and corrupt the blood. All impur- ities should be kept away from our abodes, and every precaution be observed to secure a pure atmosphere.

Warmth is essential to all the bodily functions; therefore, an equal bodily temperature should be maintained by exercise, by clothing, or by fire. Exercise warms, invigorates, and purifies the body; clothing preserves the warmth' the body generates; fire imparts warmth ex- ternally. To obtain and preserve warmth, exercise and clothing are preferable to fire. Fire consumes the oxygen of the air, and pro- duces noxious gases; therefore, the air is less pure in the presence of candles, gas, or coal fire, than otherwise, and the deterioration should be repaired by increased ventilation.

The skin is a highly-organized membrane, full of minute pores, cells, blood-vessels, and nerves; it imbibes moisture or throws it off, ac- cording to the state of the atmosphere and the temperature of the body. It also " breathes," as do the lungs, though less actively. All the internal organs sympathize with the skin; therefore, it should be repeatedly cleansed.

Late hours and anxious pursuits exhaust the nervous system, and

2(K) WHAT EVERY i^N I'. SUOUin A'A'D JF.

l)i()(lii<<* disease and i)rcmaliir�" (k-aili; ilun-rorc, the liours of l.djor .md study slioidd l)e short.

Mfiilal and bodily fxcrciscs aic ((lually essential to the j;(ii<-i;d lie. dill and iiai)|)incss; ihcicloir, lalxn and ^;lndy should siut ccd i acii other.

Man will live most heallhy upon sinijile solids and fluids, of which a sulhi ieni but lenipeiale (|uatitily should be taken; therefore, stronj^f driid

Sudden alternations of heal and told are (lan);c'rous, especially lo the youii}.' and theai^ed; therefore, clothing;, in <|uantity and ([ualily, should be adapted lo tfie alterations of nij;ht and day, and of the season. Also, drinUinj;" cold wali-r when tlic body is liot, .ind hoi tea and SOU]) when <()ld, are i>roductive ol many evils.

Mode ration in t-atin^ and diiidcin^, short hours of labor and study, re^ulaiity in exercise, recreation, and rest, cli-anliness, e(iuainmity of temper and e(|nality of tem])�'ralure, these are tlie ^;reat essintials to that which surjiasses all wealth- health of mind and body.

Heaves in Horses several remedies for.- i. A (oirespomU i\t iccommt-nds suidlower seed as a cuie for tlu^ heaves in horses, lie had one bushel of the seed j;round with two bushels of oats, atul fi^avc a horse two cpiarts of the niixe

2. Very |)a�l cases of heaves hav(^ l)ecn cured bysiin])ly feedinj^Mhe animal upon cut and moistened feed, of very fjood (luality and in small (|uantities, three times a (hiy. i'or instance, four pounds of timothy hay .and three cpiarts of feed made of etpial (piaiUitiesof oats, <-orn, and wheat bran f;round to^tlher. With this was nuxed .-i small

3. Asaf��iiila, ])ul\'eri/.ed, one onnc*-; eamphoi- j^uin, pulv<-iized, one-half ounce; nnx and divide: into loui powders; feed one every otiu-r iu};hl for a week.

.|. Halsan\ of lir .and balsam of coi)aiba, four ounces each, and nnx with calciiK'd nia>;n<'sia suiricieiUly thi( k to make it into balls; ami j;iv<' a nu(ldlin^;-si/.ed ball inj^hl ai\d morinnj; for a week or ten days.

Hemorrhage- to relieve. To stop lu !norrhaf;i' of tlu- lun^s, con) the lhi)ihs, and .arms above the elliow, with small, slronj.j cords ti)',htly diawn .md tit'd. It will stop the Ihnv of blood almost iiv.

Rtantly, us it has done for the writer many limes. It was recom- mended by a ])hysi(ian of t'xi)erience.

Household Hints. Do not deposit \vood aslu-s in a wooden Vessel or upon M wooden floor.

Never use a lij.;lit in cxamirnng a gas-meter.

Never take a light into a closet,

Nev<'r read in bed by c.an

Never put kindling wood on top of the stove lo dry.

Never btavo clothes near a grate or lire-{)lace to dry.

He careful in making lire with shavings, and never use any kind oi oil lo kindle a (ire.

Keep all lights as far from curtains as pc;ssible.

Always fill and trim your lamps l>y daylight, .and never ne.ir ;i fire.

(Jood nice pie-crust can be made by always ol^serving the follow- ing nde. One-quarter of a cup of shortening to every cup of Ihair used; to be mixed as dry as possible with cold water, jukI mixed only with ;i kin'fe.

Take sweet bulter <;nly for b.iking ]>iirposes, and never f.iil to thor- oughly beat together your jjutler and sugar, if you would b<- sure of jfood r<;sults in ( ake baking.

Have melal or eartlK-n vessels for matches, and kef reach of children. Wax matches ar<; not safe,

(iround mustard mixed with a little water is an excellent agent for cleansing the hands after liandling odorous substances.

Cut hot bread or cake with a hot knife, and it will n(�t Ix- < l.immy.

Salt extracts the juices of meat in cooking. .Steaks oujdit lliere- fore not to be salted until they have been l)roiled.

In boiling dumplings of any kin

Do not cut lamp-wicks, but trim them by wi|>ing off with a scrap of jjaper.

Never boil vegetal)]es with soup Stock, for il you do it will certainly become sour in a short time.

Hoil your cream for coffee, and see if th

Pin-cushion covers made of cheese cloth end�r<�id(icd and iiimnicil with lace, wear well and keep their looks.

.Some one says that leaves of parsley, eaten with a lilih; vinegar, will destroy the odor of breath taint(;d |jy onions.

Hot li(|uid lye is recommended for removing ob.structions in waste pipes. Or let the j)olash dissolve over night in the pipes.

To wii>e dust from ])aper(Ml walls take a clean, soft jjiece of flaiim;!. Of course it must not be daujp, but the dry flannel will remove the dust.

Varnish the soles of your shoes, and it will render them iinjjerviouH lo (lampness, and will also make th<:m lust longer. This Ik a gtjod plan.

ao2 WHAT FVKKY C.W' SHOUI P KXOW.

CU'im ilu" iui( ;i in si��v<' doors wiili viiu>',ar. 'lake clinkcis f)Ut of Hl(�V(*s |)y putting a IVw oyster shells into ihe K'�>lt'. when ihcy will bet:t)nie looseneti, niul may be removed wilhoul injiniii}', the lining;.

Save the droppings from spennaceli laiulUs, tie Hum in a (loth, ?<\u\ keep to .smooth roii^fi tiat-iroi\s.

Ne\

An old hiack hunting or eashmere duss may be made to serve n lurlher peiiod of usefnUiess l>y bein^ made into a |)ettieoat.

Hetween two evils < hoose neither.

Writing a will does not shoili-n life, and yet many men feai it will.

Savi' old Sll^>l><�n^.lel lin^s, and sew them on (he (orneis ol kilt hen holdeis to hanf.', them up by. It will be easy then lo liip iluin on to a nail, and they will not be so likely to },;et lost.

Tovvdcred boiax willi a little su^ar, blown into the cracks and crevices with a small belU)Ws, will diive away house-ants.

Have a hij.;h stool in the kitchen t�) sit �>n wfien tired, tt) conlinne your work if necessary. Perilled �)n its lop you can wash dishes or iron with �Mse. A low siool placed on u wooden eliair forms a sub- slilnte, but a pom one. A soft sheep-skin m.it is icstful to stanil upon.

1 liere is nothing' better for cleaning brass or copper tlian rt)al .ishes. 'I'hey ait- also gootl to si'our knives and folks w'ith. Kortin, whiting or line sand is best.

To � leanse jars or jugs or an\ t-.ulhen \ essc-| sl.dvcd lime is goixl, t>r warmed lye.

To keep a stt>Ve sn\oi>lli, |.dv<- .i co.use .md picltv lngt- piece of (l.unul, loll i( li.iid, and dip i( in line sand. I'locti-d lo rid) your slove wluiuvi-r yon aie thtongh looking. Almost any stove will look bettt r for being done the sanu* way occasionally, lioiletl starch is also very gixnl to keep a stove looking well ; put it ��n where it will n.'i bmnofi' - aroiMJd the bai k and sides wheie ii doesn't get very hoi.

Hens- how to make lay.- \Vhilt> on .i visit in the tall to a friend we were sui prised to see the number of eggs \\c daily obtained. lie h.id but si\tt-en hens, ami the protluct per diem averaged thirteen eggs. lie was in the habit of giving, on every altern.ile day, a lea- spoonful and a tpiartei of cayenne pepper, mixeil with soft fooil, ami took caie that each hen obtainetl her share. The ex|)eiimenl i)f omitting the pepper was tried, when it was foiuul that tlu� munber of eggs was reduce nnxh'iatc' use �)f this stin\ul.uil not only increases the number of eggs, but eftectu.ilU u.iuls ol iliseases to width chickens aie sub- jected.

Hen Lice - to drive away. - The only reliable means of ridding the hen-rtu>st ami pigeon-loft of vermin is a preparaticm of sidphur and carbon, lechniially known as sulphuret caibon. In I'rance it has been thoroUi;hly tested, ami it wi>iks like a charm. It kills the

WHAT EVERY ONE SHOULD KNOW, 203

insects which prey upon pigeons and fowls, without injuring the birds. A bottle containing the solution will last several days, and the cost of it is small. Put two ounces of the sulphuret of carbon in a bottle open at the mouth and hang it by a string in a hen-house. At the end of eight days the bottle should l)e refilled. The remedy is said to be infallible. If as good as claimed to be, it should be known to every farmer's wife and ])oultry raiser in the country.

Hens - to make lay the whole year. - Give each hen half an ounce of fresh meat every day, and mix a small amo.unt of red pepper v^^ilh their food during the winter. Give them plenty of grain, water, gravel and lime, and allow no cocks to run with ihem.

Hens - rules for setting. - Be sure that your hen wants to sit and is contented with her location.

Select your eggs from hens that are known, and do not trust to those from a neighbor.

Do not use eggs that are from yards containing more than ten hens to one cock.

After the hen is on the nest do not disturb her, and i)lace her nest where the other hens cannot mo est her.

Let the nest be in a warm location in winter, and in a cool place in summer.

See that everything is clean around her nest, and keep food and water within easy access.

Provide a dust bath, and be on the watch for the appearance of lice. Should they ap])car, use the Persian insect powder.

The eggs used should be as fresh as possible - the fresher the better.

After the egg is " pipped " do not open the shell any to assist the chick, as the Huids will evaporate before the chick is ready to come out.

Lice make the hen restless, and as this causes a constant change of temperature in the nest, poor hatches will be the result.

Let the food for the hen be of a variety, and plentiful.

Do not feed the young chicks until they arc twenty-four hours old.

These rules are not hard to observe, and arc necessary if good hatches are to be expected.

Hiccoughs - to cure. - Take a small piece of lump sugar into the mouth, and let it dissolve very slowly, or drink any liciuid very slow- ly, -AwA the hiccoughs will cease.

Hide Bound Horse - to recruit.' - To recruit a hide bound horse, give nitrate potassa (or saltpeter), four ounces; crude antimony, one ounce; sulphur, three ounces. Nitrate of potassa and antimony should be finely pulverized, then add the sulphur, and mix the wlxjle well together. Dose, a tal^lcspoonful of the mixture in a bran mash daily.

Hints to Callers on the Sick. - Only call at the door, unless you are sure your friend is able to see yftu without harm.

Enter and leave the house, and move about the rocnri cjuietly.

2,).i //?//./ '/� /?:r/:A'y o.vk should know.

Carry a i lu�'i liil lace, ;\iul speak chcritul words.

Ill tirdcr U) chi'i'r you need lell no lies.

ir your friend is very sick do iM)t fall int(� i;ay and t areless talk in the attempt to be eheerfni.

Do not ask (jiiestions, and thus ohlii^e yoni friend to talk.

Talk about soiuc-thini; outside-, ;ind not about ihc disease and eir- cumstaiues of tlu- j)atient.

Tell the i\e\vs, but not the list of the siek antl (lying.

If possible carry soniethinj; with you to pleasi' the eye and iilieve the monotony (^f the sick-room, a Hower, or even a picture, w liiih yi)u can loan for a few tlays.

If desirable, some little delicacy to tempt the appetite will be well bestowed; but nothinj; coidd be more a complete illustration of mis- taki'u kinilness than the common custom of temptinjj^ sick persons to eat su( h unwholesome thinj.;s as rich cakes, sweetmeats, etc.

Hoarseness remedies for. - i. Horseradish will afford iiistan- tancous relief in most obstinate cases of lioarsencss. The ro()t, of course, possesses the most virtue, though tlu- U>aves are good till they

:;. When the voice is lost, as is sometimes the case, from the effects of a cold, a simple, pleasant remeily is furnished by beating uj^ the white of one egg, aiUling to it the juice of one lemon and sweetening with white sugar to taste. Take a teaspiu>jjful from tinu- to time. It has been known to effeitually cure the ailment.

3. Hoil tut) ouiues of Haxseed in one ijuart of water, strain, and then add two t>unies of rock canily, half a i)int of syrup or honey, anil the juice ot tluee lentous; mix, and then boil together. Let it then coi>i, and bottle for use. Take one cupful lu"fore giung to bed - the hotter you drink it the better.

4. Miss Parloa gives this cure for hoarseness; Hake a lemon or sour orange for twenty minutes in a nu)ilerate oven, then open it at one end and ilig out the inside, which sweeten with sugar or molasses, ami eat. This will cure hoarseness and remove the pressure from the lungs.

Holland Gin. - 'I\> oiu' hundred gallons of rtntirieil spirits adil (aftiM" vou have cut the oils well) one ami one-half oumesof the oil (�f I'.nglish juniper, one-half ounce of angelica essence, one-half ounce of the oil of nuiaiuler, ami one-half ouiue of oil of caiaway; put this into the revtitieil spirit and rmnniage well. This is strong gin. To make this up, as it is calU-d by the trade, aiUI fiuty-tive poutuis of loaf sugar dissolved, then runnnage tlie whole well together with t\�ui ounns roihi- alum. I'or linings, add four ounces salts of tartar.

Home Devices. - To make a serviceable handkerchief case, take a

WHA T E VER V ONE SIIO ULD KNO IV. 205

piece of black oil-cloth (you can get it at any harness-maker's), cut one piece six and one-half by seven inches for the back; then cut four pieces, three-cornered, two of them seven and one-half inches on one side, and five on the other sides, and the other two, six and one-half inches on one side and five on the other two sides. Now bind each piece with narrow ribbon and line them, turning in the edges and catching it down nicely on the binding. Now lay them on the back, the long sides on the longest of the back, etc., then sew over and over on the right side; this brings the p">ints all in the cen- ter. Fasten the two end points together and put a hook on one side- point, and an eye on the other. Then put a little bow on the out- side.

To make burned-match receivers of spice boxes: Crochet a cover; begin with a chain long enough to reach around the bag; join it and crochet it deep enough to cover the bag. Then make a row of scal- lops around the top and bottom, but do not put a bottom in, as the bag will stay just as well, if it is not too loose. Now make a chain about half a yard long and sew it on opposite sides of the cover to hang it up by.

Take small boxes, such as ink comes in, or about that size; then take an old quilt or old pieces of cloth (you can stuff it as much as you like), and lay it on the bottom of the box outside, or turn the box upside down. Now nail a piece of carpet over this and put a piece around the side, turning the edge and nailing it on the inside. They make pretty stools and are inexpensive.

Hints for Home Comforts. - A short needle makes the most ex- pedition in plain sewing

When you are particular in wishing to have precisely what you want from a butcher's, go and purchase it yourself.

People in general are not aware how very essential to the health of their inmates is the free admission of light into their houses.

A leather strap, with a buckle to fasten, is much more convenient than a cord for a box in general use; cording and uncording is incon- venient

Sitting to sew by candle-light by a table with a dark cloth on it is injurious to the eye-sight. When no other remedy presents itself, put a sheet of white paper before you.

People very commonly complain of indigestion; how can it be won- dered at, when they seem by their habit of swallowing their food wholesale, to forget for what purpose they are provided with teeth.

Never allow your servants to put wiped knives on your table; for, generally speaking, you may see that they have been wiped off with a dirty cloth. If a knife is brightly cleaned, they are compelled to use a clean cloth.

There is not anything gained in economy by having very young and inexperienced servants at low wages; they break, waste, and de- stroy more than an equivalent for higher wages, setting aside com- fort and respectability.

2o6 IVHA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO IV.

Home Education. - The following rules are worthy of being print- ed in letters of gold, and placed in a conspicuous place in every household:

From our children's earliest infancy inculcate the necessity of in- stant obedience.

Unite firmness with gentleness. Let your children always under- stand that you mean what you say.

Never promise them anything unless you are quite sure you can give what you say.

If you tell a child to do something, show him how to do it and see that it is done.

Always punish your child for wilfully disobeying you, but never punish him in anger.

Never let them know that they vex you, or make you lose your self-command.

If they give way to petulance or ill-temper wait till they are calm, then gently reason with them on the impropriety of their conduct.

Remember that a little present punishment, when the occasion arises, is much more effectual than the threatening of a greater pun- ishment, should the fault be renewed.

Never give your children anything because they cry for it.

On no account alhnv them to do at one time what you have for- bidden, under the same circumstances, at another.

Teach them that the only sure and easy way to appear good is to be good

Accustom them to make their little recitals with perfect truth. Never allow tale bearing.

Teach them self-denial, no', self-indulgence.

Honey (Artificial). - i. Mix together ten pounds white sugar, two pounds clear bees' honey, one quart hot water, half an ounce cream tartar; when cold, flavor with two or three drops attar of roses, and sprinkle in a handful of clear, yellow honey-comb, broken up. This will deceive the best judges, and is perfectly healthful.

2. Take ten pounds good while (brown) sugar, three pounds soft water, .'wo and one-half pounds bee bread honey, forty grains cream tartar, twelve drops of oil of peppermint, three ounces gum arable, one drop attar of rose, put them into a brass or copper kettle, and boil them for five minutes; then take two teaspoonfuls of pulverized slippery elm and mix with one pound of water; then strain it and mix it into the kettle; take it off and beat up the white of two eggs and stir them in; let it stand two minutes, then skim it well, and when neaijy cold add one pound of pure bees' honey, and so on for larger quantities.

Honey - to separate from wax. - Put honeycomb and all in a tin pan upon a moderately warm stove, adding a tablespoonful of water to each pound of honey. Stir occasionally witii a ])iece of wire until the contents of the pan are in a liquid condition. Do not allow boil- ing to begin. Remove the pan from the lire, and set it aside to cool.

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 207

The cake of wax, to which all impurities will adhere, may then be carefully lifted off with a knife.

Hops (The) - uses of. - The hop is a narcotic, tonic, and diuretic ; it reduces the frequency of the pulse, and does not effect the head, like most anodynes.

Used externally, it acts as an anodyne and discutient, and is useful as a fomentation for painful tumors, rheumatic pains in the joints, and severe contusions. A pillow stuffed with hops acts as a narcotic.

When the powder is mixed with lard, it acts as an anodyne dressing in painful ulcers.

Dose. - Of the extract, from five grains to one scruple; of the tinct- ure, from half a dram to three drams; of the powder, from three grains to one scruple; of the infusion, half an ounce to one and a half ounces.

Hoof-ail in Sheep. - Muriatic acid and butter of antimony, of each two ounces; white vitriol, pulverized, one ounce; mix. Lift the foot, and drop a little of it on the bottom, only once or twice a week. It kills the old hoof, and a new one soon takes its place.

Horn - in imitation of tortoise-shell. - First steam, and then press the horn into proper shape, and afterward lay the following mixture on with a small brush, in imitation of the mottle of tortoise-shell. Take equal parts of quicklime and litharge, and mix with strong soap-lees. Let this remain until it is thoroughly dry; brush off, and repeat two or three times if necessary. Such parts as are required to be of a reddish brown should be covered with a mixture of whiting and the stain.

Horn (The) - to curve. - Rasp the horn on the outside if you wish to turn the horn in. It will give life to that part, and increase its growth wonderfully on the side rasped. You can give the horn any shape you please by scraping.

Horn (Cows') - to polish. - The cow's horns can be easily polished in the following way: Take a rather coarse file and file all of the rough places as smooth as convenient; then take No. 2 sand-paper and rub until a good surface is obtained, then No. i, and follow with No. o. After all of the scratches from the coarser sand-paper are removed, rub with rotten-stone and oil on a woolen rag. This will give it a mirror-like polish if all of the scratches are previously re- moved.

Horn - to polish and mount. - Boil the horn to remove the pith unless it is already out. Scrape with glass or a sharp knife, dipping the horn in hot water occasionally to keep it soft. When all the roughness and spots are off, rub with fine sand-paper or emery paper around the horn. When as smooth as they can be made in this way, take powdered pumice-stone or rotten-stone, with a flannel cloth and linseed oil, and rub lengthwise until all the sand-paper marks are re- moved; then rub with a clean flannel cloth till fully polished. It is said that after this a cotton cloth, and finally tissue paper, will pro- duce a still higher polish, and 1 think it worth trying, A pair of

2o8 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

horns can be mounted by taking a block of wood long enough to ex- tend into the horns, leaving them the original distance apart. Then fill the horns with wet plaster of Paris, and push them on the ends of the block. When dry they will be solid, and covered with satin or plush, they will be " perfectly splendid." The block may be rounded at the top and flattened at the bottom, so as to set securely on a shelf or bracket.

Horse (Balky) - cure for. - I would prepare myself with a good strap - I want no whip; perhaps he has got a taste of that already, and still he is master. But some fine day when I was at peace with all around, I would hitch him to the buggy, turning his head to the village. He goes half the way very well indeed, then he begins to consider that he has gone far enough in that direction, and stops. I step down; he expects me to use the whip. As a criminal I treat him on the silent system. I push him back a little out of the way. I show him the strap, putting it up to his nose. I go to the off side and buckle it to his fore leg, close up to his breast, throwing the other end over his shoulder; I then raise his near foot and fix it near the hoof, nearly touching the belly. This done, I say: " Now, old chap, you just stand there." I don't smoke, so I take a paper from my pocket, and finding a place where I can sit down, and he sees me, I begin to read. This is something he did not bargain for, and the novelty of standing on three legs somewhat diverts his mind from the cause that stopped him. I think this is the chief point to be gained, and the most humane. When the strap is taken off I show it to him, caress him a little, and we move on without irritation. The strap will now become a part of the harness for a month or two. till at last the sight of it will act as a talisman.

Horse (Balky) - cure for. - i. Hermann Koon, my German neigh- bor, is as patient a man as belongs to that patient race. Coming along the road a month or so ago, I saw Hermann lying in a fence corner, under the shade of an elm, quietly smoking his pipe. A quarter of a mile or so beyond I saw Hermann's horse and buggy by the roadside, the horse evidently tied to a post. This was a queer condition of affairs, for my neighbor is one of the most industrious men I know. My curiosity was aroused, and I stopped for an ex- planation. In broken English he told me his horse, a recent pur- chase, had proved balky, had stopped where he now stood, and no amount of coaxing could induce him to go on. Hermann did not curse the animal ; he did not strike it with his whip, beat it with a club, build a fire under its belly, nor resort to any other of the brutal means some men use in such cases. He quietly got out of the buggy, led the horse to the post, and walked off, leaving it to its own reflec- tions. Hermann had been taking it easy under the tree for three long hours. He thought the horse would be glad to go now if re- quested to do so. It had once before stopped with him, and after a patient waiting alone, for an hour, it went on all right. He expected about four hours, this time, would effect a permanent cure of the bad

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 209

habit. I went on about my business, leaving the stolid German to his pipe and his thoughts. To-day I met him again. He said the horse was eager to start when he went back to the buggy, and though he has used it every day since, no disposition to balk has been mani- fested. He believes there will be no repetition of the offense. Most men think they cannot afford to waste time in this way, perhaps, but if the horse is cured he is a valuable one ; v/hereas, if it had become a chronic balker, through cruel management, it would be worthless. Hermann thought he could not make money faster than by saving the reputation of his horse. It is a new system, but Hermann says it will work well every time, if the horse is not naturally vicious.

2. One method to cure a balky horse is to take him from the car- riage and whirl him rapidly around till he is giddy. It requires two men to accomplish this - one at the horse's tail. Don't let him step out. Hold him to the smallest possible circle. One dose will often cure him, two doses are fmal with the worst horse that ever refused to stir. Another plan is to fill his mouth with the dirt or gravel from the road, and he will at once go, the philosophy of this being that it gives him something else to think about.

Horse Blanket - to make. - Four jute bran sacks sewed together will make a horse blanket that is not too warm, nor too expensive for nightly use in the barn. They are sufficiently porous to allow a wet horse to dry off in the stable, and yet are a considerable protection from cold currents of air.

HorsesT-breaking and training (Rarey's directions). - In train- ing horses you must remember that there are certain natural laws that govern them. For instance, it is natural for him to kick when- ever he gets badly frightened; it is natural for him to escape from whatever he thinks will do him harm His facilities of seeing, hear- ing, and smelling, have been given him to examine everything new that he is brought in contact with. And so long as you present him with nothing that offends his eyes, nose, or ears, you can then handle him at will, notwithstanding he may be frightened at first, so that in a short time he will not be afraid of anything he is brought in contact with. All of the whipping and spurring of horses for shying, stum- bling, etc., is useless and cruel. If he shies, and you whip him for it, it only adds terror, and makes the object larger than it would other- wise be ; give him time Jo examine it without punishing him. He should never be hit with the whip, under any circumstances, or for anything that he does. As to smelling oil, there is nothing that assists the trainer to tame his horse better. It is better to approach a colt with the scent of honey or cinnamon upon your hand, than the scent of hogs, for horses naturally fear the scent of hogs, and will at- tempt to escape from it, while they like the scent of honey, cinnamon, or salt. To affect a horse with drugs you must give him some prep- aration of opium, and while he is under the influence of it, you can- not teach him anything more than a man when he is intoxicated with liquor. Another thing, you must remember to treat him kindly,

�.'1.. //?////' A'/AA')' ('.\7' \//(>r/ /> A. \ (>//�.

loi w lu'ii \iiii ir(|uiic clicdifiu (� hum .my Mil)j�'( I, i( is lnMlcc lo liuvo it iriulcifil liiMM a scns<.' of U)vr lliiiM Umi. Voii sliowKI Itr lai'rlill not to ( tialr ilir lips �>l yout colt or lim I his nioiitU in any way ; it' you <1<> 1m- will (lir,lil>,o to liavr llir hiidlc on. All�T \\c is (aUKhl lo follow yon, ilu 11 pill on till' liaiufss, piHlinf; your lin�s lliionj^h the shaft straps alon^ tlu- �.idr, and tra* h hitn to yield to the* rtM^ns, tnin short to the rij^hl and liil, li-ai h liiin lo slaml ^itill before hois rvcr hitclu'd up; you linn liave coi\trol ovei him. If he gets frij^htened, the lines shoidd I'c used us a telei.*! aph, lo let him know what you want luin to A\K No lu>rse Is nalni .ill\ \ u ions, l>ul alwaN;. (d>cys his liaincr US iUHnx as he i'on\pru.>.t be linn with him al the same time, .md ).;i\e him to nnderstanil that you aie llie li.iinei, .md ih.il he is the Iioim-, The !)est bits l�) be Used to hold a li>�i,-.e, to tvi-ep lus moulh liom ).;ellmf^ sore, is U SltaiKht l)ar- bit, lour and one-hall in* lu-s loni^ between the lin^s; this operates on bo(h sides of the jaw, while the oidinary snatlle forms a elanip and pjesses the .side of the jaw. The euib or briiloon Inn Is Ins uiuler jaw so that he- will slop bifiue he will k'^** t" �''<:' rei^^n. To lhn>w a horse, pul .1 lope iwtUi- U s l U'ln; .uomid his boily in a runnin)^' nt>ose, p.iss il down lo the i i^ht lote loot thron^b -i < b�f; in a spanoil, ilien I'uiUle np ihe lel( oi near lore ft)ot. take a liun hold oiv your rope, lead him iUomul until he is tired, j^ive hii�J a shove with y�)ur shonldei.ai ihe ^ian^c time drawii\K up tin* iij;hl foot whieh blinds hUu t>n his knees, hold liim ste.id\ . and in a lew in��nu"nts he will lie ilown. Nevei atlempl lo hold him .'.till, l(>i ihe moic he snutlK-s the belter.

Tuke yinir eoll into a ti^hl loom oi pen, and with a lon^ whip eomujenee snappin,'^ at the lolts hind K-^, taking laie not to hit above the luH'ks, stopping inunediately when ihe toll tnins his heail tt>ward you; while his heail is lowaid you, approach him with the left haml extemlevl towaivl him, luddm^ yom" whip in the ii!;ln, ready to snui> him as s.ton as he tin as his head fion� you. In this way you eau .soon ^ci \ om hatuls upon him. As soon as yon have done this, he curetul t*) t-.uess hin\ (ov his obetlienee, atul snap him for his dlso- bcdit'uee. In this way he will soon leam that he is safest ii\ your pveset\ie wilh his he.ul low.uil \on, .mvl in a very short time you can- not keep him aw.�v fiom >ou, .Spe.ik kiiully ui\il tiri\�lv to him, uU ihe tin�e caiessin^ him, calling; by name, and Siiyinj;. " llo, boy," oi " lb>, nin.i," OI >,�>me l,u\>ili.n wvud that he will soon U'arn.

II A V oil 1'. .ovkw.ud .md e.ueless at tiist, you must bear with hin\, ^enu-mbeiim; th.n we, lv>o, weie awkward wlien yv>unj.i; allowinj; hin\ his own w.iy, until by de>;rees he will �con\e in. If l�e is wilful, you must then ch.in^e voni imnse id lie.itment, by coidininj; him it\ such a way that he is pv>werU'ss lot h.nn\ uiUil he. submits. If he is dis, pv>sed to run. use mv pi>le cheek on him; d to kick, fasten a rope tiu)uiul his mulct i.iw. p.iss it tlniui^h the coll.vr and atlai'h it to his hi�\d feel. In this \v.�\ one kick will cnie him. as the force if the hlow tails on his i.o\ . It he >^hould be stubbon\, lav hin> down and

IVIIA T E VER V ONE SI 10 ULD KNO W. 211

coiifme him until you subdue him, without punishing him with the whip.

Colts shouhl be broke without blind-bridles; after they arc well broke, then you may put on blinds. Bridles without l)linds are the best tmless you want to speed your horse, then it will be necessary to keep him from seeing' the whip. Colts should be well handled and taught to give readily to the reign before they are hitched up. If you hitch them up the first thing and they become frightened, then you have no control over them; but if you teach them to start, stop, and stand at the word before they are hitched, then you can govern them.

Horses - cruelty to. - Besides the cruel punishment inflicted upon horses, by the careless and heartless driver, he is subjected to severe punishment in the winter season, by being compelled to take frozen bits into his mouth in cold weather, tearing the skin from the tongue and the roof of his mouth, producing a heavy inflammation in the mouth and throat; he gets poor, hidebound, and the sympathetic nerves of the head take up the inflammation, carry it to the head and eyes, frequently producing blindness, and a hundred other diseases. The whip should be used as an instrument of pleasure instead of tor- ture; aad your bits should be wound with flannel or leather; so that no frozen iron will come in contact with his mouth, lips, or tongue.

Horseshoeing - Rarey's directions for. - There are very few blacksmiths that ever once think what a complicated piece of machin- ery the foot of a horse is, and by one careless blow they frequently stop the working of this machine. The majority of smiths, as soon as they pick up a horse's foot, go tf) work paring the heel, from the fact that it is the most convenient part of the foot, and thereby de- stroy the heel and braces of the foot, causing, in many instances, con- tracted heels. The heel of a horse should be well kept up and the toe down. By lowering the heels you throw the entire weight of your horse upon the back tendon of the legs, and thereby produce lame- ness from overtaxing a very important set of tendons. By keeping up the heel you throw the weight upon the wallof the foot. In this position you prevent stumbling, clicking," etc. Next the shoer com- mences to pare away the sole, thins it down until he can feci it spring with his thumb. Ask him why he does this, and he gives you no reason, except from custom ; next comes the bars or braces of the foot, they are smoothed down ; next in his ruinous course, comes the frogs of the feet, they are subjected to the same cutting and smooth- ing process. All the cutting, paring and smoothing of the soles, bars, or frogs is a decided injury to the horse as well as to the owner. All the corns in the land are produced by this process of paring. The frf)gs have been placed in the foot by nature to expand the wall of the foot, and as soon as you commence to cut it, the oily substance commences to leak out, it dries up, becomes hard, losing its oily sub- stance, makes the wall hard and dry, inducing it to crack. The nerves of the feet are very sensitive, and smiths should be very care- ful not to prick the foot, as it requires quite a time to relieve them.

212 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

The foot is a very complicated piece of machinery, and if you keep a horse well shod and his foot in good condition, you can then gener- ally manage the balance. The feet suffer from being kept too dry. Horses that stand on board floors should have their feet wet every day, or there should be a vat five inces deep, five feet long, and three wide, filled with water and clay, in which each horse can stand for one hour per week, unless his feet are feverish, then he should be kept in it an hour per day, or until the fever subsides. Another source of injury to horses' feet, is the habit of patronizing cheap blacksmiths. If a man can drive a nail, he then sets up a sign as a farrier or a veterinary surgeon, when in fact he knows nothing of the anatomy of the horse's foot; not having spent any time or money in acquiring the necessary information, he can afford to shoe a few shil- lings cheaper than a well-informed man; but the patrons of such cheap shoeing are generally the sufferers. All horseshoers should be well skilled veterinary surgeons, or there should be a skilful surgeon attached to every shop. Another source of poor shoeing and injury is the loss of elasticity of the frog, refusing to perform its proper functions; the heel contracts, the foot rolls, and you have a sore horse for ten or twelve months, for it requires this long to relieve a horse's suffering from being badly shod.

Under the circumstances, the first thing that touches the road or the floor of the stall, should be the frog, and the wall of the foot should be kept cut so as not to prevent it from touching at every step; and no man that owns a horse should ever allow a blacksmith to cut the soles, bars, or frogs of his horse's feet. Nature has adapt- ed the frogs to all description of roads, climates, and weather, with- out being pared. So many horses have been ruined by this process of paring that there are now several establishments in this country that manufacture India rubber pads, thinking thereby to supply the wasted frog and the elasticity of the natural foot. The frog is insen- sible to pressure, and you may place the whole weight of your horse on the frog and he will suffer no inconvenience, as may be seen from shoeing with one of my corn shoes; besides, this is the only reliable way to cure contracted feet; by throwing the weight upon the frog, you force them up between the walls; it acts as a wedge, and soon relieves the contracted feet. Smiths should never have their shoes hot when fitting them, as the application of hot iron extracts the oily substance from the hoof. The amount of cruel punishment inflicted on horses by cross-grain blacksmiths, is another source of poor shoe- ing. As soon as the horse does not stand the smith gets angry, and commences whipping and jerking the animal, which only adds terror to it, so that he soon refuses to go to the shop if he can avoid it; it is natural for horses to dislike to be shod, because the hammering shocks the nervous system, until they are accustomed to it. He should be taught to stand, and his feet well handled at home, before he is ever brought to the shop by the owner. You then save the horse pound- ing, and the smith an immense amount of labor that he never gets

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 213

any pay for, for no man ever thinks of paying anything extra for shoeing a bad horse. The wall of the foot should never be rasped above the nail holes, and as little below the clinches as possible; all the rasping and filing but tends to thin and weaken the wall by cut- ting the fibers of the foot. The nails should be counter-sunk into the shoe, so that there will be no chance fer the clinches to rise. No horse interferes with the heel or toe; it is always the side of the foot. The habit of turning the inside of the shoe under causes a number of horses to interfere that would not if they were shod straight in the inside. Spread the heels as wide as possible; fet the outside a little under; keep the toes full. For clicking horses, raise the heels high, cut the toes short. For speedy cuts, place your toe corks a quarter of an inch to the inside of the center of your shoe; keep the heels v\^ide apart. For corns, put on a shoe with a prong, for the main rim, so as to cover the entire frog; pare the wall lower than the frog, so that his entire weight will be thrown on the frog. Have the inner cork not quite so sharp as the outer one, so that if he steps upon the other foot it will not cut it; make the shoes as light as possible con- sistent with good service, as they are ordinarily made just about one- third too heavy."

Horses - ho-w to judge them. - If the color be light sorrel, or chestnut, his feet, legs, and face white, these are marks of kindness.

If he is broad and full between the eyes, he may be depended upon as a horse of good sense, and capable of being trained to anything.

As respects such horses, the more kindly you treat them the better you will be treated in return. Nor will a horse of this description stand a whip, if well fed.

If you want a safe horse, avoid one that is dish-faced. He may be so far gentle as not to scare; but he will have too much go-ahead in him to be sac'e with everybody.

If vou want a fool, but a horse of great bottom, get a deep bay, with not a white hair about him. If his face is a little dished, so much the worse. Let no man ride such a horse that is not an adept n riding - they are always tricky and unsafe.

If you want one that will never give out, never buy a large, over- grown one.

A black horse cannot stand heat, nor a white one cold.

If you want a gentle horse, get one with more or less white about the head; the more the better. Many people suppose the parti-col- ored horses belonging to the circuses, shows, etc., are selected for their oddity. But the selections thus made are on account of their great docility and gentleness.

Horses' Hoof - do not burn. - Never have a red-hot shoe put on the foot of a horse to burn it level. If you can find a blacksmith who is mechanic enough to level the foot without red-hot iron, em- ploy him. The burning process deadens the hoof and tends to con- tract it. If you do not believe it, try a red-hot poker on your nail, and see if it does i>ot effect the growth.

214

Horses' Broken Legs - to cure. - Instead of summarily shooting the horse, in the greater number of fractures it is only necessary to partially sling the horse by means of a broad piece of sail, or other strong cloth placed under the animal's belly, furnished with two breechings'and two breast girths, and by means of ropes and pulleys attached to a cross beam above, he is elevated, or lowered, as may be required. By the adoption of this plan every facility is allowed for the satisfactory treatment of fractures.

Horse Stables - cold air in.- Horses are quite sensitive to chill- ing draughts of air blowing upon them, and especially upon their heads; hence, in the construction of stables this should be borne in mind. Many stables have the horses face an alley, along the sides of which are doors, or a large space is left entirely open; in such cases, whenever the rear stable door and the one leading out of the alley are open, the horses stand in a chilling draught, from which they cannot escape. Horses, like many people, can stand much wind in an open field, but will catch cold while in a draught only a short time.

Horses* Hoofs (Cracks in) - to cure. - Cracks in the hoofs of horses may sometimes be cured by cutting across them Avith a chisel above, or below, as the case may be. The sides may be held closer together with an iron in the form of a stitch or clinch. While heal- ing do not use the horse.

Horses' Heads - do net check. - We desire to register an earnest protest against this barbarous appendage to horses' harness. It re- tards the horse's progress in every position, both while he is at v'ork, and while traveling on a journey. It is both useless and cruel in every sense of the word, without any compensating qualities to recommend it. Mr. Angell of the " Boston Society for the Preven- tion of Cruelty to Animals," who has traveled over a great part of Europe in the interests of humanity to our dumb servants, says that the use of the check rein is confined to America alone, being de- servedly discarded everywhere, both in England and on the Con- tinent. To check rem a horse, is equivalent to trussing a man's head backward toward his back or heels, and compelling him, while bound in this position, to do duty with a loaded wheelbarrow.

Horses on the toad - how to feed. - Many persons, in traveling, feed their horses too much, and too often, continually stuflSng them, and not allowing them to rest and digest their food ; of course they suffer from over-fullness, and carr3-ing unnecessary v.-eight. Horses should be well fed in the evening, and must not be stuffed too full in the morning, and the traveling should be moderate en starting when the horse has a full stomach. If a horse starts in good condition, he can go twenty or twenty-five miles without feeding. The provender required by horses while traveling or engaged in ordinary farm work, per day, may be stated thus : llay twenty pounds, oats three gallons, water four gallons.

Horiics - hinls on Iccdinc:.- Com is aa excellent feed for horses

I'VHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 215

to work on; perhaps not so good for fast driving. Horses are more quiet and tractable on corn than with any other grain, and will do more hard pulling with less loss in condition. Oats make a horse sprightly and active; corn may make a horse dull and glow, but strong. For colts, wheat bran should be mixed with the corn; it v/ill be lighter and less heating. Feed horses accordmg to their age and the work required of them. Full feed and little work disorders tne digestive organs. Select only such hay as is of the best quality. Poor hay is dear at any price, as there is no proper nourishment in it.

Horses - how to judge when buying. - i. Never take the seller's word. If disposed to be fair, he may have been the dupe of another, and will decieve you through misrepresentations which cannot be re- lied upon.

2. Never trust a horse's mouth as a sure index of his age.

3. Never buy a horse while in motion; watch him while he stands at rest and you will discover his weak points. If sound, he will stand firmly and squarely on his limbs without moving any of them, feet planted flat upon the ground, with legs plump and naturally poised. If one foot is thrown forward with the toe pointing to the ground and the heel raised, or if the foot is lifted from the ground and the weight taken from it, disease of the navicular bone may be suspected, or at least tenderness, which is a precursor of disease. If the foot is thrown out, the toe raised, and the heel brought down, the horse has suffered from lamnitis, founder, or the back sinews have been sprained, and he is of little future value. When the feet are all drawn together beneath the horse, if there has been no disease there is a misplace- ment of the limb at least, and weak disposition of the muscles. If the horse stands with his feet spread apart, or straddles with his hind legs, there is weakness of the loins, and the kidneys are disordered. When the knees are bent, and totter and tremble, the beast has been ruined by heavy pulling, and will never be right again, whatever rest and treatment he may have. Contracted or ill-formed hoofs speak for themselves.

4. Never buy a horse with a bluish or milky coat in his eyes. They indicate a constitutional tendency to ophthalmia, moon blind- ness, etc.

5. Never have anything to do with a horse who keeps his ears thrown backward. This is an invariable indication of bad temper.

6. If a horse's hind legs are scarred, the fact denotes that he Is a kicker.

7. If the knees are blemished, the horse is apt to stumble.

8. When the skin is rough and harsh, and does not move easily and smoothly to the touch, the horse is a heavy eater, and digestion is bad.

9. Avoid ahorse whose respiratory organs are at all impaired. If the ear is placed to the heart and a wheezinj sound is heard, it is an indication of trouble.

2i6 VHAT EVERY ONE SHOULD KNOW.

Horses - to tell the age of. - Every horse has six tcetli above and below. Before three years oUl he sheds his mitldle teeth; at three he sheds one more on each side of the central teeth; at four he sheds the two corner and last of the four teeth.

Between tour and five the horse cuts the under tusks; at live will cut his upper tusks, at which time his mouth will be complete.

At six years the grooves and hollows begin to fill up a little; at seven the grooves will be well nigh filled up, except the corner teeth, leaving little brown spots where the dark brown hollows formerly were.

At eight the whole of the hollows and grooves are filled up. At nine there is very often seen a small bill to the outside corner teeth; the point of the tusk is worn off, and the part that was con- cave begins to fill up and become rounding; the squares of the cen- tral teeth begin to disappear, and the gums leave them small and narrow at the top.

Horses - to prevent from jumping. - Pass a good stout surcingle around his body; put on his halter, and have the halter-strap long- enough to go from his head, between his fore legs, then through the surcingle and back to one of his hind legs. Procure a thill strap, and buckle around the leg between the foot and joint; fasten the hal ter-strap in this - shorter or longer, as the obstinacy of the case may require. It is also useful to keep colts from running where there is likely to be danger from the result; if the thill strap should cause any soreness on the leg, it may be wound with a wiK>len cloth, and it would be well to change it from one leg to another occasionally.

Horses - to prevent kicking in the stall. - Fasten a short trace- chain about two feet long, by a strap to each hind foot. A better way is to have the stalls made wide enough so that the horse can turn in them easily. Close them Avith a door or bars, and turn the animal loose. After a while he will forget the habit, and stand tied without further trouble.

Horse Management - hints on. - Young man, I see you are about to take a tlrive this morning, and will offer you some advice. Your horse is restive and vv'ants to be off before you are ready; you may as well break him of this now as at any time, and hereafter you will find it has been a half hour well spent. Just give me the reins, while you put your foot on the step, as if to get in; the horse makes a move to go; I tighten the reins and say " whoa." Now put your foot on the step agam; the horse makes another move; I hold the reins and speak to him again. The horse is getting excited. Pat him a little on the neck, and talk to him soothingly. Put your foot on the step again, and repeat the process until the horse will stand still for you to get in, and adjust yourself in your seat, and tell him to go. A few such lessons will train him so that he will always wait for the order before starting. Now, as your horse has just been fed, drive him at a gentle pace for the first two or three miles, until he warms up, and his body becomes lighter. But, before you start, let me show you

WirA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD A' NO W. 217

how to hold the reins. Take them in the left hand, have them of equal length from the bit, and cross each other in your hand, the (jff side one resting? on the fourth finger, the back of the hand upwards. Now, in guiding the horse, you have only to use the wrist joint, which will direct him either right or left, as you wish. Keep your hand steady, with a gentle pressure on the bit - no jerking or swilch- ing of the reins. If more sp^ed is wanted, take the whip in ycnir right hand, to be gently used for that purpose; be careful not to apply it harder than is necessary to bring him uj) to the required speed.

Speak to him soothingly, and intimate in the most gentle manner what you want him to do, imd he will try to do it. So noble an animal should not be handled roughly nor overdriven.

When you return have the harness removed at once, and the horse rubbed down with a wisp of straw or hay. Give him a bite of straw or hay, and let him cool off before being watered or fed. Every one who handles a horse or has anything to do with one, should in the first place cultivate his acquaintance; let hiiTi know that you are his friend, and prove it to him by your kind treatment; he needs this to inspire confidence, and when that is gained, he is your humble servant.

If your horse gets frightened at any unusual sight or noise, do not whip him, for if you do he will connect the whipping with the object that alarmed him, and i)e afraid of it ever after. If he merely shies at an object, give him time to examine it, which, with some encour- aging words from the driver, will persuade him to pass it. You get frightened, too, sometimes, and would not like to be whipped for it.

Horses (Rearing) - to stop. - A correspondent cured a horse of the bad habit of rearing when mounted by providing himself with a bot- tle of water, and dashing the contents " with violence on its head" the moment it began to get up on its hind feet. A second applica- tion was never needed.

Horse Remedies. - White lead, for bruises and breaks in the skin, saddle galls, etc.; bathing whisky, with about two ounces of turpen- tine, two ounces of hartshorn and a little camphor for sprains, stiff- ness, etc. Leaf lard for cuts. Coal oil applied to a slight sprain is also good.

Horseradish - to keep for winter. - i. Take up before frost sets in, roots of horseradish, shake the dirt from them; bury them in a box of wet sand. This will preserve their full flavor.

2. If horseradish be prepared in the fall as follows, it may Ijc kept all winter: To each coffeecupful of horseradisli allow one teaspoonful of salt, one tablespoonful of white sugar, and a pint and a half of good vinegar; bottle and seal.

Horses - to tame. - Take finely grated horse castor, oils of rho- dium and cumin; keep them in separate bottles well corked; put some of the oil of cumin on your hand, and approach the horse on the windy side. He will then move toward you. Then rub some of the cumin on his tkjsc, give him a little of the castor on anything he likes, and get eight or ten drops oil of rhodium on his tongue. You

2i8 WI/A T E VER V ONE SIIO ULD KNO IK

can then get him to do anything you like. Be kind and attentive to the animal, and your control is certain.

Horses - to feed. - It is best to give a horse water before giving oats. The water stays in the stomach a very short time, but is quick- ly absorbed or passed into the bowels, where it is absorbed and goes into the blood. The horse secretes a very large quantity - more than four quarts - of saliva while eating a meal, which is sufficient to re- duce the food to a pulp suitable for its digestion. So that to give water soon after eating, except in very small Quantity, would be apt to cause indigestion and waste of the food by excessive dilution.

Hose (woolen) - to wash. - Woolen hose should be soaked all night and washed in hot suds with beef's gall, a tablespoonful to half a pail of water. Iron on the wrong side.

Hot-beds - to make. - There is no mystery about a hot-bed, yet farmers and many others do without this convenience from some supposed difficulty in making and caring for it. Sashes, a few boards and some horse manure are the materials required. Regular hot-bed sashes are three by six feet, and may be I ought ready glazed at the sash and blind factories; old window sashes will answer as a make- shift, but are far less convenient. Select a place sheltered by a build- ing or fence from cold winds; dig a pit two and a half feet deep, as wide as the sashes are long, and as long as the number of sashes to be used require. Line this pit with rough boards n&iled to posts driven down at the corners. The rear board should extend a foot above the surface, and the front one four inches above. The front or lower side should face the south. Nail strips from front to rear for the sashes to slide upon.

House-Cleaning Hints. - As anything that can lessen the labor of a house-keeper is desirable, I venture to contribute my mite. Save the tea leaves for a few days, then steep them in a tin pail or pan for half an hour, strain through a sieve, and use the tea to wash all var- nished paint. It requires very little rubbing or " elbow polish," as the tea acts as a strong detergent, cleansing the paint from its im- purities, and making the varnish shine equal to new. It cleanses window sashes and oil cloths; indeed, any varnished surface is im- proved by its application. It washes window-panes and mirrors much better than soap and water, it is excellent for cleansing black walnut picture and looking-glass frames. It will not do to wash un- varnished paint with it. Whiting is unequaled for cleansing white paint. Take a small quantity on a damp fiannel, rub lightly over the surface, and you will be surprised at its effects. Wall papers are readily cleansed by tying a soft cloth over a broom, and sweeping down the walls carefully. The dust and ashes of furnaces and stoves are deposited in every crack anil crevice of our rooms, and requires vigilant and active treatment for their removal. Carpets absorb great quantities of them. All who can afford it will find it a great improvement to use straw matting in summer, and in autumn cover them with carpet linings, or even common newspapers, then put

WHA T K VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W, 219

down the caq5ets over them. Cleansing silver is not an easy task; the use of kerosene will greatly facilitate the operation. Wet a flan- nel cloth in oil, dip in dry whiting, and thoroughly rub the plated or silverware; throw it into a dish of scalding soap-suds, wipe with a soft flannel, and polish with a chamois skin. Your silver or plate will look equal to that exhibited in a jeweler's window, and will re- tain its brilliancy for six months, if once a week, when washed, it is polished with a chamois skin. Bright silver adds much to the beauty of a table, and is easily attained by this method. Some may think it will injure the plate. I have used it spring and fall for five years, and neither plated articles or silver sustain any injury. Those who use brass and irons will find it equally efficacious in restoring their brightness. Old feather beds and pillows arc greatly improved- by putting them on a clean grass plot during a heavy shower; let the beds become thoroughly wetted, turning them on both sides. Let them lie out till thoroughly dry, then beat them with rods; this will lighten up the feathers and make them much more healthful to sleep upon. It removes dust and rejuvenates the feathers.

Household Helps. - The use of a mop in washing dishes will be found a saving of the hands, and hotter water may be used. You need scarcely touch the water except at the last to wash the table and pans. Have a pan of clear hot water, in which dip each dish as it is washed; in another pan or shallow tin put a cup or bowl, and over that turn the saucers, plates, etc., to drain, and by the time you are ready they will be nearly dry, needing only a touch from the towel, a saving both of time and towels.

For washing vegetables, procure from a five-cent store a small scrubbing-brush, which they call a nail-brush. You will find it a great help in removing the dirt from potato-eyes, etc.

A holder is a necessary article, and catches much dirt about the stove. Make them of any old pieces of woolen. Then make a cover of some dark material. Cut a piece fifteen inches long and six inches wide, fold over six inches, and sew in form of bag, sew the end of the remaining three inches together, to make a point, fold that over and button to the bag, add a loop at the corner, and put in your holder. When the cover is soiled it can easily be removed and washed.

When you sweep a room, take down all little articles, as brackets, vases, easels, etc., dust carefully, lay them on the table and cover with a cloth. When the sweeping is done and the large articles dusted, you will be relieved to have these ready to return to their places.

When brushing and combing your hair, have a large newspaper spread on the floor. Loose hair is much easier removed from that than the carpet.

To clean hair-brushes sprinkle them well with powdered borax, let them lie half an hour, then wash and rub thoroughly. It is a good plan to clean two, as they clean better by rubbing two together.

The perfect housewife has a thorough knowledge of many little facts which render her home an exceptionally pleasant one. Without

220 //YA/ T EVERY ONE SHOULD KNOW.

this knowleilgc she is a domestic failure. Of what benefit to her are c(^stly things if she does not know how to take care of them? She may bo the i)cst of cooks, and know how to make twenty different omelets, and if she is not acquainted with the fact that a little salt rubbed on the discolored egg-spoon will restore its silver tint, she had better not serve eggs in any shape; and if they that had- the care of her youth never let her see that hot water took peach stains out of the tablecloth, or that port anci claret stains were rendered null by an immediate handful of salt, wet with sherry, she might as well buy gray and parti-colored damask to begin with. If an ink spot dis- figures the parlor carpet, she should know how to wash it out with milk, and clean up afterward with warm and nice soapsuds; or per- haps it is a grease spot, that could have been absorbed out of exist- ence by frequent applications of magnesia or of buckwheat flour, if she had only known enough to sprinkle it abundantly on the spot, and brush it off afterward. Do Hies collect in the dining-room dur- ing dinner? She can drive them away by leaving in the room an hour or so beforehand a little preparation of equal quantities of cream and brown sugar, and half as much black pepper. Of what use is it to her, living possibly far from bakeries and bread shops, to keep crackers, for instance, in the house, if she has never learned how to freshen them by leaving them for three minutes in a hot oven, or to prevent them being nibbed all over by ants by strewing the store- room shelves with a few cloves, occasionally renewed? Such things are trillcs, each one by itself, of course, but half a hundred such things can contribute very materially to comfort and good nature in a family, anil every housemistress should be a collecttu" of these un- considereil Irilles.

House Painting - directions. - Priming. - Apply as thick as the paint will spread easily, rubbing out well with the brush. Use litharge as a dryer. After sandpapering and dusting, putty up all the nail heads and cracks with a putty-knife.

OuTsiDK Skcono Coat. - Mix your paint with raw oil, using it as thick as possible consistent with easy spreading. After it is applied, cross-smooth the work until it is level and even, then finish length- wise with long light sweeps of the brush.

Oi'isiDK Third Coat. - Make a little thinner than the last, rub out well, cross-smooth and finish very lightly with the tip of the brush.

Inside Second Coat. - Mix your paint as thick as you can work it, using equal parts of raw oil and turpentine, rub this out well and carefully with the brush, cross-smooth and finish even and nice.

Inside Third Coat. - Mix with three parts turpentine and one part of raw oil, rub out well and smooth off with great care.

Fourth Coat, Fi.attino. - Mix with turpentine alone thin enough to admit of spreading before it sets. Apply quickly without cross- smoothing, and finish lengthwise with light touches of the tip of the brush, losing no time, as it sets rapidly.

Drawn Flatting. - Ground white lead is mixed with turpentine

WllA'J' Kl'KNY ONE SIIOLnJ) k'NOW. 221

al^v^''t as thin as the last named mixture. The lead will soon settle and the oil and turpentine rise to the top; pour it off, and repeat the mixture until what rises to the top is clear turpentine. 'J'he oil l)einK all withdrawn by this process, the lead is mixed with turpentine, and applied thickly and evenly with great care. This is used as a fourth coat, and the room must be kept shut and free from draught, as the color sets as fast as it is put on.

Plastered Walls. - Give them a coat of glue size before painting in oil.

KiLLiNCx Smoky Walls or Ceilin(;s. - Wash over the smoky or greasy walls with nitre, soda, or thin lime whitewash - the last is the best.

House Plants - care of. - With the improvements in the heating of houses, the culture of plants in our dwellings has greatly dimin- ished. Most persons can recollect plants that have been cultivated from year to year so long that they seemed to be members of the family. Grand old lemon trees, fine specimens of laurestinus and pittosporum are now rarely seen in house culture, and the ivy, cai)a- ble of such varied ornamental uses, is becoming uncommon. When our dwellings were heated by (jpen wood fires, the chief care needed by the plants was to protect them from the cold. At present this is the least of our trouljles, but others have come in its place. Still, even under all present disadvantages, plants may be successfully cultivated in the windows of the dwelling, if a few simple directi(jns are fol- lowed. One great enemy to hfjuse plants is dust.

If there are plant shelves at the windows, or the pots are placed upon a table or stand, contrive some cover for them at sweeping time. This may be, for plants on shelves, a curtain of some light material - the lighter the better - to be suspended in such a manner as to cover them. If the plants are on a table, contrive an upright post or stick to be set in a hole in the middle of the table, to h(jld up the center of a spread of some kind that will cover the plants. In the absence of such protection, contrive some method of using old news- papers. Before sweeping, protect the plants by the use of a covering, and let this remain over them until the dust has completely settled.

All smooth-leaved plants, esi)ecially ivy, camellias, cape jessami.ie, and the like, should have their leaves washed with a soft sponge - a rag will answer - on both sides, with tepid water, at least once a week. If this is once tried, it will be found much less trouble than one would suppose, and the increased beauty of the foliage will lead to its repetition. Rough-leaved plants, such as geraniums, and many others, cannot be washed to advantage. Set these in a bath- tub or in a sink, and give their leaves a good drenching by using a garden syringe if one is at hand, or else a watering-pot, one with fine holes, holding it up high so that the water will fall with force upon the leaves.

If one allows insects to get the mastery, the case is difficult; but if the plants as soon as brought indoors have proper attention, insects

222

need p;ivc but little trouble. The three preat remedies for insects upon house plants are: the finj^i^ers, tobacco, and water. One who loves ])hints anil watches them, will note the (irst appearance of scale, mealy-bug, or other insect large enough to be readily seen, and re- move it. Scale may be readily removed by a blunt knife, and mealy- bug may be picked off by a match whittled to a point. Keep a supply of tobacco-water made by pouring boiling water upon tobacco-stems or any cheap kind of tobacco. When used, this is to be diluted, as the rule goes, "to the color of boarding-house tea." Diluted in this manner it may be showered upon plants infested with plant lice. Preferably, it may be placed in a keg or tub, and the plants infested with insects dipped in it for a few seconds, moving them gently about. The most troublesome of all insects in dry rooms is the red spider, a minute mite which attacks the undersides of the leaves. When the leaves of a ])lant turn brown, reil spider is the probable cause. A frequent application of water is the remedy. In this case, lay the pots on their sides so that the water will reach the under sur- face of the leaves.

If a plant is not in flourishing condition, the common remedy is water, and it is watered again and continuously until the soil in the pot is merely mud, in which only the roots of aquatic plants can live. Vastly more house plants are injured by too much than by too little water. 'Inhere is but one rule for giving water to house plants, that is - give water when it is needed. There should be no indiscriminate daily watering, drenching all alike. It is far better for a plant to occasionally get a little dry, and f(n" its leaves to flag and droop, than to keep its roots soaked by an excess of water. The soil in the pots of house plants should be moist, like that of good garden soil just be- low the surface. If in this condition, no more water is needed. One by observing the soil, its color, and the manner in which it feels when pressetl by the finger, can soon learn to judge whether water is needed or not.

Every one who cultivates house plants should learn to readily re- move the ball of earth from the pot, so that it can be inspected. By exposing the ball, the large earth worms may often be seen upon its surface, ami can be picked off. These as well as smaller worms that sometimes infest the soil, may be readily killed by the use of lime- water. Slake a piece of lime as large as the fist in a pail, and when slaked, fill the i)ail with water, stir, and let it rest. Use the perfectly clear water iq)on the soil in the i)i)ts.

By observing these precautions as to dust, insects, and watering, the window cultivation of plants will be comparatively easy. Not only for the health of the plants, but of that of the inmates of the dwelling, the air, however heated, should be moistened by proper pro- vision for the evaporation of water.

Mouse plants ought to be stimulated gently once or twice a week. Rainwater, so refreshing to summer llowers, always contains am- monia, which also abounds in all liquid manures. If you take an

WHA T E VER V ONE SIIO ULD KNO W. 223

ounce of pulverized carbonate of ammonia, dissolved in one gallon of water, it will make spring water even more stimulating to your plants than rain water. If you water your plants once in two weeks with guano water (one tablespoonful to a pail of water) they will grow more thrifty.

House - how to set on fire. - i. Rub your furniture with linseed oil, and preserve carefully the old greasy I'ags used for this purpose, in a paper box in an out-of-the-way jjlace.

2. If the fire in the stcjve does not burn well, pour benzine or kero- sene on it from a well-lilled gall(;n can.

3. When you light a cigar, or the gas, throw the burning match - no matter where, and don't look after it even if it gets into the waste- paper basket.

4. Put a burning candle on the shelf of a closet, and forget about it.

5. Always read in bed until you fall asleep with a light burning near you,

6. Always buy the cheapest kerosene you can get. Hydrophobia - positive cure for. - The dried root of elecampane,

pulverize it, and measure out nine heaping tables[)(Jonfuls, and mix it with two or three teaspo(;nfuls of pulverized gum arable; then divide into nine equal portions. When a person is bitten by a rabid animal, take one of these portions and steep it in one pint of new milk, until nearly half the quantity of milk is evaporated; then strain, and drink it in the morning, fasting for four or five hours after. The same dose is to be repeated three mornings in succession, then skip three, and so on, until the nine doses are taken.

The patient must avoid getting wet, or the heat of the sun, and ab- stain from high-seasoned diet, or hard exercise, and, if costive, take a dose of salts. The above quantity is for an adult; children will take less, according to age.

Hydrophobia - cure for. - The following is said to be a cure for hydrcjphobia: Take two tablespoonfuls of fresh chloride of lime, mix it with one-half pint of water, and with this wash keep the wound constantly bathed and frequently renewed. The chloride gas pos- sesses the power of decomposing the tremendous poison, and ren- ders mild and harmless the venom against whose resistless attack the artillery of medical science has been so long directed in vain. It is necessary to add that this wash must be applied as soon as possible after the infliction of the bite.

Hypophosphites - compound syrup of. - Dissolve two hundred and fifty-six grains each of hy[)oph(;sphites of soda, lime and potassa, and one hundred and twenty-six grains hypophosi)hite of iron, in twelve ounces water, by a water bath. I'ilter rmd add sufficient water to make up for the evapcjration. Add eighteen ounces sugar by gen- tle heat, to make twenty-one fluid ounces syrup. Each fluid ounce contains twelve grains each of the hypophosphites of soda, lime and potassa, and six grains hypophosphite of iron.

224 /' '//^ T K VER Y ONE SIIO ULD KNO W.

Hysterics - treatment of. - This complaint is confineti chiefly to females. A tit of hysterics is j*:eiierally the result of some natural ami inimeiiiate cause, ami until this is discovered and removed, the patient will always be sul)ject to these fits. When a person is seized with a lit the dress should be loosened, fresh air admitted, cold water dashed in the face, and salts, or sinji^ed feathers applied to the nos- trils. If consciousness does m)t then return, a drautrhtof sal-volatile and water should be given, ami if the patient be still insensible, the temples and the nape of the neck should be rubbed with l)randy. When hysterics can be traced to impaired r atural action, equal por- tions of pennyroyal and wi)rmwood should be steeped in boiling water, and sullered to simmer by the fire until the virtue of the herbs is extracted. It should then be allowed to cool, and half a pint be taken twice or thrice a day, succeetled on each occasion by a com- pound assaftx'tida pill, until the desired relief is afforded.

H}sterics - cure for. - The fit may be prevented by the adminis- tration of thirty drops of lautlanum, and as many of ether. When it luis taken place open the wimlows, loosen the tiijht parts of the dress, sprinkle cold water on the face, etc. A glass of wine <.)r cold water when the patient can swallow. Avoid excitement and tight lacing.

Ice - to keep. - Ice for domestic use can be well kept, packed from the air in sawilust or feathers. Small quantities may be wrapped in flannel, or put into a flannel jelly-bag, so that the water can drain off.

Ice-cask - for preserving small quantities of ice. - Take two casks, one six or seven inches longer and wider than the other; into the larger of these put charcoal powder, three or four inches deep; then place the smaller cask, lilleil with ice, on this, and fill up the siiles between the two casks with charcoal powder rammed down tight; arrange a double cover ami (ill the ii\terstice in the same way as the siiles. When this is done, bore a hole one inch in diameter through the bottoms of the two casks, ami insert a wooden peg to let t>lT any water. Set the cask upon a stand, and keep it in as cool a place as possible.

Ice - to cut. - Ice may be cut into small pieces, of any shape, merely by tapping into it the point of a tine needle.

Ice - to make. - i. Get a quantity of empty barrels or boxes during the coldest time in the winter, and put a few inches of water in each; the evening when the cold is most intense is the best time to do this. After the water is frozen solid, till up iigain; repeat the process until the barrels are full of soliil ice, then roll them into your cellar, cover \\\v\\\ up with plenty of sawdust or straw, and your ice crop is safely harvested.

2. A large block of ice has been inaile in the house itself, by mak- ing a frame of bt)ards in the center, ami gradually tilling it up, so that the water freezes solidly each night. Additions in height are made to the frame as required, aiul the sawilust is packed aroimd it.

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. iie,

In this way a solid block of ice, ten feet each way, weighing over thirty tons, has been made during the winter by means of a hose from a pump. Such a block of ice wastes very little in the summer.

3. When a supply of water can be had with a little fall, and where there is sufficient cold weather, an ice house can be readily filled with a solid mass of ice at trifling expense. Arrange a pipe so that the watet can be thrown out over the floor of the ice house in the form of a fine spray, as from the nose of a watering-pot. This will freeze as it falls, quite rapidly in cold weather, and in a brief time a whole house can be thus filled with a solid mass.

Ice Chest - to make. - A box constructed as follows will answer very well in lieu of an expensive ice-chest: Take two dry-goods boxes, one six inches smaller in each direction than the other. Put one inside the other, and pack the space with some non-conducting material, such as wood, cotton-seed, planing-mill shavings, charcoal, or sawdust. Put slats across the inside box near the top on which to rest the ice, and use a bag of sawdust or any other non conducting matter for a lid. There should be some provision for drainage from the bottom of the box.

An ice box on a small scale for keeping milk cool through the night for children or invalids is easily improvised. Put the milk into a crock and over the top set another crock enough smaller than the first to sink into it an inch or two. Fill the upper crock with ice, cover the top with woolen cloths, and spread a blanket over the whole. If more convenient, the milk may be put into a bottle or any small vessel and set in the crock.

Ice - to compute the quantity. - To compute the number of tons an ice-house will contain, calculate the number of cubic feet in an ice-house, and divide by thirty-five; this gives the number of tons the ice-house will contain if it is closely packed.

Ice Cream. - Have rich, sweet cream and one-half pound loaf sugar to each quart of cream or milk. If you cannot get cream, the best imitation is to boil a soft custard, six eggs to a quart of milk (eggs well beat). Or another is made as follows; Boil one quart of milk, and stir into it while boiling one tablespoonful of arrowroot, wet with cold milk; when cold stir into it the yolk of one egg to give it a rich color. Five minutes boiling is enough for either plan. Put the sugar in after they cool. Keep the same proportion for any amount desired. Or thus: To six quarts milk add one-half pound Oswego cornstarch, first dissolved. Put the starch in one quart of the milk; then mix together and simmer a little (not boil), sweeten and flavor to your taste - ex- cellent. The juice of strawberries or raspberries give a beautiful color and flavor to ice cream; or about one-half ounce essence or ex- tract to one gallon, or to suite the taste. Have your ice well broken - one quart salt to a bucket of ice. About one-half hour's constant stirring, with occasional scraping down and beating together, will freeze it.

Ice Cream (Chicago). - Irish moss soaked in warm water one

226 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

hour, and rinsed well to cleanse it of sand and a certain foreign taste; then steep it in milk, keeping it just at the point of boiling or simmer- ing for one hour, or until a rich yellow color is given to the milk; without cream or eggs, from one to one and one-half ounce to a gal- lon only is necessary, and this will do to steep twice. Sweeten and flavor like other creams.

Ice Cream (Chocoiate). - One generous pint of milk, one cupful of sugar, a scant half cupful of flour, two eggs, one quart of cream; make the foundation w-ith two eggs, the sugar, flour, and one pint of milk; boil the m.ilk, beat the eggs and flour together, and stir this into the boiling milk and cook twenty minutes, stirring often. While this is cooking scrape one square of chocolate, add two tablespoon fuls of sugar, and one of boiling water. Stir this over the fire until it is smooth and glossy, then add to the boiling mixture. Set away to cool. When cold add another cup of sugar and the quart of cream. Freeze the same as other ice cream. The foundation can be used for ice cream of any flavor.

Ice Cream (Tea). - Put half an ounce fine orange flavored tea into an earthenware pot and pour on it a pint of boiling milk. Let it stand until nearly cold, then pour it off fine, and if necessary, strain to free it from any particles of leaf. Put the liquor into a large steAV- pan, with enough lump sugar to make it sweet. When it is hot add to it a quarter of a pint of rich cream and the yolks of five eggs. Stir over a slow fire until it becomes a thick custard, and then take from the fire; stir occasionally until it is cool, to prevent a skin forming. Freeze in the usual manner.

Icing - for cake. - It is said that if these directions for icing cake are followed, you will have an icing that will neither crumble or break off when the cake is cut. Take the whites of six eggs, one-half pound of sugar, mix well together; then set the mixture on the fire and stir it all the time. As soon as it begins to simmer take it off and beat well till thick, then spread it over the cake.

Imperial Cream Nectar. - i. Take one gallon water, loaf sugar, six pounds; tartaric acid, six ounces; gum arable, one ounce.

2. Flour, four teaspoonfuls; the whites of five eggs; beat finely together; then add one-half pint of water; when the first part is blood warm, put in the second; boil three minutes, and it is done.

Dirtctio7is: - Three tablespoonfufs of syrup to two-thirds of a glass of water; add one third teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, made fine; stir well, and drink at your leisure.

Important Rules. - i. A suitable place for everything, and every- thing in its place.

2. A proper time for everything, and everything done in its time.

3. A distinct name for everything, and everything called by its name.

4. A certain use for everything, and everything put to its use. Indigestion - relief for. - I have been troubled for years with in- digestion, sick headache, and constipation, and have been greatly

WHA T E I'ER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. ii-j

helped by dropping all remedies and drinking a coffeecupful of as warm water as can be drank comfortably, the first thing on rising and just before retiring, always on an empty stomach. It will cause an unpleasant feeling at first, but persevere and you will be surprised at the benefit received. If the kidneys are at fault, drink water blood warm.

Incontinence of Urine of Old People. - The continued use of one to six drops tincture of iodine has proved a successful remedy. For other persons, put four drops tincture of aconite root in a tumbler of water, and use a teaspoonful every half hour until relieved.

India Ink Marks - to remove. - There is no method known of re- moving India ink markings that have been pricked into the skin, save by the process in which they were introduced. The superficial appli- cation of any remedy to remove it will be utterly useless. The only method that will prove efficacious, is the painful and tedious one of pricking the skin as was done when the markings were made, and squeezing out the solid particles of coloring matter with the blood. If this be done carefully and thoroughly the marks may be removed; but in no other way can it be done, except by actually cutting out the marked piece of skin.

Infants' Band - to knit. - An infant's band can be knit of soft wool, and knit whole like the leg of a stocking, and can be made so as to slip on over the feet, by knitting it in ribs - that is, two stitches plain and two purl. They will be elastic, and yet firm, and will fit the body closely and comfortably.

Inflamed Eyes - to cure. - For inflamed eyes use borax, half dram; camphor water, three ounces. The above simple prescription is in common use by the highest medical authorities. It is good for in- flamed eyes. In using it, lean the head back and drop three drops in the corner of each, and then open the eyes and let it run in. Use it as often as the eyes feel badly.

Infusion of Roses. - Take any common red-rose leaves (cabbage roses are the best), and put them into a china teapot; pour over them boiling water in the proportion of a pint of water to one-half ounce of rose leaves. When the infusion has stood ten minutes, pour it off and leave it to get cold; sweeten with sugar or honey. A wineglassful taken occasionally will be found of service in almost all cases of female debility.

Ink (American Commercial). - Take one-quarter pound extract of logwood, one gallon clean soft water; heat it to the boiling point in a perfectly clean iron kettle; skim well; stir; then add ninety grains of bichromate of potash, fifteen grains prussiate of potash, dissolved in half a pint of hot water. Stir for three minutes; take off and strain.

Ink Stains on Books. - To remove ink stains from a book, first wash the paper ivith warm water, using a camel's-hair pencil for the purpose. By this means the surface ink is got rid of; the paper must be wetted with a solution of oxalate of potash, or, better still, oxalic acid, in the proportion of one ounce to half a pint of water. The ink

228 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

stains will immediately disappear. Finally, again wash the stained place with clean water, and dry it with white blotting paper.

Ink - to take out of boards. - To take ink out of boards use strong muriatic acid, or spirits of salts, applied with a piece of cloth; after- ward wash well.

Ink (Common Writing) - to make.- " In the recipes generally given for making ink, it is recommended to boil the ingredients. This is a very serious mistake. It should always be made with cold water. By this latter process, more time is of course necessary to make it; but then the ink is very superior, and entirely free from extractive matter which has no inky quality, and which only tends to clog the pen and to turn the ink ropy and mouldy. Take gall-nuts, broken, one pound; sulphate of iron, half a pound; gum acacia and sugar candy, of each a quarter of a pound; water, three quarts. Place the whole of these ingredients in a vessel where they can be agitated once a day; after standing for a fortnight or three weeks, the ink is ready for use. Logwood and similar materials are often advised to be used in conjunction with the gall-nuts; but they serve no good purpose, unless it be to make a cheaper article, which fades rapidly.

Ink-stains on Table-covers and Carpets - to remove. - Take up as much of the spilled ink as possible with a spoon and blotting- paper; pour cold water on the spot and dry it up with a flannel. If any stain remains, wash the place with a solution of oxalic acid or salt of sorrel; dry it immediately, and, to preserve the color, rub on a little hartshorn.

Ink (Cheap and Good) - how to make. - Take one-quarter of a pound of extract of logwood; one gallon clear, soft water; heat it to the boiling point in a perfectly clean iron kettle; skim well, stir, then add ninety grains of bichromate of potash, fifteen grains prussiate of potash, dissolved in a half pint of hot water; stir well for three min- utes; take off and strain. The above will make one gallon of the best ink which I have ever used.

Ink (Indelible) - to remove. - To remove indelible ink, apply a strong solution of cyanide of potassium, and rinse well.

Ink (Gold and Silver) - to make. - Grind gold leaf with white honey on a slab of porphyry or glass, with a muller, until it is re- duced to an unpalpable powder in a pasty condition; this golden honey paste is then diffused in water, which dissolves the honey, and the gold falls to the bottom in the form of very fine powder. When the honey is all washed away mix the gold powder with gum arable mucilage. After using it. allow it to dry on the paper, and then it may be made brilliant by burnishing it with an agate burnisher. Silver ink is prepared in the same way, by using silver leaf.

Ink (Green) - Rub three and a half drams Prussian blue, and three drams of gamboge, with two ounces of mucilage, and add half a pint of water.

Ink-stains - to remove from the hands. - Indexica4 pumice stone soap will instantly remove ink stains from the hands.

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 229

Ink (Indelible Marking) - One and a half drams of nitrate of sil- ver, one ounce of distilled water, half an ounce of strong mucilage of gum arable, three quarters of a dram of liquid ammonia. Mix the above in a clean glass bottle, cork tightly, and keep in a dark place till dissolved, and ever afterward. Directions for use: Shake the bot- tle, then dip a clean quill pen in the ink, and write and drav^r what you require on the article; immediately hold it close to the fire (without scorching), or pass a hot iron over it, and it will become a deep and indelible black, indestructible by either time or acids of any description.

Ink (Indelible) - i. Two-fifths of a pound of tartaric acid are dis- solved in sixty-one cubic inches hot water; in one-half of the solution dissolve one-fifth oily anilin; add the other half, and then one-fifth pound chlorate of potassium. Allow the solution to cool and subdue until the next day; filter from the bitartrate, and bring the liquid to the density of seven degrees B. Thicken sufficiently with gum arable, and add to each cubic inch one twenty-fifth pound copper sul- phate, dissolved in a little water. This ink may be at once used for printing musiin and other fabrics, upon which the black color will be perfectly developed by bleaching liquids. Chlorate of copper is also used for writing upon zinc used for signs and labels exposed to the weather.

2. An ink that cannot be erased, even with acids, is obtained by the following recipe; To good gall ink add a strong solution of fine soluble Prussian blue in distilled water. This addition makes the ink, and was previously proof against alkalies, equally proof against acids, and forms a writing fluid which cannot be erased without destruction of the paper. The ink writes greenish blue, but after- ward turns black.

3. Dissolve separately one ounce of nitrate of silver, and one and a half ounces of sub-carbonate of soda (best washing soda) in rain wa- ter. Mix the solutions, and collect and wash the precipitate in a filter, while still moist, rub it up in a marble or hard wood mortar with three drams of tartaric acid; add two ounces of rain water, mix six drams white sugar, and ten drams of powdered gum arable, half an ounce of archil and water to make up six ounces in measure.

4. Nitrate of silver, five scruples; gum arable, two drams; sap green, one scruple; distilled water, one ounce; mix together. Before writing on the article to be marked, apply a little of the following: Carbonate of soda, one-half ounce; distilled water, four ounces; let this last, which is the mordant, %&X. dry, then, with a quill pen, write what you require.

Ink - for writing on linen. - Dissolve nitrate of silver (common caustic) in a glass mortar, and in double its weight of pure water. This forms the ink for marking linen, and it must be kept in a bottle well corked. Before using the ink, the part of the linen to be written upon should be saturated with a preparation made of one dram of salts of tartar dissolved in one and a half ounces of water, and dried

230 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

before the fire. The writing should be held to the fire, to bring it up quite black.

Ink (Lithographic). - Venice turpentine, one part; lampblack, two parts; hard tallow soap, six parts; mastic in tears, eight parts; shel- lac, twelve parts; wax, sixteen parts; melt, stir, and pour it out on a slab.

Ink - -ways to remove from linen. - i. To take ink out of linen, dip the ink-spot in pure melted tallow; then wash out the tallow, and the ink will come out with it. This is said to be unfailing.

2. Milk will remove ink from linen or colored muslins, when acids would be ruinous. Soak till the spot is very faint, then rub and rinse in cold water.

3. An inkstand was turned over upon a white tablecloth; a servant threw over it a mixture of salt and pepper plentifully, and all traces of it disappeared.

4. Rub the spot well with the end of a clean mold candle, leaving some of the tallow in lumps upon it for twenty-four hours; then wash the article in boiling water, and the ink will disappear.

5. Take one ounce sal-ammoniac, one ounce salts of tartar, wine- bottle of cold soft water. Well mix the above; Avet the linen thor- oughly with the mixture, and repeat the process till the spots dis- appear.

Ink-stains - to remove from mahogany tables and other wood. - I. Dilute half a teaspoonful of oil of vitriol with a large spoonful of water, and carefully touch the ink-spot with a feather; rub it quickly off, and repeat the process till the spot disappears. Spirit of salt will answer the same purpose, and must be used with equal care, for fear of leaving a white mark.

2, Put a few drops of spirits of nitre in a teaspoonful of water, touch the spot with a feather dipped in the mixture, and on the ink disappearing, rub it over immediately with a rag wet in cold water, or there will be a white mark which will not be easily effaced.

Ink-stains from Printed Books. - Procure two cents worth of oxalic acid, which dissolve in a small quantity of warm water; then slightly wet the stain with it, when it will disappear, leaving the leaf uninjured.

Ink (Perpetual). - Pitch, three pounds; melt over the fire, then add lamp-black, one pound; mix well. This is used in a melted state to fill the letters on tombstones, marbles, etc. Without actual violence, it will endure as long as the stone itself.

Ink Powder. - i. Ink powder that will make good black writing- ink by dissolving in cold water, so as to be fit for use in a few hours or less: Tannic acid, seven ounces; sulphate of iron (copperas), one pound; gum arable, one and one-half pounds; sugar (white), one- fourth of a pound. Powder as finely as possible; rub all together, adding a few drops of clove oil.

2. Reduce to powder ten ounces of gall nuts, three ounces of green copperas, two ounces each of powdered alum and gum arable. Put

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. i^-i.

a little of this mixture into white wine, and it will be fit for immedi- ate use.

Ink (Red Writing). - Best ground Brazilwood, four ounces; dilut- ed acetic acid, one pint; alum, one-half ounce. Boil them slowly in a covered tinned copper or enameled saucepan for one hour, and add one ounce of gum.

Ink (Red) - for 'inen. - Take one-half ounce of vermilion and one dram of salt of steel; let them be levigated with linseed oil to the consistency required.

Ink for Writing on Steel. - Sulphate of copper, water and sul- phuric acid. Dissolve sulphate of copper in water, so as to. make a liquid like ink; add a little sulphuric acid, and use for writing a quill pen. With this ink copper letters may be formed on iron or steel.

Ink (Sympathetic or Secret). - The solutions used should be so nearly colorless that the writing cannot be seen till the agent is ap- plied to render it visible. Boil oxide of cobalt in acetic acid. If a common salt be added, the wilting becomes green when heated; but with nitre it becomes a pale rose color. By using a weak solution of sulphate of copper, the writing becomes blue when exposed to the vapor of ammonia.

Ink Stains - to remove. - i. When fresh done and wet, hasten to provide some cold water, an empty cup and a spoon. Pour a little of the water on the stain, not having touched it previously with any- thing. The water, of course, dilutes the ink and lessens the mark; then ladle it up into the empty cup. Continue pouring the clean water on the stain and ladling it up, until there is not the slightest mark left. No matter how great the quantity of ink spilled, patience and perseverance will remove every indication of it. To remove a dry ink stain, dip the part stained into hot milk, and gently rub it; repeat until no sign is left. This is an unfailing remedy.

2. Oxalic acid is used for removing ink and rust stains and remnants of mud stains which do not yield to other detergents. It may also be used for destroying the stains of fruits and astringent juices, and old stains of urine. However, its use is limited to white goods, as it attacks fugitive colors, and even light shades of those reputed to be fast. The best method of applying it is to dissolve it in cold or luke- warm water, to let it remain a moment upon the spot, and then to rub it with the fingers.

3. Coal oil will take out ink stains, even after they have been washed with soap. Pour on the oil, and rub the spot in the hands; if it does not remove it by the first application, try more, the second application will remove it entirely.

4. As soon as the accident happens, wet the place with juice of sorrel or lemon, or with vinegar, and the best hard white soap.

Ink (Ticketing) - for grocers' use. - Dissolve one ounce of gum arable in six ounces of water, and strain; this is the mucilage. For black, use drop black, powdered and ground with the mucilage to ex- treme fineness; for blue, ultramarine is used in the same manner;

232

fur green, emerald green; for white, flake white; for red, vermilion, lalcc, or carmine; for yellow, chrome yellow. When ground too thick ihcy are thinned with a little water. Apply with a small brush. The cards may be sized with a thin glue and afterwards varnished, if it is desired to preserve them.

Ink (Invisible) - ways to make). - Put litharge of lead into very strong vinegar, and let it stand twenty-four hours; strain it off, and let it remain till quite settled; then put the liquor in a bottle. Next dissolve orpiment in quicklime-water, by setting the water in the sun for two or three days, turning it five or six times a day. Keep the bottle containing this liquor well corked, as the vapor is highly per- nicious if received into the mouth. Write what you wish with a pen dipped in the first liquor, and, to make it visible, expose it to the vapor of the second liquid. If you wish the writing to disappear again, draw a sponge or pencil dipped in aquafortis or spirit of nitre over the paper; and should you wish it to reappear, let the paper be quite dry, after which pass the solution of orpiment over it.

2. The most curious of all kinds of invisible inks is that from cobalt. It is a very lemarkable phenomenon that the figures traced out with this ink may be made to disappear and reappear at pleasure. To prepare this ink, take zaffre, and dissolve it in nitro-muriatic acid, till the acid extracts from it the metallic part of the cobalt which com- municates to the zaffre its blue color; then dilute the solution, which is very acrid, with conmion water; if you write with the liquor on paper, the characters will be invisible; but when exposed to a suffi- cient degree of heat they will become green. When the paper has cooled they will disappear, but by warmth they may be made to ap- pear again. Observe, if the paper be too much heated they will not disapper at all.

Ink (Yello'w). - Gamboge triturated with water, and a little alum added.

Ink Stains and Iron Rust - to remove. - Oxalic acid dissolved in water will remove ink stains and iron rust. Articles must be thor- oughly rinsed after the stains are removed. The acid should be ap- plied and then the garment laid in the sun. Repeated applications may be necessary.

Ink Spots - to remove. - To remove iron rust or ink spots, moist- en the spots and apply salts of lemon until they disappear, and then rinse well. Salts of lemon are made of equal parts of oxalic acid and tartaric acid. Another way is to moisten with lemon juice, sprinkle well with salt, and lay in the sun. If ink is spilled on colored goods that will \\o\. bear acids, soak them immediately in sweet milk boiling hot. Hot melted tallow poured through ink spots will also remove them.

Iiik Stains - to remove from silver. - The tops and other portions of silver inkstands frecjucntly become deeply discolored with ink, which is difficult to remove by ordinary means. It may, however, be completely eradicated by making a little chloride of, lime into a

IVHA T E VER V ONE SIIO ULD KNO W. '233

paste with water, and rubbing it upon the stains. Chloride of lime has been misnamed " The general bleacher," but it is a foul enemy to all metallic surfaces.

Inlaid Mother of Pearl Work. - i. Inlaid mother of pearl work, on sewing machines and other fancy work, is performed by selecting the thin scales of the shell and cementing them to the surface of the ma- terial; the rest of the surface is covered with successive coats of japan varnish, generally black, being subjected to a baking process after each application. When the varnish is as thick as the shell, it is polished, the gilding and painting added, and a flowing coat of varnish put over the whole.

2. Prepare the job with a heavy coat of black japan, then, before it is dry, procure flakes of pearl and lay them on the black surface, pressing them into the japan until they are level with the surface; then with colors from vines and flowers, allowing the pearl to form the body of the flower leaf, and shade up all nicely.

Insects on Plants - to destroy. - Insects are a very serious draw- back to healthy and vigorous plants, and a most vigilant watch should at all times be set for them ; but, in spite of all our care, they will appear and increase with such rapidity that no time should be lost in destroying them. No plants, however, should be taken into the house until thoroughly cleansed. Cultivated plants seem to fur- nish food for several different species of insects, and the treatment necessary to destroy one form will not answer for another. The black or green fly, or aphis, arc always the most numerous, and are first seen on the new growth of houseplants ; but in an amazingly short time spread to the older leaves, especially to the soft wooded ones, as well as flowers, absorbi ig the juice and vitality of the plant. It is easy enough to fumigate a greenhouse, to destroy insects, which, of coarse, could not be done in our dwellings, and many plans have been recommended. One says, sprinkle Scotch snuff on the foliage and let it remain two or three days; another says, a weak solution of carbolic acid, applied with a swab or feather; and still another says, take a little coal oil - just enough to make a colored scum on the sur- face of a tub of water - and dip the inverted plant into it, 'net allow- ing the pot to touch it. Others recommended hot water, and we have found that 10 be the least objectionable. Our plan is to dip the i)lant in a tub of water that will register one hundred and twenty degrees with a thermometer, repeating it the following day. Of course, the plant must not remain in the hot v/ater, as it would be soon cooked. To destroy the green fly in greenhouses or conservatories, the most approved method is fumigating, which is done by placing on a pan of live coals a quantity of damp tobacco stems, filling the house with a dense smoke and keeping it closed until morning; but, as heliotropes, etc., are liable to be injured by smoke, spread paper over the plants while fumigating. It is better, however, to fumigate two or three nights in succession than to rijk too dense smoke. But the most destructive and least known insect is the red spider. It is too small

234 ^^A T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

to be readily seen; but its presence is easily detected by gray or yel- lowish spots on the apparently dying leaves. The little insect lives upon the under side of the leaf; and not only absorbs its vitality, but weaves a fine web, which closes the pores through which the plant breathes. They delight in a hot, dry atmosphere, just such a one as our sitting-room affords; but are readily destroyed by syringing the plant often with clear, warm water, or a good bath in the tub, and then sprinkle with sulphur. But if small plates of bright tin or glass, with a little sulphur on them, are placed under the plants, in the full rays of the sun, no red spiders will trouble them, as the sulphur fumes kill them. A weak solution of whale oil soap is excellent; but it must be very weak, or it would not only kill the foliage, but the plant also. The mealy bug is also very destructive to hot-house plants; but is really the easiest to exterminate of any in this list. They are a large, white, woolly looking lump in the axil of the leaf, and are easily kept down by frequent syringing with warm, greasy water, to which a little sulphur should be added. But, if full grown, they should be picked off by hand or a small, sharp-pointed stick.

For worms at the roots of plants an application of a weak solution of carbolic acid, applied quite frequently to the earth, is said to be a sure cure. Another good plan to kill them is to use water with lime dissolved in it for watering the plants. It also aids the soil in stimu- lating the growth. But probably the safest plan is to carefully shake all the earth from the roots, and, after a thorough watering with warm water, repot in fresh earth. But, for fear of a like trouble again in a short time, a good plan is to subject the required amount of earth to a strong heat, by placing it in an old pan in a stove-oven, until all insects as well as eggs are destroyed.

And now we come to the least known, least understood, and appar- ently the most insignificant insect; but which in reality is the great- est scourge in the whole list. They are the scales {Coccidic), various species, and infest cactus, oleanders, camellias, ficus and tropical ferns. Like all other insects, they increase and spread with great rapidity, covering the woody stem and leaves in a short time; and, as they are so small and so near the color of the plant on which they feed, they usually get a good start before being seen. A weak solution of whale oil soap is the usual remedy; but the best remedy we ever�^ tried is a boy with a pan of warm water and a stiff tooth-brush.

Insects - to destroy. - i. To destroy the little bugs on the oleander, take a piece of lime about the size of a hen's eg,g, and dissolve it in about two quarts of water. Wash the stock and branches of the tree with this water. Slugs are occasionally seen eating large holes or notches in the leaves of all succulents and begonias. They usually feed during the night. Cut potatoes, turnips, or some other fleshy vegetables in halves, and place conveniently near the plants. The slugs will gather upon the vegetables and are easily destroyed.

2. When bugs have obtained a lodgment in walls or timber, the surest mode of overcoming the nuisance is to putty up every hole

235

that is moderately large, and oil-paint the whole wall or timber. In bed-furniture, a mixture of soft soap with snuff or arsenic is useful to fill up the holes where the bolts or fastenings are fixed, etc. French polish may be applied to the smoother parts of the wood.

3. Kerosene oil may be used for destroying insects on plants by taking a tablespoonful of oil and mixing it with half a cupful of milk, and then diluting the mixture with two gallons of water. Ap- ply the liquid with a syringe, and afterward rinse with clear water. This substance is death to plant insects, and we have never heard of its injuring the most delicate plants when used as here directed.

Insect Destroyers. - i. Hot alum water is the best insect destroyer known. Put alum into hot water and boil until dissolved, then apply hot water with a brush to all cracks, closets, bedsteads and other places where insects maybe found. Ants, bedbugs, cockroaches and other creeping things are killed.

2. It is said that common sulphur will kill or drive away the little fish-shaped, silvery pest which infects our pantry. Sprinkle the sul- phur freely about, and the place will soon be cleared of the vermin.

3. A solution of cyanide of potassium is the best poison to kill in- sects of any kind.

Insect Bites- to cure. - Insect bites, and even that of a rattle- snake, have proved harmless by stirring enough common salt inta the yolk of a good ^g% to make it sufficiently thin for a plaster, to be kept on the bitten part.

Insomnia. - A little English work, " Sleep and How to Obtain it," says that insomnia is not so dangerous as is commonly supposed, for the author knows an eminent man of letters who has suffered from it for many years without injury. When a man begins to dream of his work he may know that he is under too great a mental strain. The author's plan of inducing sleep is to reckon up friends and acquaint- ances whose name begins with a certain letter.

Intermittent Fever and Salt. - Take a handful of table-salt and roast in a clean oven with moderate heat till it is brown-- the color of roasted coffee. Dose for an adult: A spoonful dissolved in a glass of warm water; take at once. When the fever appears at intervals at two, three or four days, the remedy should be taken fasting on the morning of the day following the fever. To overcome the thirst, a very little water should be taken through a straw. During the forty- eight hours which follow the taking of the salt, the appetite should be satisfied with chicken and beef broth only; it is especially necessary to observe a severe diet and avoid taking cold. The remedy is very simple and harmless and has never been known to fail where it has been given trial.

Interest Rules. - For four per cent., multiply the principal by the number of days to run; separate the right hand figure from product, and divide by nine.

For five per cent., multiply. by number of davs, and divide by sev- enty-two.

236 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO IV,

For six per cent., multipy by number of days; separate right hand figure, and divide by six.

For seven and three-tenths per cent., multiply by number of days, and double the amount so obtained. On one hundred dollars the in- terest is just two cents per day.

For eight per cent., multiply by number of days, and divide by forty-five.

For nine per cent., multiply by number of days; separate right hand figure, and divide by four.

For ten per cent., multiply by number of days, and divide by thirty-six.

For twelve per cent., multiply by number of days; separate right hand figure, and divide by three.

For fifteen per cent., multiply by number of days, and divide by twenty-four.

For eighteen per cent., multiply by number of days; separate right hand figure, and divide by two.

For twenty per cent., multiply by number of days, and divide by eighteen.

Irish Moss for Colds. - Take one ounce of the moss, wash it well twice in boiling water, pour a little cold water on it, and let it stand all night; the next day add to it one quart of fresh milk, a little lemon peel, and two blades of mace; boil all slowly until the milk is thick; put loaf sugar in a basin, and strain the milk on it. It should be stirred while boiling to prevent the moss settling on the bottom of the saucepan.

Iron Holders. - To make excellent iron holders, and at the same time utilize the tops of a pair of worn-out boots, cut the leather into squares and cover two or three thicknesses of it with some suitable material, whipping it closely in place. Over all put a covering of nice white cloth, and as often as necessary remove the outside cover- ing and replace with a fresh one.

Ironing Hints. - If you would lessen the work of ironing fold your clothes the night before, and lay them upon a table piled on one an- other, covering with an ironing-blanket, and they will be much smoother; sprinkle them in the morning, roll them up tight until you are ready to iron them, and the work, will be a pastime. Some washer women, after taking them from the line, throw them into a basket helter-skelter, all crumpled up, wrinkled and harder to iron.

Ironing Directions. - To iron smoothly, purchase a few cents' worth of beeswax, and rub it over the leaves of thin pamphlet, which have been heated through with the flatiron. Keep it with the iron- ing-sheet and blanket, and when the flatirons are to be used rub them over the wax surface; then wipe gently on a soft cloth. Shirt bosoms can be easily ironed in this manner.

Iron Stains - to remove. - Iron rust can be taken out by wetting the spot, stretching the linen over a plate placed over a basin of boiling water, and touching the place with salts of lemon; keeping

WI/A T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W lyj

the place very hot. As soon as the stain is removed, wash in a good deal of hot water.

Iron - to make take a bright polish like steel. - Pulverize and dissolve the following articles in one quart of hot water: Blue vitriol, one ounce; borax, one ounce; prussiate of potash, one ounce; charcoal, one ounce; salt, one-half pint; then add one gallon of lin- seed oil, mix well, bring your iron or steel to the proper heat and cool in the solution.

Iron (Chilled) - to turn. - At Lister's Works some articles required turning in the lathe, and cast steel could not be made hard enough to cut them. One man proposed cast metal tools. He was laughed at, of course, but his plan had to be tried. Well, cast metal tools were tried, with points chilled, and they cut when cast steel tools were of no use. The article was turned up with metal tools.

Iron or Steel - to clean. - Make a paste of two ounces of soft soap and four of emery powder - that is, two ounces of coarse emery powder and two of fine. Put this paste on fire irons, fenders, etc., and afterward rub off with dry wash leather. Some people use cro- cus powder moistened with sweet oil. This is best for polished steel.

Iron (Cast) - to drill holes in. - By means of carbolic acid a hole one-fourth of an inch in diameter has been drilled through one-half inch thickness of cast iron with a common carpenter's brace; judge, then, what can be done by using the acid and pressure drill.

Iron - for fruit trees. - The scales which fly off from iron being worked at forges, iron trimming, filings, or other ferruginous ma- terial, if worked into the soil about fruit trees, or the more minute particles spread thinly on the lawn, mixed with the earth of flower beds or in pots, are most valuable to the peach and pear, and, in fact, supply necessary ingredients to the soil. For colored flowers they heighten the bloom and increase the brilliancy of white or nearly white flowers of all the rose family.

Iron Kettle (New) - to prepare for use. - The best way to prepare a new iron kettle for use is to fill it with clean potato parings; boil them for an hour or more, then wash the kettle with hot water, v/ipe it dry, and rub it with a little lard; repeat the rubbing for half a dozen times after using. In this way you will prevent rust and all the an- noyances liable to occur in the use of a new kettle.

Iron (Malleable) - to soften. - When your furnace is charged with fuel and metal, get the fire up to a dull, red heat, then pour fluoric acid all over the coke; use one-half pint to one pint, or even one quart, adding a handful of fluor spar; it will make the metal much softer.

Irons - to preserve from rust. - Melt fresh mutton suet, and when through ironing, smear the irons over with it while hot; then dust it well with unslaked lime powdered and tied up in muslin. When not used, wrap the irons in baize, and keep them in a dry place. Use no oil on them at any time except salad oil.

238 IVHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD A'lVO IV.

Iron Rust from White Goods. - One ounce of oxalic acid dissolved in one quart of water. Wet the iron-rust spots in this solution and lay in the hot sun; the rust will disappear in from three to twenty minutes, according to its depth. I have just experimented by hold- ing a rusted cloth, wet in this solution, over the steam of a boiling teakettle, and the rust disappeared almost instantly. In either case the cloth should be well rinsed in water as soon as the rust disappears, to prevent injury from the acid. Many use this acid to remove fruit and ink stains from white fabrics. When diluted still more, it may be used to remove fruit or ink stains from the hands.

Iron Mold - to remove - Dr. Thompson recommends that the part stained should be remoistened with ink, and this removed by the use of muriatic acid diluted with five or six times its weight of water, Avhen it will be found that the old and new stain will be removed sim- ultaneously.

Iron - to prevent rusting. - Give it a coat of linseed oil and whit- ing, mixed together in the form of a paste. It is easily removed and will preserve iron from rusting for years.

Iron or Steel - to soften. - Either of the following methods will make iron or steel very soft:

1. Anoint it all over with tallow, temper it in a gentle charcoal fire, and let it cool of itself.

2. Take a little clay, cover your iron with it, temper in a charcoal fire.

3. When the iron or steel is red hot, strew hellebore on it.

4. Quench the iron or steel in the juice or water of common beans. Iron (Poor) - to improve. - Black oxide of manganese, one part;

copperas and common salt, four parts each; dissolve in soft water, and boil till dry; when cool, pulverize, and mix quite freely with nice welding sand. W^hen you have poor iron which you cannot afford to throw away, heat it, and roll it in this mixture; working for a time, reheating, etc., will soon free it from all impurities, which is the cause of its rottenness. By this process you can make good horse nails out of common iron.

Iron (Cast) - to case-harden. - Cast iron may be case-hardened by heating to a red heat, and then rolling it in a composition composed of equal parts of prussiate of potash, sal-ammoniac, and saltpeter, all pulverized and thoroughly mixed. This must be got to every part of the surface; then plunged, while yet hot, into a bath containing two ounces prussiate of potash, and four ounces sal-ammoniac to each gallon of cold water.

Iron (Malleable) - to case-harden. - Put the articles in an iron box, and stratify them among animal carbon - that is, pieces of horns, hoofs, skins, or leather, just sufficiently burned to be reduced to powder. Lute the box with equal parts of sand and clay; then place it in the fire, and keep at a light red heat for a length of time propor- tioned to the depth of steel required, when the contents of the box are emptied into water.

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 239

Iron (Wrought) - to case-harden. - Take prussiate of potash, finely pulverized, and roll the article in it, if its shape admits of it; if not, sprinkle the powder upon it freely, while the iron is hot.

Iron Wire - to tin. - A new process for tinned iron wire consists in first immersing it in a bath of muriatic acid in which a piece of zinc is suspended. After the acid has produced a nev/ surface on the wire, it is placed in communication with a sheet of zinc in a bath of two parts acetic acid in one hundred parts water, to which three parts chloride of tin and three parts soda are added. The wire is allowed to remain two hours in this mixture, after which it may be polished.

Isinglass - to test. - The best isinglass is made from the air-blad- ders of the sturgeon, and is imported from Russia, where that fish largely abounds. It is a very expensive article, and, on this account, much deception is practiced respecting it. A substance called gela- tine, very inferior in point of value, is most frequently substituted for it. To determine the purity of isinglass, place a few threads of it in cold water, a few more in boiling water, and, again, a few in vinegar. In cold water, pure isinglass swells and becomes soft, white, and opaque; gelatine, on the contrary, is transparent and glass-like. In hot water, isinglass is dissolved with little or no residuum; gelatine leaves a considerable deposit. In vinegar, isinglass swells up into a jelly, and all trace of its structure is soon destroyed; while gelatine hardens, and retains its form.

Isinglass Glue. - One ounce of isinglass, gin, or spirits of wine. Dissolve the isinglass near the fire, in the gin or spirits of wine, in a small vial; when required for use to mend broken glass, etc., set the vial in warm water till the contents melt, and apply the glue to the edges of the broken piece with a camel's-hair brush.

Itch - to cure. - To cure a horse affected with itch, first reduce his daily allowance of food, putting him on low diet and then give him a teaspoonful of a mixture of equal parts of sulphur and antimony, and at the end of a week or ten days the sores will have disappeared, and the horse will be covered with a fine coat of new hair.

Ivory (Artificial). - The inventor, Mr. Marquardt, dissolves two pounds of pure rubber in thirty-two pounds of chloroform, and hereupon saturates the solution with a current of ammonia gas. When the rubber has been completely bleached, the ad- mission of the gas is interrupted, and the mass is transferred into a vessel provided with a stirrer, in which it is washed with hot water until the bleaching agent has been entirely removed. During this operation, the temperature may be increased to one hun- dred and fifty-eight degrees Fahrenheit, in order to evaporate the chloroform, which, by conducting it into an apparatus of condensa- tion, may again be made use of. The remaining product forms a kind of froth, which, being pressed out, dried, and again treated with a small quantity of chloroform, is finally obtained as a consistent paste. The paste is now mixed with a sufficient quantity of finely pulverized phosphate of lime, or carbonate of zinc, until it assumes

a.[0 IVI/AT ETEKY ONE SHOirU) KXOir.

the appc.'xranrr of nutist M�>ur. In this cotuHlioii it is pressed iu hot nu�l(ls, which it leaves sutheietitly haul U> be turt\ed, planed, filed, atul bi>ieil. In order (o in\ita(e eorals, peat Is, ettaixiels, hard wooils, etv ., it is tMily necessary lo mix the paste with the desireil coKus pre- viously t*> its heiim" ee�nipressevl.

Ivory Ornaiucnts - to clean. - To cleati ivot v ot viainents. rub ihetn well with tush buUer - i. e.. withmit salt - atul pui tluMn in the sun- shine. Discolored ivory i\iay be whitetietl by rnbbini; it with a p.'istc Mnnposed ot' burned inu\uce stone atul water, and then place it ni\der glass in the sun.

Iw. J Etching; Fluid. -Take dilute snlpluiric aciil. dilute nnniatic acid, eipial patts; tui\. l'\>r etchitig vatnish t.ike white wax, two parts; tears of tnastic. two parts; tnix.

Ivory to gild. liunuMse it it\ a solution of tiilro-nniriate of i;oUl, and then expose it to hydrogen gas while �,l;vmp. W.ish it afterward iti �,U\\n w.Uet .

Ivory- to polish. - Remove atiy scr;itchcs or tile marks that may be presetit with finely pulverized [Uitnice stone, n\oistetied with water. Then wash the ivmy atul polish with prepareil chalk, applied moist upon a piece of cham(>is leather, rubbing quickly.

Ivory to silver. Toutul a stu.Ul piece o{ ttitt.atc of silver in a mott.it, .uld stilt water to it, mix thetn well t(\i;ether, ivnd keep in vial for use. When yf a ileep yellow j then place it in Clearwater, and expose it \o the fays i>f the sun. If yvui wish to ilepiituie a ttgure, name or cipher iM\ your ivory, dip a cauu^l's-hair pencil in the solution, atul draw the subject v>n the ivv>ry. After it ha? tut tied a deep yellow, w.ish it well with water, and place it it\ the sunshine, occasion;illy wetting It with pute water. In a short time it will tuii\ of a ileep black coU>r, which, if well rubbed, will chanjfc to .1 bt illiant silver.

Ivory - to soften, dn thtee ounces spirits of niter atid (iflecn oui\ces t>f spring water, mixeil togx^thcr, put your ivory lo soak, and it\ tliKH' ov fourd.ivs tt will obey your fingers.

Ivory to whiten. Slake some lime it� water, put your ivory in the water, atter being decatited from the vitoutuls; boil it till it looks quite white. 'Vo polish it afterwatd, set it in the turner's wheel; ami, after having workeil, take brushes at\d pumiiv-stones, subtle pvnvder, with water, rub it till it lov>ks perfectly smooth. Next to that, heat it by turning it against a piece of UtUM\t>r sheep-skin leather, atul when hot, tub it iner with a little dty whiting diluted in oil of olive; then with a little tliy wliiting aloiu\ titu\lly with a piece of sv^ft white tavj. When .ill this is \HM(ormed as directed, the ivory will look vciv white- Ivory to bleach. r.ikc two h.mdfuls of lime, shake it by sprink- ling it with water; then add three pints of water, aiul slit the whole tv^gether; let it settle ten minutes, atul pour the water into a pan for your purpose. Then lake your ivory and sleep it in the lime-water

Willi' I'.ri'.UV (t/VK SIIOUIJ) KNOW. .\,\\

for I woil it, in u slionp, njiiriivv.ilrr '�nr 'loiir, Jind dry il in (lie ;iii.

Ivy (Enf^lish) treatment of.- I Im^ iihc <*( ilic ICn^liMh ivy r.uinoi !)(� I()(i Hiron^ly rccoinincndrd aM !i drcorulion in otir roornH diirin^Mlir winirr scdson. A liidy noted for tin? Iicanly .'ind frcHJmcHH of Ixi' ivirs w;is fiMllH of (he |>lantH every Hprin^ and fall. Il is also Haid llial lo lifditly rul> eat li leaf (mi holli KJde.s with sweet oil will prc-serve a (leftli, vi^oroiiH a|>|)eaian(e of ivi�'H, in npilr of fiiriKKe heal and ^as, iiscjally so iniurions to all house plants. riu*H

Ivy Poisnninjf cure for.- Hallux the paiis alien

Jamaica Rum, - I'nrc Hpirils, one ^.^allon; one fjiiart t)f ihe kind lA r\\\\\ you wish li> imitate, onc-cigiiLh ounce t>il of t ;ii;iw;iv i's enr.iich ft>r Mix galloiiH. Color to tttilt.

Jam (Raspberry).- -Allow a i)t)und of sugai lo a jitauid of liuit, ina .1) Ihe lasplxiries, anti put them, willi the siif/ar, into your pieservin^ kellle. |it)il il slowly fi>r an ht�ur, skimmin)^ it well. 'I it" it up with hrantjy pajx-r. All j.'ims arc; matle in the .same manner.

Jars to cleanse the inside of. I hi; tan he thxit- in a few min- utes hy Idling the jars with hot water (il nerd not he st altlin^ li"l), anti then stirrin){ in a leaspt>onful t>r more of hakin^ stida. Shakt; wtlj, then

Jars coverinjjf for. A j^ootj waiei proof paper for t f>verinj.; jars usetl in pl(?^;el viii)^, 'Il ., may h<: made hy hriishinfj (jvrr Ihe paper will) hoiled liiiseetl oil, ,-ind snspentlinj', it over a line m)lil t|ry.

Ja])anniiif( for old tr.-iys. I'irst (lean the old trays Ihoiou^-hly with st)ap and water and w. liitle rottt-n-sttMie, then dry Iheni hy wip- in^j; and exposure at the lire; next, get st)me gt�ot| copal varidsh, mix il with Home hrotize pi>w.(ler, anti a[)|)ly Ihin with a hri/.sh lo the de- luideij parts; afler vvhi'li, wV the Irays in an oven at a heat of r.vo huntjretl ami Iwdve iiegrecM tn' Ihree liimdr<;d degrees, until ihe varidsh is tli y, Twti t (,�als will make ^Ai\ trayH cpial to new,

Japanese Lac quer. - Japanese lactpier 1h niade as ftdlov/M: M'dt (diy pounds t)f Naples as])haM.um and eight ptn/ndH iA dark gum aidme; h(*il foi al>out two hour.s in twelve gulltjuH ai lini4ccd t;iJ; add thi.s to the other, anil atld tlryers. l>oil f

242 WHA T E VER V ONE SHOULD KNO W.

the boiling the mass must be constantly stirred to prevent boiling ov^er.

Japan Driers (Several). - i. Take linseed oil, one gallon; put into it gum shellac, three-quarters of a pound; litharge and burned Turkey umber, each one-half pound; red lead, one-half pound; sugar of lead, nine ounces. Boil in the oil till all are dissolved, which will require about four hours; remove from the fire, and stir in spirits of turpen- tine, one gallon, and it is done.

2. Linseed oil, five gallons; add red lead and litharge each, three and a half pounds; raw umber, one and a quarter pounds; sugar of lead and sulphate of zinc, each one-half pound; pulverize all the arti- cles together, and boil in the oil till dissolved; when a little cool, thin with turpentine, six gallons.

3. Linseed oil, four gallons; red lead and umber, of each, eight ounces; sulphate of zinc, four ounces; sugar of lead, four ounces. Boil until it will scorch a feather, when it is ready for use.

4. Nut or linseed oil, one gallon; litharge, twelve ounces; sugar of lead and white vitriol, of each, one ounce; simmer and skim until a pellicle forms; cool, and when settled, decant the clear.

5. Oil, one gallon; litharge, twelve to sixteen ounces; as last.

6. Old nut or linseed oil, one pint; litharge, three ounces; mix. Agitate occasionally for ten days, then decant the clear.

7. Nut oil and water, of each, two pounds; white vitriol, two ounces; boil to dryness.

8. Mix oil with powdered snow or ice, and keep it for two months without thawing.

Jaundice - to cure. - Red iodide of mercury, seven grains; iodide of potassium, nine grains; distilled water, one ounce; mix. Com- mence by giving six drops three or four times a day, increasing one drop a day until twelve or fifteen drops are given at a dose. Give in a little water, immediately after meals. If it causes a griping sensa- tion in the bowels, and fullness in the head, when you get up to twelve or fifteen drops, go back to six drops, and up again as before.

Javelle Water - to make. - Take two pounds washing soda and two pounds chloride of lime, place them in a hot stone jar, and pour over them two gallons of boiling water, then place over it a thick cloth and a board with a stone upon it. Let it stand twenty- four hours, stirring two or three times. When quite clear, strain it through bed-ticking or thick flannel, rinsing out immediately to save the cloth. Then bottle for future use.

Javelle Water - uses of. - Javelle water is excellent to remove fruit and vegetable stains, and perhaps some others, but avails noth- ing with ink and iron rust. It is intensely alkaline, and therefore it affects acids principally. A half pint in three or four pails of boiling water will whiten tablecloths beautifully. Any small article that is to be thoroughly treated should be washed and boiled first, then it may be dipped in the javelle water; let it stand three or more min- utes, watching it very closely, and removing it the moment the stain

IVITA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W, 243

disappears. If there is yet a faint outline of the stain, that will often come out in the subsequent treatment. Do not let the fabric be in more than two minutes, as there is risk of disorganizing it. Then throw it into the hot water; let it stand a few minutes; rinse thor- oughly in two or three waters, and hang- to dry in the sun. Do not let a drop of it fall upon colored cloth, and if it falls upon any dry :loth, wash out immediately or it may eat a hole. Do not keep the hands in it long, say half an hour, or it will remove the cuticle.

Jelly - (Old-fashioned Apple). - Take twenty large juicy apples, pare and chop; put into a jar with the rind (yellow part) of four large lemons pared thin and cut in bits; cover the jar closely and set in a pot of boiling water; keep the water boiling all around it until the apples are dissolved; strain through a jelly bag, and mix with the liquid the juice of the four lemons; to one pint of mixed juice one pound of sugar; put in the kettle, and when the sugar is melted set it on the fire, and boil and skim about twenty minutes, or until It is a thick, fine jelly.

Jelly - (Crab Apple). - Cut out the eyes and stalks of the apples; halve them and put in a preserving kettle with enough water to pre- vent burning. Cook until soft; then strain through a sieve, and afterward through a muslin bag; to every pound of juice allow one and one-quarter pounds of sugar. Boil gently for twenty minutes.

Jelly - (Cranberry). - Make a very strong isinglass jelly. When cold, mix it with a double quantity of cranberry juice. Sweeten and boil it up; then strain it into a shape. The sugar must be good loaf, or the jelly will not be clear.

Jellies - ?without fruit. - To one pint of water put one-fourth of an ounce of alum; boil a minute or two; then add four pounds of white sugar; continue the boiling a little; strain while hot; and, when cold put in half a twenty-five cent bottle of extract of vanilla, strawberry, lemon, or any other flavor you desire for jelly.

Jelly (Lemon). - Isinglass, two ounces; water, one quart; boil; add sugar, one pound; clarify; and, when nearly cold, add the juice of five lemons, and the grated yellow rinds of two oranges and two lemons; mix well, strain off the peel, and put it into glasses or bot- tles.

Jelly (Hartshorn). - Hartshorn, one pound; water, one gallon; peel off two lemons; boil over a gentle fire till sufficiently thick; strain and add loaf sugar, one-half pound; whites of ten eggs beaten to a froth; juice of six lemons; mix well together, then bottle.

Jelly (Isinglass). - Put four ounces isinglass and two ounces cloves into one gallon water, boil it down to half a gallon; strain it upon four pounds of loaf sugar; add, while cooling a little wine; then bottle.

Jelly (Apple) - from cider. - Take of apple juice, strained, four pounds; sugar, two pounds; boil to a jelly, and bottle.

Jelly (Gooseberry). - Sugar, four pounds; water, two pounds; boil together; it will be nearly solid when cold; to this syrup, add an

244 ^-H'A T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

equal weight of gooseberry juice; give it a short boil, cool, then pot it.

Jelly (Currant). - Take the juice of red currants, and loaf sugar, equal quantities; boil and stir gently for three hours; put it into glasses; and in three days it will concentrate into a firm jelly.

Jelly (Tapioca). - Wash eight ounces of tapioca well; then soak in one gallon fresh water, five or six hours; add the peels of eight lemons, and set all on to heat; simmer till clear; add the juice of the eight lemons with wine and sugar to taste; then bottle.

Jelly (Blackberry). - This preparation of the blackberry is more agreeable than the jam, as the seeds, though very wholesome, are not agreeable to all. It is made in the same way as currant jelly; but the fruit is so sweet that it only requires half the weight of the juice in sugar.

Jelly (Wine). - Take one pint of water and three ounces isinglass, one and one-fourth sugar, the juice of two lemons, and dissolve that and let it come to a boil, then add wine, brandy and spice to your taste, and strain it through a cotton or flannel cloth and put it in molds to cool.

Jelly (Quince). - Slice the quinces without paring; put into a pre- serving bottle and just cover with water; put over the fire and boil until soft; remove from the stove and strain off the liquor; to every gallon allow four pounds of white sugar, and boil very fast until it becomes a stiff jelly.

Jellies - to keep from molding. - If the paper which is put over jelly be dipped in the white of an &%%, it will when dry be tight and firm, and keep the fruit from molding with much more certainty than if it is dipped in alcohol or brandy. The paper which is laid next the fruit is meant, not that which is tied or pasted over the glass. Jellies should be covered with finely pulverized sugar when put away, to prevent molding.

Jeweler's Rouge - for cleaning plate, jewelry, etc. - Take green vitriol, dissolve it in water; then by degrees add carbonate of soda (used in washing); a powder will fall, which is one kind of rouge. It should be washed in water, and afterward dried. Another kind is made by putting green vitriol in a crucible, and making it red-hot, in which state it may be kept for a quarter of an hour. In the first case, a carbonate of iron will be left; in the last case, an oxide of iron. A small box made of a piece of sheet iron will answer the purpose of a crucible for making the green vitriol red-hot. Great care is requisite in washing. The water should be floated off the powder, so that all grit may be removed, and this operation should be repeated until the powder is perfectly impalpable.

Jewelry (Gilt) - to clean. - Take half a pint of boiling water, or a little less, and put it into a clean oil-flask. To this add one ounce of cyanide of potassium, shake the flask, and the cyanide will dissolve. When the liquid is cold, add half a fluid ounce of liquor ammonia, and one fluid ounce of rectified alcohol. Shake the mixture together.

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 245

and It will be ready for use. All kinds of gilt articles, which have become discolored, may be rendered bright by brushing them with the above-mentioned liquid.

Jewelry - to clean. - i. The simplest and best method of cleaning gold jewelry is by washing with tepid water and fine soap, to which a few drops of ammonia has been added. Rinse off with clear water, and lay in fine hard-wood shavings, or dry polish with chamois skin.

2. Wash in soap suds; rinse in diluted alcohol, and lay in a box of dry sawdust to dry. As simple as this se'ems, it is the very nicest way possible to clean gold chains or ornaments of any kind.

Jockey Club - to make. - Spirits of wine, five gallons, orange- flower water, one gallon, balsam of Peru, four ounces, essence of bergamot, eight ounces, essence of musk, eight ounces, essence of cloves, four ounces, essence of neroli, two ounces; mix thoroughly,

Johnny Cake (Superior). - Two eggs, one-half cup of molasses, one-half cup of sugar, one pint of buttermilk, one-half cup of butter, one teaspoonful of soda, one teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of ground allspice, and make a batter with two-thirds meal and one- third flour. To be eaten warm.

Julep (Mint). - One tablespoonful of white pulverized sugar, two and one-half tablespoonfuls water; mix well with a spoon. Take three or four sprigs of fresh mint, press them well in the sugar and water, add one and one-half wine glasses of Cognac brandy, and fill the glass with shaved ice, then draw out the sprigs of mint, and in- sert them in the ice with the stems downward, so that the leaves will be above in the shape of a bouquet; arrange berries and small pieces of sliced orange on top in a tasty manner, dash with Jamaica rum, and sprinkle sugar on top. Sip with a glass lube or straw.

Jujubes, or Gum Pastilles. - Ingredients: One pound of picked gum arable, fourteen ounces of the finest sugar, pounded and sifted, one-half gill of double orange flower water, and one pint tepid water to soak the gum in, which is afterward to be strained off clean. Put the soaked and strained gum into a sugar boiler with the sugar, and use a clean spoon to stir it over a very moderate fire, while it boils and reduces to the small pearl degree; then add the orange flower water; stir all together on the fire; remove the preparation from the stove; skim off the froth, and use the mixture to cast the jujubes in leveled layers of starch powder contained in a flat box.

Jujubes. - Spanish Licorice. - Ingredients: One pound of picked gum arable, fourteen ounces of sugar, and two ounces Spanish lico- rice dissolved in a gill of hot water, and afterward strained clean. First prepare the gum and boil it with sugar as directed in the preced- ing article, and wiien reduced by boiling to the small pearl degree, incorporate the prepared Spanish licorice with it; remove the scum from the surface, and finish the jujubes in the manner indicated above.

Raspberry.- Ingredients: One pound of picked gum arable soaked

246 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

in one pint of hot water and afterward strained, fourteen ounces ol sugar, one gill of filtered raspberry juice, and a few drops of coch- ineal. Proceed as in the foregoing case, adding the raspberry and coloring last.

Black Currants. - Proceed in all respects as indicated for rasp- berry jujubes, omitting the cochineal, black currant juice being used. Red Currant. - The same as black currant jujubes, red currant juice being used, and a few drops of cochineal.

Ordinary. - Ingredients: One pound of gum arable soaked in one pint of hot water and afterward strained, fourteen ounces of sugar, one-half an ounce of essence of roses, and a few drops of prepared cochineal. Let the mixture be prepared as for other jujubes, but in- stead of casting them in impressions made in starch powder, when the preparation is ready, pour it into a very clean, smooth-tinned bak- ing sheet to the depth of a quarter of an inch, and set it to dry in the screen, or hot closet (moderate heat); when sufficiently dried, so that on pressing the surface it proves somewhat elastic to the touch, re- move it from the heat, and allow it to become cold; the sheet of jujube may then be easily detached, and is to be cut up with scissors in the shape of diamonds.

Kalsomining. - Eight pounds of whiting and one-quarter of a pound of white glue make the right proportions. Soak the glue over night in cold water, and in the morning heat it till perfectly dissolved. Mix the whiting with hot water; stir the two thoroughly together, and have the wash of the consistency of thick cream. Apply warm with a kalsomine brush, brushing it well in and finishing as you go on. If warm skim milk is used instead of whiting, the glue may be omitted. Before the wash is applied, all crevices and holes should be stopped with plaster of Paris mixed with water. If it is desirable to tint the walls, colors may be procured at any paint store and stirred into the kalsomine wash. If whitewash has been used upon the wall it must be scraped off before the kalsomine is used.

Kalsomine (Silver Polish). - Take seven pounds of Paris white and a quarter of a pound of light-colored glue. Set the glue in a tin vessel containing three pints of water; let it stand over night to soak; then put it in a kettle of boiling water over the fire, stirring till it is well dissolved and quite thin. Then, after putting the Paris white into a large water pail, pour on hot water and stir till it appears like thick milk. Now mingle the glue liquid with the whiting; stir it thoroughly and apply with a whitewash brush or a large paint brush. Kathairon (Lyon's). - To eight ounces of eighty per cent, alcohol, colored yellow by a few drops extract of annatto, add two ounces of castor oil, and perfume with a little bergamot.

Kerosene Fires. - It ought to be more generally known that wheat flour is probably the best possible article to throw over a fire caused by the spilling and igniting of kerosene. It ought to be known, be- cause flour is always within convetiient reach.

Kerosene Stains - to remove. - Cover kerosene stains with Indian

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 247

meal, and when the oil strikes through, remove and put on fresh; re- peat this until the oil is removed.

Kettle (Iron) to clean. - Some one asks how to cleanse a new iron kettle. Mine was a source of despair to me until I was advised to boil skim milk in it and then wash in good soap suds. I had my milk man bring me six quarts of skim milk, which I boiled and sim- mered in my eight-quart kettle for twenty-four hours. The kettle was made smooth and clean, and has given me no trouble since.

Kettles - to clean. - A good way to clean the inside of pots and pans is to fill them with water in which a few ounces of washing soda is dissolved, and set them on the fire. Let the water boil until the inside of the pot looks clean.

Keys - how to fit into locks. - When it is not convenient to take locks apart in the event of keys being lost, stolen, or missing, when you wish to fit a new key, take a lighted match or candle and smoke the new key in the flame, introduce it carefully into the keyhole, press it firmly against the opposing wards of the lock, withdraw it, and the indentations in the smoked part of the key will show you ex- actly where to file.

Kid Boots - to soften. - Melt a quarter of a pound of tallow, then pour it into a jar, and add to it the same weight of olive oil; stir, and let it stand till cold; apply a small quantity occasionally with a piece of flannel. Should the boots be very dirty, cleanse with warm water. It will soften any leather.

Kid Boots - to clean. - A mixture of oil and ink is good to clean kid boots with; the first softens and the latter blackens them.

Kid Gloves - to clean. - i. Make a strong lather with curd soap and warm water, in which steep a small piece of new flannel. Place the glove on a flat unyielding surf ace - such as the bottom of a dish - and having thoroughly soaped the flannel (when squeezed from the lather), rub the glove till all dirt be removed, cleaning and resoaping the flannel from time to time. Care must be taken to omit no part of the glove, by turning the fingers, etc. The gloves must be dried in the sun, or before a moderate fire, and will present the appearance of old parchment. When quite dry, they must be gradually pulled out, and will look new.

2. Get of a druggist two ounces of benzine, and a small quantity of powdered soapstone or, as it is called at glove stores, ' Paris glove powder." With a sponge or flannel cloth apply the benzine to the glove (while on the hand) lightly and evenly, and let the glove re- main on the hand till dry, (four or five minutes). Pin it up where the sun will shine upon it; and in about half an hour take the gJove down, pull it out by taking each finger separately, holding the wrist in one hand. Then apply the glove powder inside and outside, rub- bing very hard on the outside. If this be done according to direc- tions, the glove will look as well as new.

Kid Gloves - to restore. - Saturate a piece of cotton cloth with aqua ammonia, wring as dry as possible, and wrap the gloves closely

248 WHA T E VER V ONE SHOULD KNO W.

therein; roll in another dry cloth, and let the gloves then remain for twenty-four hours, at the expiration of which time they should be fully restored. The writer was told to dilute the ammonia with water, but found the solution not sufficiently strong, still I would ad- vise this weakening of the ammonia before trying the full strength.

Kid Gloves - to wash. - Have ready a little new milk in one saucer, and a piece of brown soap in another, and a clean cloth or towel, folded three or four times. On the cloth spread out the glove smooth and neat. Take a piece of flannel, dip it in the milk, then rub off a good quantity of soap to the wet flannel, and commence to rub the gloves downward toward the fingers, holding it firmly with the left hand. Continue this process until the glove, if white, looks of a dingy yellow, though clean; if colored, till it looks dark and spoiled. Lay it to dry, and the operator will soon be gratified to see that the old gloves look nearly new. They will be soft, glossy, smooth, and elastic.

Kid (White) - to color black. - White kid may be easily colored black, purple, or lilac, with a solution of one part extract logwood and three parts brandy. Apply with a sponge and rub until thoroughly dry, and rubbing the hands together so as to soften the gloves.

Kid Slippers (White) - to clean. - To clean white kid slippers wet a piece of Canton flannel in benzine, rub the slipper with it, repeating this until the slipper is clean.

Kindlings - how to make. - To make a handy a

King Cakes. - The following is from a cook-book over two hun- dred years old: " Take a pound of flour, three-quarters of a pound of butter, half a pound of sugar, and half a pound of currants, well cleansed; rub your butter well into your flour, and put in as many yolks of eggs as will lithe them; then put in your sugar, currants, and shred in as much mace as will give them a taste; so make them up in little round cakes, and butter the paper you lay them on."

Kisses. - Five ounces of sugar, three eggs, six ounces of flour, pinch of salt; to be dropped and sugar sprinkled on before baking.

Knickerbocker. - Ingredients: One-quarter pint made-up lemon- water ice, one-half pint of Maderia .wine, one pint of iced seltzer water. Mix these together in a china bowl, and drink from glasses. As Maderia is too precious to be Avasted, one-half pint of sherry will be found a very good substitute in the present recipe.

Knitted Woolen Shaw^l - to wash. - Considerable difficult)'^ is often found in washing knitted woolen shawls. The following di- rections, if strictly attended to, will be found to answer: The shawl should be washed in water a little more than lukewarm, in which a

WIIA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 249

piece of white soap has been boiled and well mixed. Wash it in two waters, and, in rinsing, use also water a little above lukewarm, so as to keep the pores of the wool open, and discharge all the soap; for, if this is not done, the shawl will become thick and hard. Then, when the shawl is well rinsed, take one and one-half pint of warm water and put to it two tablespoonfuls of dissolved gum arabic, which must be mixed well with the water. Into this gum mixture dip the shawl, squeezing it two or three times in it. Wring it well as it is taken out. and again wring it in a clean linen cloth. Put it out quite square 01 carpet, or a fiat surface, with a clean sheet underneath it, and leave it in this manner till it is thoroughly dry.

Knitting-Aprons. - Quaint knitting-aprons can be made of simple strips of crash, with borders worked in red or blue embroidery cot- ton, or if you choose to have a motto stamped upon them, it may be worked in outline stitch. A suitable motto would be: "Tossed, and re-tossed, the ball incessant flies.

Knock-Knees - to cure. - A correspondent says: " I commenced the practice of placing a small book between my knees, and tying a handkerchief tight round my ankles. This I did two or three times a day, increasing the substance at every fresh trial, until I could hold a brick with ease breadth-ways. When I first commenced this prac- tice I was as badly knock-kneed as possible; but now I am as straight as any one. I likewise made it a practice of lying on my back in bed, with my legs crossed and my knees fixed tightly together. This, I believe, did me a great deal of good."

Knitting Terms Explained. - To Cast On. - Make a loop in your thread, and place it on the needle in your left hand; when, with your right hand needle, knit this stitch. Repeat this until the desired number of stitches have been made.

To Increase. - If one stitch only is to be increased, bring the thread between the needles and knit the following stitch. This will make an open stitch or hole in the following row. If a close increase is to be made, pick up the loop below the next stitch to be knitted, and knit it. To increase one stitch when the row is being seamed, the thread will be in front of the needle; pass it quite round the needle to the front again.

To Decrease. - If one stitch only is to be decreased, knit two stitches together as one; if two stitches are to be decreased, slip one, knit two together, pass the slipped stitch over the two knit together.

To Fasten On. - Twist the two ends of thread together, and knit a few stitches with both.

To Pick Up a Stitch. - With the left-hand needle pick up the loop below the next stitch to be knitted, knit it, and pass it to the other needle.

To Slip a Stitch, is merely to pass a stitch from the left-hand needle to the right-hand needle, without knitting it.

To Seam a Stitch. - Insert the needle in the stitch to be seamed,

250 WIIA T E VER V ONE SJIO ULD KNO W.

with the point toward you. Pass the thread quite round the needle: take the needle with the thread on it out at the back.

To Narrow, means knit two stitches together.

Explanation of terms. - Narrow means knit two stitches together; t over one, is simply short for thread over once; thus making an extra stitch; t over two, two extra stitches; t over three, three extra stitches, etc.

Knitted Lace (Oceana). - Cast on sixteen stitches, knit across plain.

First Row. - Three plain, t over one, narrow, one over one, narrow, five plain, narrow, t over one, one plain, t over one, one plain.

Second. - Knit back plain.

Third. - Four plain, t over one, narrow, t over one, narrow, three plain, narrow, t over one, three plain, t over one, one plain.

Fourth. - Knit back plain.

Fifth. - Five plain, t over one, narrow, t over one. narrow, one plain, narrow, t over one, five plain, t over one, one plain.

Sixth. - Knit back plain.

Seventh. - Six plain, t over one, narrow, t over one, three stitches together, t over one, narrow, five plain, t over one, one plain.

Eighth. - Knit back plain.

Ninth. - Five plain, t over one, narrow, t over one, narrow two plain, t over one, narrow, five plain, t over one, one plain.

Tenth. - Knit back plain.

Eleventh. - Four plain, t over one, narrow, t over one, narrow, four plain, t over one, narrow, five plain, t over one, one plain.

Twelfth. - Bind off five stitches, fifteen plain.

Knitted Lace (Parisian) - Cast on nine stitches, knit across plain.

First Row. - Slip one, two plain, t over one, narrow, one plain, t over two, narrow, one plain.

Second. - Two plain, knit one loop, seam one loop, three plain, t over one, narrow, one plam.

Third. - Slip one, two plain, t over one, narrow, five plain.

Fourth. - Seven plain, t over one, narrow, one plain.

Fifth, - Slip one, two plain, t over one, narrow, one plain, t over two, narrow, t over two, narrow.

Sixth. - One plain, one loop plain, seam one loop, one plain, one loop plain, seam one loop, three plam, t over one, narrow, one plain.

Seventh. - Slip one, two plain, t oyer one, narrow, seven plain.

Eighth. - Bind off three, five plain, t over one, narrow, one plain.

Knitting Lace (Normandy). - Cast on fifteen stitches.

First Row. - Knit eight, narrow, thread over, knit three, thread over, knit two.

Second. - Knit two, thread over, knit five, thread over, narrow, knit seven.

Third. - Knit six, narrow, thread over, knit one, narrow, thread

WIIA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 251

over, knit one, thread over, narrow, knit one, thread over, knit two. Fourth. - Knit two, thread over, knit one, narrow, thread over, knit three, thread over, narrow, knit one, thread over, narrow^ knit five.

Fifth. - Knit four, narrow, thread over, knit one, narrow, thread over, knit five, thread over, narrow, knit one, thread over, knit two.

Sixth. - Knit two, thread over, knit one, narrow, thread over, knit three, thread over, narrow, knit two. thread over, narrow, knit one, thread over, narrow, knit three.

Seventh. - Knit five, thread over, narrow, knit one, thread over, narrow, knit three, narrow, thread over, knit one, narrow, thread over, knit one, narrow.

Eighth. - Cast ofif one, knit one, thread over, narrow, knit one, thread over, narrow, knit one, narrow, thread over, knit one, nar- row, thread over, knit six.

Ninth. - Knit seven, thread over, narrow, knit one, thread over, slip one, narrow, pass slipped stitch over, thread over, knit one, nar- row, thread over, knit six.

Tenth. - Knit two, thread over, narrow, knit three, narrow, thread over, knit eight.

Eleventh. - Knit nine, thread over, narrow, knit one, narrow, thread over, knit three.

Twelfth. - Cast off two, knit one, thread over, knit three together, thread over, knit ten.

This finishes one scallop.

Knit Lace (Raspberry Stitch). - Cast on any number of stitches that will be a multiple of four and add two more; for instance, six- teen and two,, or twenty-four and two.

First Row. - Purl clear across.

Second. - Knit first stitch, knit, purl, and knit before slipping the second stitch, making three of one. Purl the next three together, knit, purl and knit the next stitch, making three stitches of one. Purl the next three together, and so repeat through the needle.

Third. - Like the first.

Fourth. - Knit the first, purl the next three together, then knit, purl and knit the next before slipping, making three stitches out of one, etc., thus changing the order with the second row. Remember always to knit the first stitch and change the order of the berries. It makes the pattern very simple.

Knitted Lace - (Wheat-ear Edge).- Cast on five stitches, knit across plain.

First Row. - Knit two, thread over, knit one, thread over twice, seam two together.

Second. - Thread over twice, seam two together, knit four.

Third. - Knit three, thread over, knit one, thread over twice, seam two together.

Fourth. - Thread over twice, seam two together, knit five.

252

Fifth. - Knit four, thread over, knit one, thread over twice, seam two together.

Sixth. - Thread over twice, seam two together, knit six.

Seventh. - Knit six, thread over twice, seam two together.

Eighth. - Thread over twice, seam five together, knit three.

Knitted Lace (Oak Leaf Edge). - Cast on ten stitches, knit across plain.

First Row. - Two plain, t over two, scam two together, one plain, t over two, narrow, t over two, narrow, one plain.

Second. - Two plain, first loop plain, seam one, loop, one plain, first loop plain, seem one loop, one plain, t over two, seam two to- gether, two plain.

Third. - Two plain, t over two, seam two together, three plain, t over two, narrow, t over two, narrow, one plain.

Fourth. - Two plain, knit one loop, seam one loop, one plain, knit one loop, seam one loop, three plain, t over two, seam two to- gether, two plain.

Fifth. - Two plain, t over two, seam two together, five plain, t over two, narrow, t over two, narrow, one plain.

Sixth. - Two plain, knit one loop, seam one loop, one plain, knit one loop, seam one loop, five plain, t over two, seam two to- gether, two plain.

Seventh. - Two plain, t over two, seam two together, seven plain, t over two, narrow, t over two, narrow, one plain.

Eighth. - Two plain, knit one loop, seam one loop, one plain, knit one loop, seam one loop, seven plain, t over two, seam two to- gether, two plain.

Ninth. - Two plain, t over two, seam two together, fourteen plain.

Tenth. - Bind off till ten stitches remain on needle, five plain, t over two, seam two together, two plain.

Knitted Child's Leggings. - One and one-half ounces single zephyr, any shade. Cast on fifty-six stitches.

First Row. - Narrow, t over one, one plain, t over one, one plain, slip one, narrow, draw slipped stitch over, one plain, t over one, one plain, t over one, one plain, slip one, knit five stitches together, draw slipped stitch over. Repeat to the end of the row. Just before the last stich in this and every other row, should always be preceded by t over one.

Seam back on the second row and all the other even rows. This pattern makes the top of the legging, and consists altogether of six- teen rows.

Begin at the seventeenth row and knit ten ribs for the leg, narrow- ing at each end of every other rib until there are forty-five stitches on the needle. Then divide these stitches, fifteen for the instep and fifteen each side of the ankle, taking the last thirty off on bits of silk. Knit two ribs for the instep, and cast off. Then take up the stitches at the side. Cast on eleven for the toe and narrow at the toe and

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 253

heel after knitting two ribs on the side of the foot. Sew up the leg- ging. _

Knives - to clean. - Take an even portion of fine coal ashes and soda; mix with a little water and rub your knives with the mixture until all stains are removed; wash in tepid Avater without soap; wipe dry, and your knives will look as bright as new.

Knives (^Silver) - care of. - Silver, or silver-plated knives, should be wiped with a damp cloth and thoroughly dried as soon as the meal is over. If left for a half hour or so, they are apt to be stained. Charcoal powder is good for polishing knives without destroying the blades. It is also a good tooth powder when finely pulverized.

Knives - care of. - To keep knives from rusting, scour bright, wipe thoroughly, dry them by the fire, dust fine wood ashes fresh from the stove plentifully over the knives on both sides, leaving those which adhere to the blades, wrap in a piece of cloth and roll up in a paper, taking care to fold the ends of the paper so that the knives are all covered up. Now you may lay them away for a year, and when you look at them you will not find rusty spots on the steel blades.

Knives Not in Use - to keep. - Without great care, knives not in use will soon spoil. They are best kept in a box in which sifted quick- lime has been placed, deep enough to admit of the blades being com- pletely plunged into it. The lime must not touch the handles, which should be occasionally exposed to the air to keep them from turning yellow.

Lace (Black) - to clean. - i. Pass the lace through a warm liquor of bullock's gall and water, afterwards rinse in cold water; then take a small piece of glue, pour boiling water upon it, and again pass the lace through it; clap it with your hands, and then frame it to dry.

2. Scald some bran with boiling water, and dip the lace up and down in the bran and water when warm; and when clear, squeeze the water out and shake the bran off. Lay it out, and pull out the edges, etc. Iron it between linen on a blanket, so that the iron does not glaze it. Or if lace is dipped in cold milk, and ironed in the same way, it will be found to clean it equally as well.

Lace (Gold or Silver) - to clean. - Materials: Part of a stale loaf of bread, one-fourth pound powder blue. Rub the bread fine, mix the blue well with it. Lay this plentifully on the lace, and it will soon become bright; then take a piece of flannel and brush the crumbs well off . After this, rub the lace gently with a piece of crimson vel- vet, and it will look as well as new.

Lace (Black) - to freshen. - Lay it on a clean table, sponge it all over with a weak solution of borax, about a teaspoonful, or less, to a pint of warm water. Use a piece of old black silk, or black kid glove is better, to sponge with. While damp, cover with a piece of black silk or cloth, and iron.

Lace - to wash. - To wash nice lace, baste it closely on a piece of

254 WHAT EVERY ONE SHOULD A' NOW.

flannel, securing all the little loops and points. Let it soak for a little while in a suds of pearline or fine soap with a few drops of ammonia, then squeeze it and wash it gently with the hands, and if not thorough- ly clean, soak it again in fresh suds. Rinse in two or three waters, and when pretty dry, press on the back of a flannel with a hot iron. By this process the lace will be fully restored, and will look like new.

Lace (Black) - to wash. - Carefully sponge the lace with gin, or, if preferred, with green tea, and wind it round and round a bottle to dry, as, if touched with an iron bolt, it would become glossy and have a flattened appearance. Some persons fill the bottle with warm wa- ter, which causes the lace to dry more quickly. It must, on no ac- count, be placed near the fire, as it would loose its color, and have a rusty appearance.

Lace - to wash. - Washing valuable lace should be a labor of love; time and patience are important requisites to do it well, and it comes especially within the province of the gentlewoman who pos- sesses it. A long wooden board, say two yards by one, will be nec- essary for deep flounces. For smaller pieces, one yard by half a yard will do, but the larger size is preferable, as several pieces can be done on it at the same time. The board must be covered with thick flan- nel, and slightly stuffed to form a thick cushion. A good supply of fine, long lace pins, with small, round heads, will be required, as well as an ivory punch or an ivory knitting-needle, with a round point, a lobster's claw or a dog's tooth. Before washing, the yellow stains sometimes observable in old lace should be removed by placing the discolored portion on a hot iron, covered with linen moistened with a solution of oxalic acid; the lace should afterward be steeped in luke- warm water. Tepid water expels the starch or stiffening, hot water shrinks the thread, while cold water sets the dirt. Having well- soaked the lace, wash it in a lather of purest white soap and luke- warm water. This must be done "with great delicacy of touch, and rubbing must not be attempted; it must be merely dabbed or patted, and pressed between the hands gently to and fro in the water. When the dirt is well out rinse it several times in lukewarm water, and if any stiffness is required pass it through water just sweetened with the finest white sugar candy. In drying, the moisture must be expelled by gentle pressure; hand wringing must never be resorted to for any of the finer kinds of lace.

Lacquer (Japanese). - Japanese lacquer is made as follows: Melt fifty pounds of Naples asphaltum and eight pounds of dark gum ariime; boil for about two hours in twelve gallons of linseed oil. Then melt twelve pounds of dark gum amber, and boil it with two gallons of linseed oil; add this to the other, and add dryers. Boil for about two hours, or until the mass, when cooled, may be rolled into little pellets. Withdraw the heat, and thin down with thirty gallons of turpentine. During the boiling the mass must be constantly stirred to prevent boiling over.

WHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W 255

Lacquer - for tin. - Put three ounces of seed-lac, two drams of dragon's blood, and one ounce of turmeric powder into a pint of well-rectified spirits. Let the whole remain for fourteen days, but during that time agitate the bottle once a day at least. When prop- erly combined, strain through muslin. It is brushed over tinware which is intended to imitate brass.

Lamb (Roast). - Fry two good slices of pork in your spider till crisp; cut four slices of light stale bread, and chop in your tray with the pork; then put back into the spider with the pork fat; add a cup- ful of rich milk, a third of it cream if you have it, if not, add a table- spoonful of melted butter with the milk, sprinkle in a little salt, a half teaspoonful of black pepper, and a heaping tablespoonful of powdered sage; mix all well together, and let it stand to soak. If this is not pretty moist, add milk until it is so. Take the upper por- tion of a hind quarter of lamb, dust it well all over with flour, and sprinkle on salt with sage. Pour water in the dripping pan, and lay in the meat with the outside down, put in prepared dressing as com- pactly as possible, lay a piece of thin linen over it, set in the oven, and with basting every half hour spread a little butter over as you baste, and bake three hours or more in a good oven; add a little flour, and butter, and seasoning, to the drippings, and serve with your meat.

Lambrequins (for mantle-shelf) - to make. - Buy apiece of heavi- est burlap (such as is used for floor mats; half the length of your shelf, divide it through the middle, and sev/ the ends together; this will form a seam in the center, but when nicely opened and pressed, it does not show. Leave about three inches of it on the edge to ravel for fringe; above this work the Grecian pattern, or a pretty vine, with Germantown wool, and tie some of the wool in with your fringe. Use a narrow, black velvet ribbon to finish the upper edge, and tack to the shelf with gilt-headed tacks. Mine is worked with shaded red, is very pretty, and inexpensive. Another made of invisible green flannel, lined with cambric, is cut in "picket fence points;" a cluster of bright flowers, cut from satin-finished cretonne cloth, is button- hole stitched on each point, the edges of the points are pinked, and inside of this edge is a row for feather stitching made with old gold floss on every point on the " picket," and the space between the " pickets " is finished with a tassel or ball of silk or worsted.

Lambrequins (Mantel) - to make. - A mantel lambrequin of old gold twine to make the upholstery colorings of a room has red satin ribbon run in and out at intervals perpendiculary. Each end of rib- bon is folded to a. point and finished with a brass crescent, and a red silk tassel just below. A table lambrequin of pale blue twine has three rows of crushed strawberry red ribbon about an inch wide run horizontally through its openings, and the edge is finished with a thick blue fringe. Oblong ornaments made of crushed strawberry silk and gold tinsel are set at intervals of about four inches all along the heading of the fringe. The top of the table is covered with blue

256 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

flannel, covered by a square of crocheted work in blue to match the fringe.

Lambrequin - to make. - If you have a rough, uncouth shelf in your kitchen or sitling-room, first cover the top neatly with some dark, smooth cloth; then take a strip of dark but bright double-faced Canton flannel about eight inches in depth (more or less, according to width or length of shelf), and long enough to reach across the front of the shelf and around at either end; paste a pretty, contrasting stripe of cretonne through the center, and stitch it on with the ma- chine; hem the lower edge of the flannel, and finish with as pretty a worsted fringe as you can afford; bring the upper edge up over the edge of the board and make fast with minute iron tacks, and you wull have not only a convenient receptacle for lamps, books, or vases of flowers, but an addition to the furnishing of your room in the shape of a very artistic and eye-pleasing shelf.

Lampas. - This consists in a swelling of the first bar of the upper palate. It is cured by rubbing the swelling two or three times a day with one-half ounce of alum and the same quantity of double refined sugar mixed with a little honey.

Lamp-Burners - to clean. - To clean old lamp-burners, wash them in ashes and water, and they will come out bright as new. Many times a burner is condemned because the light is poor, when having clogged up with sediment, the wick is at fault.

Lamp-Chimneys - to clean. - It is very necessary that the chim- neys of lamps be kept clean and bright, otherwise they will greatly interfere with the amount of light. The glass chimney-brush answers its purpose admirably, and, if used daily, and itself kept well cleaned l)y occasional washing in soda and water, there will be little trouble with the chimneys. Should they, from neglect, become very much stained and spotted, the stains or spots may be removed by soaking them in weak vitriol and water, or by rubbing them gently with the finest sandpaper under water.

Lamp-Chimneys - care of. - After the lamps are filled and the chimneys washed and put on the shelf, take pieces of newspaper and roll in the form of a chimney, and slip over chimney and lamp. It will protect them from dust and flies, and when the lamps are lighted one will be rewarded by finding them as clear and bright as when first put in order.

Lamp-Wicks - to make. - Striped cotton flannel may be used as wicks for kerosene lamps. Make them double, rough side out, sew- ing the raw edges together. It is well to dip lamp-wicks in strong, hot vinegar, and dry before using. The lamps are jess likely to smell disagreeable if this precaution is taken.

Lamps - reflection from. - Never set the lamp upon a red table- cover; if you cannot find time to make a green lamp-mat, put a piece of green cardboard under the lamp, and you will find the reflection upon your work much more agreeable to the eyes than that from the red cover. "

257

Lamps - to prevent smoking. - Soak the wick in strong vinegar, and dry them well before using them. No lamp will smoke with wicks so prepared, unless they are turned up too high.

Lamps - ^why they explode. - Many things may occur to cause the flame to pass down the wick tube and explode the lamp.

1. A lamp majr be standing on a table or mantle, and a slight puff of air from tiie open window or the sudden opening of a door, cause an explosion.

2. A lamp may be taken quickly from a table or mantle, and in- stantly explode.

3. A lamp is taken into an entrjr where there is a draft, or out of doors, and an explosion quickly ensues.

4. A lighted lamp may be taken up a flight of stairs, or is raised quickly to a place on the mantle, resulting in an explosion. In all these cases the mischief is caused by the air movement - either by suddenly checking the draft, or forcing the air down the chimney against the flame.

5. Blowing down the chimney to extinguish the light is frequently the cause of an explosion.

6. Lamp explosions have be^n caused by using a chimney broken off at the top, or one that has a piece broken out, whereby the draft is rendered variable and the flame unsteady.

7. Sometimes a thoughtless person puts a small-sized wick in a large burner, thus leaving considerable space in the tube along the edges of the wick.

8. An old burner with its air drafts clogged up, which rightfully should be thrown away, is sometimes continued in use, and the final result is an explosion.

Lamps (Kerosene) - to care for, - Only the most ignorant can be so stupid as to pour kerosene upon a fire, and as such persons do not read, it would be a waste of time to caution them against it. Filling a lamp while it is lighted is something that ought never to be done. It can be avoided by always filling the lamp in the morning. This task should belong to some one member of the household, who should have a fixed and regular time for doing it; nothing ought ordinarily to interfere with or cause its postponement. It should be made a duty, to be discharged with all the regularity and punctuality of the daily meals. If good kerosene, of either of the best manufacturers, be used, there is little danger of accident. Glass lamps ought never to be carried about, for the \^ry reason that they are glass. This would hold, no matter what material they contam; even if it be sperm or lard oil, the breaking of a lamp is a disaster to be avoided. There is a chance that the one carrying it ma)' slip or trip, or some other accident cause it to be dropped. With good kerosene, even the breaking the lamp and spilling its contents should cause no disaster in the way of burning; but all kerosene is not good, and the risk should never be taken. In trimming the lamps, only the small por- tion that is charred need be removed from the wick, and that is read-

258 WITA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

ily done by scraping with a knife kept for the purpose. If any sub- stance collects upon the wick tube, that should be scraped off, leav- ing the brass or metal perfectly clean. After carefully scraping, wipe off the upper part of the wick tube and the wick with a piece of very soft paper, to remove any soft particles left in scraping. A wick may become unfit for use long before it is burned up. Many quarts of oil are carried through a wick, and in time the pores of the fabric be- come so filled with little particles of dust and other impurities that the oil contains, that its ability to take up the oil as fast as it is burned becomes greatly diminished, and when this occurs, a new wick is needed. If a lamp is filled quite full in a cold room, and then is brought into a warm one, the heat will cause the oil to expand and overllov/, and lead to the suspicion that the lamp leaks. This should be avoided by not filling completely; knowing that this may occur sufficient space should be left to allow for the expansion. Kerosene lamps, if kept full, will never explode, as there is then no room in the lamp for the accumulation of explosive gas.

Land Measure. - One acre contains one hundred and sixty square rods, four thousand, eight hundred and forty square yards, forty-three thousand, five hundred and sixty square feet. One rod contains thirty and one-fourth square yards, two hundred and seventy-two and one-fourth square feet. One square yard contains nine square feet.

Laundry Hints. - Washing fluids shorten labor, but the clothes require such thorough rinsing, after their use, that only careful hands should be intrusted with the work.

To wash flannels so as to have them soft and pliable instead of hardened into wooden boards, requires skill on the part of the washer. Science tells that the oil of perspiration remaining in flannels should be removed before soap is applied, or a combination is formed with the soap that hardens the flannel instead of softening it. To remove this oil, soak them, previous to washing, for at least half an hour in soda water, moderately strong. After this they are easily washed and remain soft.

Put all the soap used for flannels in the water. Hot water is best for washing and rinsing. They should be well wrung and shaken before they are hung to dry. Always wash flannels by themselves, for if done in the suds used for cotton clothes, the white fluff of the cotton works into the wool and spoils their appearance. Colored flannels are much used now, blue being recommended to wear next to the skin as most healthy. Where white flannels are preferred, they can be kept nice and white by an occasional bleaching.

This is easily done by fastening ropes across a barrel, near enough to the top to allow the garment to be above it. Put some sulphur into an iron vessel, and after the garments are washed, rinsed, and placed on the ropes, pour some hot coals on the sulphur, and set the barrel down over it, keeping it well covered to retain the flumes. In a half hour or more, take them out and hang them to dry.

When starching dark clothes color the starch with coffee, and they

^ 259

will be much improved in appearance, as white spots frequently show on the goods where white starch is used. Dark clothes should be turned wrong side out to dry, or hung in the shade, so as to prevent fading the colors.

To give lawns afresh look, put gum arable water into the starch, or use it altogether if the lawn is fine. Gum arabic is also excellent for stiffening muslins and laces. After using it a few times the quan- tity liked can easily be found out. Lace should never be made stiff, however, or it loses its grace and beauty. In washing fine laces, do not rub, but squeeze the water through them. It is better to soak than to rub them. Borax or ammonia water cleans them nicely by soaking the soiled parts for several hours.

Iron laces very lightly on the wrong side, placing them on a thick, soft cloth first. They may be partially dried, pulled into shape, and then pressed under a light weight.

Laundry Blue. - A good washing blue is made as folft)ws: Make a solution of prussiate of potash, two ounces, and another of protosul- phate of iron, one ounce. Add the second gradually to the first, until the precipitate almost ceases to fall, then strain through linen; add water, and continue the washing until the blue color begins to dis- solve in it, when it may be at once dissolved in distilled water and dried.

Laundry Notes. - If handkerchiefs used in colds are put to soak in borax water for a half hour or more, the phlegm will be removed, and render the washing easy.

Stockings that are stained or troublesome to clean are improved by being stretched out on a board and scrubbed with a hand-brush. Colored stockings ought to be rinsed quickly and well, and opened by pulling them on the hands on each side, and holding them thus until the toe is reached, then letting them fall, and pinning them by the top and side to the line. Woolen stockings are kept from shrink- ing if dried on a wooden shape of the right size. These are easily made from shingles or thin boards.

To keep flour starch from lumping, mix the flour with water first, then remove the boiling water from the fire for a minute before stir- ring in the mixture, or it will cook into lumps before it reaches the bottom. It is well to remember this in making gruel, corn-starch, etc.

To set the colors of calico, soak in ox-gall r.nd water, using one tablespoonful of ox-gall to one gallon of water.

A teacup of lye in a bucket of water improves the color of black goods.

To brighten pink or green calicoes, put vinegar in the rinsing water.

Pearl ash answers the same purpose for purple or blue. One tea- spoonful of sugar of lead in one qu'art of water sets blue colors fast. For the latter the articles must be clean.

26o WI/A T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO W.

A strong tea made of common hay is said to preser\'e the tints of gray-colored linen.

Before beginning to iron, sprinkle the table plentifully with water and lay on the ironing blanket. This will hold it firmly in place and prevent all wrinkling and shoving about. NeA'er try to iron with a blanket having wrinkles or bunches.

Laughing Gas - to inhale. - Procure an oiled or varnished silk bag, or bladder, furnished with a stop-cock, into the mouth, and at the same time hold the nostrils, and the sensation produced will be of a highly pleasing nature; a great propensity to laughter, a rapid flow of vivid ideas, and an u.iusual fitness for muscular exertion, are the ordinary feelings which it produces. The sensations produced by breathing this gas are not the same in all persons, but they are of an agreeable nature, and not followed by any depression of spirits like those occasioned by fermented liquors.

Lavender Water - to make. - i. Pick the lavender flowers from the stalks, and to every pound put a quart of water in a cold still ovei a slow fire. Distil very slowly; and when finished, clean out the still, put the lavender v/ater back again, and distil it over again as slowly as before. This is double-distilled lavender water, and should be bottled and well corked till required for use.

2. Best English lavender, four drams; oil of cloves, one-half dram; musk, five grains; best spirits of wine, six ounces; water, one ounce. Mix the oil of lavender with a little spirits first, then add the other ingredients, and let it stand, being kept well corked for at least two months before it is used, shaking it frequently.

3. A cheap and good lavender water may be made by putting three drams of the essential oil of lavender and one dram of oil of amber- gris into one pint of spirits of wine, and mixing them by shaking the bottle, which must be kept well corked.

Lead (Black) - to remove. - Frorn polished steel sides of a grate, first wash them with strong soap and water, using old flannel for the purpose; then rub them with sweet oil and rotten-stone; polish in the usual manner with soft leather.

Lead Pipes (Broken) - to join during pressure of -water. - It fre- quently happens that lead pipes get cut or damaged when the water is running at a high pressure, causing m.uch trouble to make repairs, especially if the water cannot be easily turned off. In this case plug both ends of the pipe at the brtak, place a small piece of broken ice and salt around them. In a few minutes the water in the pipe will freeze; next, withdraw the plugs and insert a new piece of pipe; solder perfectly, thaw the ice, and it will be all right.

Lead Pipes - to repair small leaks in. - Place the point of a dull nail over the leak, give it a gentle tap with a hammer and the flow will cease.

Lead Pipes - to prevent corrosion. - Pass a strong solution of sulphide of potassium and sodium through the inside of the pipe at a temperature of two hundred and twelve degrees, and allow it to re-

IV HA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 261

main fifteen or twenty minutes. It converts the inside of the pipe into an insoluble sulphide of lead and prevents corrosion.

Leaf Impressions. - Hold oiled paper in the smoke of a lamp, or of pitch, until it becomes coated with the smoke; to this paper apply the leaf of which you wish an impression, having previously warmed it between your hands, that it may be pliable. Place the lower sur- face of the leaf upon the blackened surface of the oiled paper, that the numerous veins that are so prominent on this side may receive from the paper a portion of the smoke. Lay a paper over the leaf, and then press it gently upon the smoked paper with the fingers or with a small roller (covered with woolen cloth or some like soft ma- terial), so that every part of the leaf may come in contact with the sooted oil paper. A coating of the smoke will adhere to t he leaf. Then remove the leaf carefully, and place the blackened surface on a sheet of white paper not ruled, or in a book prepared for the pur- pose, covering the leaf with a clean slip of paper, and pressing upon it with the fingers or roller as before. Thus may be obtained the im- pression of a leaf, showing the perfect outlines, together with an accurate exhibition of the veins which extend in every direction through it more correctly than the finest drawing. And this process is so simple, and the materials so easily obtained, that any person with a little practice to enable him to apply the right quantity of smoke to the oil paper, and give the leaf a proper pressure, can pre- pare beautiful leaf impressions, such as a naturalist would be proud to possess. There is another, and, we think, a better method of tak- ing leaf impressions than the preceding one. The only difference in the process consists in the use of printing ink instead of smoked oil paper.

Leaf Printing. - After warming the leaf between the hands, apply printing ink by means of a small leather ball containing cotton or some soft substance, or with the end of the finger. The leather ball (and the finger when used for that purpose), after the ink is applied to it, should be pressed several times on a piece of leather or some smooth surface before each application to the leaf, that the ink may be smoothly and evenly applied. After the under surface of the leaf has been sufficiently inked, apply it to the paper where you wish the impression, and, after covering it with a slip of paper, use the hand or roller to press upon it, as described in the former process.

Leaf Plant Skeletons. - The leaves are to be put in an earthen or glass vessel, and a large quantity of rain-water to be poured over them; after this they are to be left to the open air and to the heat of the sun without covering the vessel. When the water evaporates so as to leave the leaves dry, more must be added in its place; the leaves will by this means putrefy, but they require a different time for this; some will be finished in a month, others will require two months or longer, according to the toughness or their parenchyma. When they have been in a state of putrefaction for some time, the two mem- branes will begin to separate, and the green part of the leaf to be-

262 WHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KlSfO TV.

come fluid; then the operation of cleaning is to be performed. The leaf is to be put upon a fiat, white earthen plate and covered with clear water; and being gently squeezed with the finger, the mem- branes will begin to open, aud the green substance will come out at the edges; the membranes must be carefully taken off with the finger, and great caution must be used in separating them near the middle rib. When once there is an opening toward this separation, the whole membrane always follows easily; when both membranes are taken off, the skeleton is finished, and it has to be washed clean with water, and then dried between the leaves of a book. Fruits are di- vested of their pulp and made into skeletons in a different manner. Take, for an instance, a fine large pear which is soft, and not tough; let it be neatly pared without squeezing it, and without injuring the crown or the stalk; put it into a pot of rain-water, covered; set it over the fire, and let it boil gently till perfectly soft, then take it out and lay it in a dish filled with cold water; then holding it by the stalk with one hand, rub off as much of the pulp as you can with the finger and thumb, beginning at the stalk, and rubbing it regularh^ toward the crown. The fibers are most tender toward the extremities, and are, therefore, to be treated with great care there. When the pulp has thus been cleared pretty well off, the point of a fine penknife may be of use to pick away the pulp sticking to the core. In order to see how the operation advances, the soiled water must be thrown away from time to time, and clean poured on in its place. When the pulp is in this manner perfectly separated, the clean skeleton is to be preserved in spirits of wine. This method may be pursued with the bark of trees, which afford interesting views of their constituent fibers.

Leather - beautiful bronze for. - Dissolve a little of the so-called insoluble aniline violet in a little water, and brush the solution over the leather; after it dries repeat the process.

Leather - to dye yellow. - Picric acid gives a good yellow without an}^ mordant, it must be used in very dilute solution, and not warmer than seventy degrees Fahrenheit, so as not to penetrate the leather.

Leather - to dye green. - Aniline blue modifies picric acid to a fine green. In dying the leather, the temperature of eighty-five degrees Fahrenheit, must never be exceeded.

Leather (Morocco and Sheep) - dyes for. - i. Blue. - Blue is given by steeping the subject a day in urine and indigo, then boiling it with alum, or it may be given by tempering the indigo with red wine, and washing the skin therewith.

2. Boil elderberries or dwarf-elder, then smear and wash the skins therewith and wring them out; then boil the elderberries as before in a solution of alum water, and wet the skins in the same manner once or twice, dry them, aud they will be very blue.

Red. - Red is given by washing the skm and laying them two hours in gall, then wringing them out, dipping them in a liquor made with

WIIA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 263

ligustrum, alum, and verdigris, in water, and lastly in the dye made of Brazil wood boiled with lye.

Purple. - Purple is given by wetting the skins with a solution of roche alum in warm water, and when dry, again rubbing them with the hand with' a decoction of logwood in cold water.

Green. - Green is given by smearing the skin with sap-green and alum boiled.

Dark Green. - Dark green is given with steel-filings and sal-am- moniac, steeped in wine till soft, then smeared over the skin, which is to be dried in the shade.

Yellow. - Yellow is given by smearing the skin over with aloes and linseed-oil dissolved and strained, or by infusing in weld.

Light Orange. - Orange color is given by smearing it with fustic berries boiled in alum water, or for deep orange, with turmeric.

Sky Color. - Sky color is given with indigo steeped in Tioiling water, and the next morning warmed and smeared over the skin.

Leather - French polish dressing for. - Mix two pints best vinegar with one pint soft water; stir into it a quarter pound of glue, broken up, half a pound logwood chips, one quarter ounce of finely powdered indigo, one-quarter ounce of the best soft soap, one-quarter ounce of isinglass, put the mixture over the fire and let it boil ten minutes or more; then strain, bottle, and cork. When cold, it is fit for use. Apply with a sponge.

Leather - French finish for. - Take a common wooden pailful of scraps (the legs and pates of calf-skins are best), and put a handful each of salt and alum upon them, and let stand three days; then boil until they get a thick paste ; in using, you will warm it, and in the first application put a little tallow with it, and for a second time a little soft soap, and use it in the regular way of finishing, and your leather will be soft and pliable, like French leather.

Leather - French patent. - Work into the skin with appropriate tools three or four successive coatings of drying varnish, made by boiling linseed oil with white lead and litharge, in the proportion of one pound of each of the latter to one gallon of the former, and add- ing a portion of chalk or ochre, each coating being thoroughly dried before the application of the next. Ivory black is then substituted for the chalk or ochre, the varnish thinned with spirits of turpentine, and five additional applications made in the same manner as before, except that it is put on thin and not worked in. The leather is rubbed down with pumice-stone, in powder, and then placed in a room at ninety degrees, out of the way of dust. The last varnish I prepared by boiling half a pound asphaltum with ten pounds of the drying oil used in the first stage of the process, and then stirring five pounds copal varnish and ten pounds of turpentine. It must have one month's age before using it.

Leather - liquid japan for. - Molasses, eight pounds; lampblack, one pound; sweet oil, one pound; gum arable, one pound; isinglass,

264 wiiA r /�; / � /�; a' i ' o xe sik > ur. i > A'. V( > / / '.

Leather Gloves to stain. - Those pleasing- hues of yellow, brown, CM" tan color, are readily inipartcd to leather gloves by this simple process: Steep saffron in soft biMlintj water for twelve hours; then, iiavin.�: sewed up the tops oi the j;loves, to prevent the dye from stdnitvjf ihe inside, wet them over with a spont;e tlipped into the licpiitl. IMie ("itLMutity of saffron, as well as of water, depends ow how iTiucli (lye ina\' \w wanlt-d, and tluir relative positions on the deptli of color recpiirt'd. A common ti-acup will cantain t|l)ite suflicietit in quatUity for a sin,i;Ie pair of j^loves.

Leather to soften. - The best oil for maUin^ Ixmt ami harness leather soft and pliable, is castor oil.

Leather - bronzing. - A small amount ot so-called msoluble ani- line violet is dissolveil in a little water, and the solution is brushed over the articles; it will ilry ipiickly, ami perhaps may have to be rc- l)eated. Shoes that are treated in this way present a beautiful bronze color.

Leather Scraps- to utilize. - First clean the scraps, then soak them in water containing one per cent, of sulphuric aciil until the ma terial becomes soft anil plastic, then compress into blocks ami dry by steam. In order to soften the blocks, one poin\d of glycerine is acKled to (Mie hut\dred pcnmds of the material; they are then passed through rollers and broughl to the proper thickness to be used as in- ner solrs of boots and shoes.

Lemonade (Portable). - Tartaric acd, one ounce; white sugar, two pounds; essence of lemon, one-ijuarter ounce. Powder and keep drv foi- use. One ilessert spotmful will make a glass of lemonade.

Letters or Papers (Old) - to renew. - Hoil galls in wine and sponge over the surface. The letters or writings will be as fresh as ever.

Leaves - to fasten to glass. - To fasten forest leaves to glass use a solntion of gmn aiabic. It is at once transinuent and adhesive.

Leech-bites- to stop the bleeding of.- A slight pressure with the fmger iijion the leech-bite, which has been covered with a piece of lini, or ci)tton-wool will frequently stop the bleeding. If not, apply to the orifice a plaster spread on lint of one i)art of yellow wax and two parts (^f (dive oil mixed with heat.

Leeches- to make them bite. - It is often a matter of great tr(nd)le to make leeches bite. They have a great dislike to certain skins; others they take to immediately. It is always desirable to wash the place with warm water, and wipe it dry befi>re applying the leeches. Some pers(.)ns have foutid it a good thing to smear the spot with a very little blood; others recommetui that the leeches should first be steeped foi a mon\ent (U- two in weak while wine and water, or pressed with a cloth that has been steeped in wine.

Legal Brevities. - A note dated on Sunday is void. A note ob- tained by fraud, or from one intoxicated, is voiil. If a note be U>st or stolen, it does not release the maker, he must pay ii. An in-

IV If AT KFF.A'V ONF. SflOHI.n AWOir. 265

dorscr of .1 noic is exempt from liability, if not s

Lemon Extract- to make. - To make lemon extract, user one oimce of oil of lemon, and one pint of alcohol. Mix and filter through carbonate of magnesia.

Lemons - medical qualities of. - ^A good deal has been said about the healthfulness of lemons. The latest advice is how to use them so th.'it they will do the most good, as follows : Most people know the benlit of lemonade before breakfast, but few know that it is more than doul)led by taking another at night also. Tlu" way to g(;t the better of the bilious system without blue pills or (piinine is to lake the juice of one, two or three lemons, as appetite cr.ives, in as much ice water as makes it pleasant to driidf without sugar befori- going to bed. In tlu; morning, on rising, at least half an hour before bre.ik- fast, take: tlie juice of one lemon in a goblet of water. 'I'his will clear the system of humor and bile with elliciency, without any of the wc-akening effects of calomel or cfxigress water. People should not irritate the stomach by eating lemons clear; the powerful acid of the juice, which isalways most corrosive, invariably produces inllam- ation after a while, but properly diluted, so that it does not burn or draw the throat, it does its medical w�)rk without harm, and, when the stomach is clear of food, has abund.int o})portiuiity to work over the system thoroughly, says a nu;dical authority.

Lemon juice -to keep fresh. - IvCinon juice is so desirable in cookery, and also so necessary for many medicinal purposes that a supply of it should always be leady at hand. It is not possible at all times to i)rocure fresh lemons, and sonietimes they are very dear. Those who study economy in housekeeping will buy lemons when che.ip, and keep them according to the directions given, or they will extract the juice and i^reserve it by the following reci[>e: Take, when the fruit is plentiful and cheap, any number of lemons you may recpiire; soften them well by nulling them under the hand uj)on a table; then cut tlu;m in half, and with a pair of wooden lemon nippers squeeze out all the juice into a basin; strain it carefully through muslin, so as to get rid of all pulp as well as pii>s; then bottle the clear juice in very small phi^ils, clean aiul perfectly dry, and before corking pour about a teaspoonful of sweet oil upon the juice in each iMJttle to ex-

266 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

elude all air. To prevent waste, the phials should be very small, as the juice, though it will keep some time corked up, will not long con- tinue good after the bottle is opened. When required for use, the oil must be first removed by dipping into it pieces of cotton-wool. The peels of the lemons after the juice is extracted, can be boiled in syrup and candied.

Lemon Juice - to preserve. - To every pound of white sugar add the strained juice of four lemons. Grate the rinds and add them to the mixture. Preserve in glass cans. A tablespoonful will make a glass tumblerful of lemonade.

Lemons - to keep. - Lemons may be kept in water for along time, but they gradually lose flavor. They may also be kept strung to- gether, and hung up in a dry, airy place. They must not touch each other. String them with a fine packing needle through the nib of the lemon.

Lemon Verbena. - In Spain the lemon verbena, which we omly cultivate as a scented garden plant, is systematically collected and stored for winter use. With the Spaniards it is said to form one o^ the finest stomachics and cordials, and is taken either made into a decoction and drank cold with water and sugar as a tonic, or with the morning and evening cup of tea. A sprig of about five or six leaves of the lemon verbena is first put into the cup, and the hot tea poured upon it. By using this, Spanish authorities assert, " you will never suffer from flatulence, never be made nervous or old maidish, never have cholera, diarrhoea or loss of appetite. Besides, the flavor is simply delicious. No one who has once drank their cup of tea with this addition, will ever drink it without a sprig of lemon ver- bena."

Letters (Secret) - to write. - Put five cents' worth citrate of po- tassa in an ounce vial of clear, cold water. This forms an invisible fluid. Let it dissolve, and you can use on paper of any color. Use a goose-quill in writing. When you wish the writing to become visi- ble, hold it to a red-hot stove.

Lice on cattle - to destroy. - Pour kerosene into some shallow dish, to the depth of one-eighth of an inch; into this dip the teeth of a card, then card the animal with it, dipping occasionally while card- ing. Another way: Take one part lard, and one part kerosene, warm the lard enough so that the kerosene can be thoroughly and easily incorporated with it, stir until it cools sufficient to prevent separation. Thoroughly anoint the parts where the lice most congre- gate, with the mixture. If the first application does not kill the lice within a few days, make a second.

Lice on Hens - remedy for. - A lady who has raised a large num- ber of hens, says that, after vainly trying the recommended remedies for lice, she has hit upon the plan of giving them, once or twice a week, a large loaf of Graham flour, in which a handful of sulphur has been mixed. The hens like it, and are .freed from lice and kept healthy through the season.

267

Life Belts. - An excellent and cheap life belt, for persons proceed- ing to sea, bathing in dangerous places, or learning to swim, may be thus made: Take a yard and three-quarters of strong jean, double and divide it into nine compartments. Let there be a space of two inches after each third compartment. Fill the compartments with very fine cuttings of cork, which can be had at any cork-cutting establishment. Work eylet holes at the bottom of each compart- ment to let the water drain out. Attach a neck-band and waist strings of stout boot web, and sew them on strongly.

Lima Beans - without poles. - A successful result during the past year of an experiment which is not new, was cultivating Lima beans without poles, by simply pinching off the ends as soon as they showed any disposition to vine. This caused the plants to assume the form of a thick-set bush, and they were nearly as productive as when allowed to climb as nature designed.

Lima Beans - with cream. - Put a pint of the shelled beans into just enough boiling salted water to cover them, and boil them tender; then drain off the water; add a cupful of boiling milk (or better; cream), a little piece of butter, pepper and salt. Let the beans sim- mer a minute in the milk before serving.

Limbs (Frozen) - treatment of. - Frozen limbs should be thawed out slowly. The patient should be placed in a cold room and the limlr bathed in ice-water or cloths wrung out in ice-water. When the limb begins to tingle, the bathing must be stopped, and the tempera- ture of the room gradually raised.

Lime - for .blasting. - Every one who has slowly added water to a lump of quick-lime, to slake it, has noticed that in combining with water, the lime swells up and becomes much larger than before. This expansion of quick-lime, when in contact with water, is a force ex- ercised through a short distance, but, like the expansion of water in freezing, is almost irresistible. This force has lately been used in the coal mines of England to throw down the coal. To prepare quick-lime for use in blasting, it is first reduced to powder, and then forced into cartridges or cylinders by means of a hydraulic press. A mold two inches across and seven inches long, is filled with powdered lime, and compressed by a hydraulic press of forty-ton power into a solid mass of about four inches long. When these cylinders, or car- tridges, have lengthwise grooves cut in them to admit water, they are ready for use. Holes are drilled as for blasting with powder, a cylin- der of compressed lime is placed in each, and tamped. A tube is provided for in the tamping, and water, by means of a force pump, is forced through the tube and brought in contact with the lime car- tridge. In slaking, the swelling of the lime throws down the coal without any smoke or the liberation of unwholesome gases, and there is no loss of time in getting rid of these. This method of blasting will no doubt find a wider application than for coal mines.

Lime - to burn without a kiln. - Make a pyramidal pile of large limestones, with an arched furnace next the ground for putting in the

26S WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

fuel, leaving a narrow vent or funnel at the top; now cover the whole pile with earth or turf, in the way that charcoal heaps are covered, and put in the fire. The heat will be more completely dif- fused through the pile, if the aperture in the top is partially closed. Produces a superior article of lime.

Lime in the Eye - to remove. - Bathe the eye with a little vinegar and water, and carefully remove any little pieces of lime which may be seen, with a feather. If any lime has got entangled in the eye- lashes, carefully clear it away with a bit of soft linen soaked in vine- gar and water. Violent inflammation is sure to follow; a smart purge must therefore be administered, and in all probability a blister must be applied oa the temple, behind the ear, or nape of the neck.

Lime Water - to make. - To one-half pound of unslaked lime add three-quarters of a pint of water; put the lime into an earthen pot, and pour a little of the water upon it, and as the lime slakes, pour the water on by little and little, and stir up with a stick. The water must be added very slowly, otherwise the lime will fly about in all directions, and may break the vessel. In three or four hours' time, when the slaked lime has sunk to the bottom, pour the clear fluid off, and put it in stoppered bottles away from the light.

Lime Water - use of. - If good milk disagrees with a child or grown person, lime water at the rate of three or four tablespoonfuls to the pint, mixed with the milk or taken after it, will usually help digestion and prevent flatulence. Lime water is a simple antacid, and is a little tonic. It often counteracts pain from acid fruits, from *' wind in the stomach," and from acids produced by eating candies and other sweets; also "stomach-ache" (indigestion) from overeating of any kind. A tablespoonful for a child of two years old, to a gill or more for an adult, is an ordinary dose, while considerable more will produce no serious injury. A pint of cold water dissolves less than ten grains of lime, and warm water still less. Pure lime water, even though pretty closely corked, soon deteriorates by carbonic acid in the air, which unites with the lime and settles as an insoluble carbonate. To have it always ready and good, and at no cost, put into a tall pint or quart glass bottle of any kind, a gill or so of good lime just slaked with water. Then fill the bottle nearly full of rain or other pure water, and let it stand quietly, corking well. The lime will settle, leaving clear lime water at the top. Pour off gently as wanted, adding more water as needed. Some carbonic acid will enter, but the carbonate will settle, often upon the sides of the bottle, and freshly saturated water remain. The lime should be removed and a new supply put in once a year or so, unless kept very tightly corked.

Linen - how to whiten. - Linen garments which have become yel- low from time, may be whitened by being boiled in a lather made of milk and pure white soap, a pound of the latter to a gallon of the former. After the boiling process the linen should be twice rinsed, a little blue being added to the last water used.

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 269

Linens (Colored) - how to v^ash. - Black has become such a ne- cessity for street wear that black linen is resorted to and made up in very striking costumes by fine machine embroidery. Only two kinds of embroidery are fashionably used, ecru and white, and these are employed for the edges of flounces, and ruffling reserved for the trimming of sleeves and basque precisely the same as navy blue linens. Neither blacks nor navy blues should ever be washed at home, unless by an exceptionably good laundress. They should be taken to a French laundry, and if of good quality will then be turned out equal to new. The reckless and lazy soap-and-soda process known as washing by nine-tenths of the Bridgets will ruin any fabric in time, and no color will stand it. Navy-blue linens have lost caste here on that account, and few ladies dare to buy them. To safely wash them no soap should be used, but a couple of potatoes grated in4;o tepid soft water (after having them washed and peeled), into which pre- viously a teaspoonful of ammonia has been put. Wash the linens (black or blue) in this, and rinse them in cold blue water; they will need no starch, and should be dried and ironed on the wrong side. An infusion of hay will keep the natural color in buff linens and bran in brown linens and prints. It also serves like the potato for starch.

Linen (Colored Table) - to wash. - To wash colored table linen use tepid water, with a little powdered borax; wash quickly, using but little soap, and rinse in lepid water containing boiled starch; dry in the shade, and when almost dry, iron.

Linen - to bleach. - Mix common bleaching-powder in the propor- tion of one pound to a gallon of water; stir it occasionally for three days, let it settle, and pour it off clear. Then make a lye of .one pound of soda to one gallon of boiling soft water, in which soak the linen for twelve hours, and boil it half an hour; next soak in the bleaching liquor, made as above; and lastly, wash it in the usual man- ner. Discolored linen or muslin may be restored by putting a portion of bleaching liquor into the tub wherein the articles are soaking.

Linen - how to gloss. - Inquiry is frequently made respecting the mode of putting a gloss on linen collars and shirt-fronts, like that of new linen. This gloss, or enamel, as it is sometimes called, is pro- duced mainly by friction with a warm iron, and may be put on linen by almost any person. The linen to be glazed receives as much strong starch as it is possible to charge it with, then it is dried. To each pound of starch a piece of sperm or white wax, about the size of a walnut, is usually added. When ready to be ironed, the linen is laid upon the table and moistened very lightly on the surface with a clean wet cloth. It is then ironed in the usual way with a flat-iron, and is ready for the glossing operation. For this purpose a peculiar heavy flat-iron, rounded at the bottom, as bright as a mirror, is used. It is pressed firmly upon the linen and rubbed with much force, and this frictional action puts on the gloss. "Elbow grease" is the principal secret connected with the art of glossing linen.

?^-jo li'j/A'j' /'.'/'/."AT o\/': snor/ /-> hwoir.

Linen - glazing for. - AiUl a ti-aspoontul i>f salt ami owv t>f finrly srrapod whito s(vip \o a pint of starch.

Linen (^ScorchedY- to restore. -Tii rostt>ro scorched liiun, peel ami slice two otiitnis; extract the juice by pounding and sijueezinii;; add to the juice hall" an ouiu'e of cut fine white soap, two ounces of fuller's earth, and half a pint of vinegar; boil all together. When cool, spread it tner the scorched linen and let it dry on; then wash atul boil out the linen, and the spots will disappear, unless burned so iKidly as to break the thread.

Litien scent for. - Take of damask-rose leaves, one pounil; musk, one-half dram; violet leaves, three ounces; mix them, and put them in a bag.

Linen -to remove iroti mold from. - Hold the iron mold on the cover of a tankard of boiling water, anil rub on the spot a little juice oi sorrel and a little salt; anil when the cloth has thoroughly imbibed tlu' juice wash it in lye.

Liniment. - No lu-ttet- lit\imet\t for bruises on manor beast was ever used than etpial paits oi lauilanum, alchohol, and <.>il of worm- wood, ll retluces the swelling rapidly, if inllamed. ami removes soreness like a chaiiu. The sooner applieil, of course, the better.

Liniment (^May-weed). - May-weed blossoms put into alcohol make .i superior liuitnent.

Liniment (Arnica). - Add to one pint of sweet oil, two tablespoon- fuls of tincture of arnica; or the leaves may be heated in the oil over a slow tire, (iood for wounils, still joitvls, rheumatism, and all in- juries.

Liniment (Blistering). - One part v^^panish Hies, finely powdered; three i>f lard; and one of yellow resin. IVlix the lanl and resin to- gether, ai\d add the tlies when the other ingredients begin to cool. To render it more active, aild one jMut of spirits turpetUine.

Liniment (English Stable) - very strong. - Oil of spike, aipia- amnionia. and oil of turpeniini-, each twv> ounces; sweet oil, ami oil of amber, each one and one-half ounce; oil of origanum, one ounce. Mix

Liniment (Mexican Mustang).- Pettoleum. tWive oil, and car- bon. it<,> annnoni.i, e.\ch eipial parts, atul mix.

Liniment (Nerve and Bone), - lieef's gall, ot\e quart; alcolu^l, one pint; volatile litiiment, one pound; spirits of turpentine, one piUM\d; oil (uiganun\, four ounces; aqua ammonia, four ounces; tinct- ure of cayeni\e, one-half pint; oil of amber three ounces; tincture Spanish flies, six ounces; mix well.

Liniment for Old Sores. - Alcohol, one quart; aqua amtr,ot\ia, fourounces; inl of origanum, two ounces; campl\orgum. two ounces; opium two tnmces; gum myrrh, two ounces; common salt, two table- spoons. Mix. and shake iHH'aslonally for a week.

Liniment (Good Samaritan). - Take ninety-eight per cent, alco- lu>l. two quarts; and add to it the following articles: Oils of sassa- fras, hemlock, spirits of turpentine, tincture of cayenne, catechu,

IV/fA T EVER V ONI'. SIfOULD KNOW. 271

^WM^z and laiulanum, of each, one ounrc; tincture of myrrh, four (junces; oil of orij^anum, two ounces; oil of winterj^reen, one-half ounce; ^um camj)hor, two ounces; and chlorfjform, one and one-half oun<:es. This is one of the best applications f(;r internal jjains kn<;wn.

Liniment (Cook's Electro-Magnetic.) - Hest alcohol, one gallon; oil of amber, eight ounces; gum camphor, eight ounces; Castile soap, shaved fine, two ounces; beef's gall, four ounces; ammonia, three K.'s strong, twelve ounces; mix, and shake occasionally for twelve hf;urs, and it is fit for use. This will be found a strong and valuable lini- ment.

Liniment (London). - Take chloroform, olive oil, and aqua am- monia, u{ ea< h one ounce; acetate of morphia, ten grains. Mix and use as (;tli(;r h'ninicrits. Very valuable.

Liniment (Paralytic). - .Sulphuric ether, six ounces; alcohol, two ounces; laudanum, one ounce;

Liniment (Rarey's). - .Sulphuric ether, four ounces; hartshorn, four ounces, oil <;f origanum, four ounces; alcohol, four ounces; sweet oil, four ounces. Shake well before using. For sprains on horses, etc., apply by rubbing, imd cover with a tight flannel ban- dage. For headache, rub a little on the temples and apply a ban- dage wet with the linimr.rit to the forehead.

Liniment- for sprains and bruises. - For strain, sprain, bruise or brt^ken bone in either man or beast, dissolve gum camphor in sweet oil and rub (m three times a day with flannel or wfjolen cU;th, wrapi)ing up the wound with the cloth after rubbing it in. I have tried the abfjve and know its value.

Lining Boxes with Babbitt Metal. - To line boxes properly, so as to insure their filling every time, it is necessary to heat the box nearly red-hot, or at least hot enough to melt the metal. Then smoke the shaft where the metal is to be poured upon it. This in- sures its cf;ming out of the box easily, after it is cold. After smok- ing the shaft, put it into the box or boxes, and draw some putty around the ends <;f them, for the purpose of stopping them, taking care not to press ui)on it, for if you do it will go into the box and fill a place that ought \.o be filled with metal; and, in the meantime, your metal ought to be heated, and after you have poured it, let the box stand till it is nearly ccjld; drive out your shaft, and it is done.

Lips (Chapped) - to cure. - Dissolve a lump of beeswax in a small quantity of sweet oil - over a candle - let it cool, and it will be ready for use. Rubbing it warm on the lips two (^r three times will effect a cure.

Lips (Cracked). - Lips not unfrequently, especially in cold

272 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

weather, crack so badly as to resist any of the usual lip salves; and when this is the case, it may be desirable to touch the crack with a little oxide of zinc, which will frequently promote a cure. The oxide may be applied by means of a camels-hair brush.

Lip Salve (Rose). - i. Oil of almonds, three ounces; alkanet, half an ounce. Let them stand together in a warm place until the oil is colored, then strain. Melt one ounce and a half of white wax, and half an ounce of spermaceti with the oil, stir till it begins to thicker, and add twelve drops of attar of roses. 2. White wax, one ounce; al- mond oil, two ounces; alkanet, one dram. Digest in a warm place till sufficiently colored, strain, and stir in six drops of attar of roses.

Liquid - to make boil "without fire. - Having placed in a bot- tle a small quantity of brass filings; then you will perceive a strong boiling, so that the bottle will appear full, and the phial will become so warm that you cannot touch it without being burned.

Liquors - to clear and fine. - After all the articles used to pre- pare any kind of liquors are put in, and they do not become perfect- ly clear, you will draw into a barrel which has but one head or bot- tom in it, with a faucet near the bottom, and sift into each barrel from one to two ounces pulverized lime, which will cause every im- purity to settle, when it can be drawn again and returned to clean barrels or bottles as desired. White wines are generally fined by isinglass in the proportion of one and one-half ounce (dissolved in one and one-half pints of water and thinned with some of the wine) to the hogshead. Red wines are generally fined with the whites of eggs, in the prop^ortion of twelve to eighteen to each pipe; they must be well beaten to a froth, with about one pint of water, and after- ward mixed with a little of the wine before adding to the liquor. Rummage well.

W' here spirits are mentioned, it signifies high wines rectified and reduced to hydrometer proof. Proof spirits signifies the same thing. Common whisky is much below this proof, but a good substitute may be produced from rectified whisky by depriving it of its taste and odor, by means of a process which renders it suitable for use. The whisky should be of proper strength, and treated as follows (the process destroys the fusil oil, and precipitates the verdigris to the bottom):

To forty gallons whisky add one and one-half pounds unslaked lime, three-fourths of a pound powdered alum, and one-half pint spirits of niter; stir well and let stand twenty-four hours. Then draw off into another cask, avoiding the sediment. It is then fit for use. All oils used must be cut in ninety per cent, alcohol, using one quart alcohol to two ounces oil, and should stand twenty-four hours before using.

Liquors - coloring for. - Take one-half pound white sugar, put it into an iron kettle, moisten a little, let ii; boil and burn to red, black and thick, remove from the fire, and put in a little hot water to pre-

WHA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO W. 273

vent it hardening as it cools. Use this to color any liquors needing color, to your taste, or as near the color of the liquor you imitate as you can. Tincture kino is a good color and one ounce gum to one pint alcohol makes the tincture.

Liquid (Disinfecting). - The following is a substitute for chloride of lime, and possesses this great advantage, that it is not so soon ex- hausted: Take two tablespoonfuls of kitchen salt (chloride of sodium), two teaspoonfuls of red lead (deutoxide of lead), a large wineglassful of common sulphuric acid, and water. Introduce the solid substances into a bottle with some water, then add the sulphuric acid gradually, gently shaking the bottle at intervals. A portion of the sulphuric acid combines with the red lead, forming a sulphate, which is pve- cipitated; another portion attacks the sodium of the salt, and sets the chlorine at liberty, which is at once dissolved in the water. In order to. use the latter, pour it into a saucer offering a sufficiently large sur- face for evaporation; the chlorine will then be gradually evolved, and disinfect the apartment.

Lobsters - how to select. - Lobsters, recently caught, have always some remains of muscular action in the claws, which may be excited by pressing the eyes with the finger; when this cannot be produced, the lobster must have been too long kept. When boiled, the tail pre- serves its elasticity if fresh, but loses it as soon as it becomes stale. The heaviest lobsters are the best; when light they are watery and poor. Hen lobster may generally be known by the spawn or by the breadth of the " flap."

Lobster Baked in its Shell. - Boil the lobster. After removing the meat, put it in a saucepan with a quarter of a pint of cream or rich milk, salt, and a dessertspoonful of butter rolled in flour; stir it to keep from oiling; when all the ingredients are well mixed, pour them into the shell and bake in the oven until of a light brown color, then serve hot. Fresh codfish and halibut are both excellent cooked in this manner.

Lobsters' Claws. - When sending lobster or crabs to the table, the claws are not only a neat finish to the dish, but there is much of the best and sweetest meat to be found in them, but not very easily secured. Place some nut crackers on the table to open the claws with and all difficulty is overcome.

Lockjaw - remedies for. - i. The following is said to be a positive cure: Let any one who has an attack of lockjaw take a small quantity of spirits of turpentine, warm it and pour it on the wound, no matter where the wound is or what is its nature. Relief will follow in less than one minute. Turpentine is also a sovereign remedy for croup. Saturate a piece of flannel with it and place on to the throat, chest, and, in severe cases, three to five drops on a lump of sugar, may be taken internally.

2. If any person is threatened with lockjaw from injuries to the arms, legs, or feet, do not wait for a doctor, but put the part injured in the following preparation: Put hot wood ashes into water as warm

274 ^^^ ^ ^ VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

as can be borne; if the injured part cannot be put into water, then wet thick folded cloths in the water and apply them to the part as soon as possible, and at the same time bathe the back-bone from the neck down with some laxative stimulant - say cayenne pepper and water, or mustard and water (good vinegar is belter than water); it should be as hot as the patient can bear it. Don't hesitate; go to work and do it, and don't stop until the jaws will come open. No person need die of lockjaw if these directions are followed.

3. Take a red-hot coal from the fire and pour sweet oil (olive oil) on it; then hold the wounded part over the thick smoke, as near as possible without burning. It will be necessary to repeat the opera- tion two or three times a day. This remedy has been known to cure after jaws had commenced to get stiff.

Logs and Planks - to prevent from splitting. - Logs and planks split at the ends because the exposed surface dries faster than the in- side. Saturate muriatic acid with lime, and apply like whitewash to the ends. The chloride'of colcium formed attracts moisture from the air, and prevents the splitting.

Looking-glass - to clean. - i. Remove, with a damp sponge, fly- stains and other soils (the sponge may be dampened with water or spirits of wine). After this, dust the surface with the finest sifted whiting or powder-blue, and polish it with a silk handkerchief or soft cloth. Snuff of candle, if quite free from grease, is an excellent pol- ish for a looking-glass.

2. Remove all fly stains and dirt by breathing on them and rubbing with a soft rag, then tie up some powder-blue in a piece of thick flannel, and with this carefully polish the whole surface.

Lotion - for burns, cuts, etc. - For the cure of burns, cuts, sores and boils, take of. jimpson weed flowers, mullein flowers and bark of the common elder, about a handful of each. Boil these together; strain, then add four ounces beeswax and four ounces mutton tallow. Boil it down, then take it off, and when nearly cool add one ounce gum camphor, and one tablespoonful of spirits of turpentine.

Lounge Cover. - A lovely lounge cover or coverlet for an invalid can be made of cast-off neckties, old bonnet pieces and scraps of silk. Cut the pattern of a hexagon, five inches from the center to the outer edge. Put a center of black silk on velvet about two inches in diame- ter, and piece around this in log-cabin style, preserving the form throughout. Twelve will make a very good-sized coverlet. Put to- gether with squares of black silk or velvet, and lined with bright flannel pinked on the edges, so that it projects a little on the right side. Wool pieces make a very pretty one, too.

Lubricators - ways to make. - i. India rubber, four pounds, dis- solved in spirits of turpentine; common soda, ten pounds; glue, one pound; water, ten gallons, oil, ten gallons. Dissolve the soda and glue in the water by heat, then add the oil, and lastly, the dissolved rubber.

2. To Lessen Friction in Machinery. - Grind together black lead

h^IIA T E VER Y ONE SIIO ULD KNO IV 275

with four times its weight of lard or tallow. Camphor is sometimes added, seven pounds to the hundred weight.

3. Anti-Fi-i(/ion Urease. - Tallow, one hundred pounds; palm oil, seventy pounds; boil together when cooled to eighty degrees, strain through a sieve, and mix with twenty-eight pounds soda, and one and one-half gallons of water. For winter take twenty-five pounds more od in place of the tallow.

4. Booth- s Railway Axle Grease. - Water, one gallon; clean tallow, three pounds; palm oil, six pounds; common soda, one-half pound, or tallow, two pounds, palm oil, ten pounds. Heat to about two hundred and twelve degrees, and stir well until it cools at seventy de- grees.

5. Drill Luhricator - For wrought iron, use one pound soft soap mixed with one gallon of boiling water. It insures good work and clean ciUting.

Lumber - facts about. - That drying lumber does not season it, and seasoning lumber is not drying it. That any amount of common air drying does not necessarily, if ever, produce a thorough shrink- age, even though the time be a hundred years. That time has noth- mg to do with either seasoning shrinking or drying, but is alone the residt of condition and heat. That lumber may be thoroughly seasoned without being either dried or shrunk. That lumber may be made as dry as desired, and yet not be seasoned at all, and with only a partial or very slight shrinkage. That common air never seasons lumber, though it dries it, and can never more than partially shrink the wood. That seasoning, shrinking and drying are each separate and distinct operations, and in most cases do not depend upon each other. That they are all necessary, though ncjt in the same degree. That the order of their value to the wood is in the order named, the seasoning being of the greatest, and the drying of the 'east value.

Lungs - to ascertain the state of. - Draw in as much breath as you conveniently can, then count as long as possible in a slow and audible voice without drawing in more breath. The number of sec- onds must be carefully noted. In a consumptive the time does not exceed ten, and is frequently less than six seconds; in pleurisy and pneumonia it ranges from nine to four seconds. When the lunf s are sound the time will range as high as from twenty to thirty-five sec- onds. To expand the lungs, go into the air, stand erect, throw back the head and shoulders, and draw in the air through the nostrils as much as possible. After having then filled the lungs, raise your arms, still extended, and suck in the air. When you have thus forced the arms backward, with the chest open, change the process by which you draw in your breath, till the lungs are emptied. Go through the process several times a day, and it will enlarge the chest, give the lungs better play, and serve very much to ward off consumption.

Lunch Basket. - Take any shaped basket desired, lay a piece of paper on the outside and cut a pattern off it; then cut of dark blue cloth and transfer cretonne flowers by button-hole-stitching the edges.

276 WHAT EVERY OA^E SHOULD KNOW.

Fasten the cloth on the basket, and finish the edges with a full ruch- ing of satin ribbon. The handle has loops of the ribbon on the upper side, and finished at the sides with full bows. Through the center of the plaited ribbon sew a fine gilt cord.

Lungs - to protect from dust. - In farm labor one has often to en- counter a hurtful amount of dust. A simple and cheap protection from such an annoyance is to get a piece of sponge large enough to cover the nostrils and mouth, hollow it out on one side with a pair of scissors to fit the face, attach a string to each side, and tie it on. First wet it well, and squeeze out most of the water. Repeat this whenever the sponge becomes dry. All the dust will be caught in the damj) cavities, and it is easily washed out.

Macaroni - to cook. - Break it into inch pieces, put into a sauce- pan, cover with cold water and a dessertspoonful of salt. Let it cook slowly till soft, then take a dish, such as you would scallop oysters in, butter it well, then put in a layer of macaroni, and next a layer of grated cheese. Fill your dish, covering the top with cheese. It will bear C(Misiderable salt. Then fill up with milk and what liquor was left in the sauce-pan.

Macaroni -with Broth. - Put half a pound of macaroni, boiled and washed in cold water, over a fire with any kind of broth, or one pint of cold gravy and water, season it to taste with pepper and salt, and let it heat slowly for an hour, or less if you are in a hurry; then lay it on a flat dish, and strew over it a few bread-crumbs; then set it in the oven, or in front of the fire, to brown. It is delicious and very hearty.

Macaroni (Italian). - Take one-fourth pound macaroni, boil it in water until tender; thicken one-half pint milk with two tablespoon- fuls flour; add two tablespoonfuls cream, one-half tablespoonful mus- tard, a little white pepper, and salt; stir in this one-half pound grated cheese; boil all together a few minutes; add the macaroni; boil ten minutes. This is the mode adopted at the best tables in Florence.

Macaroni - nutritious for invalids.-Stew the macaroni in water until quite soft, and drain it on the back of a sieve. Have ready a very strong gravy stock of ox-heel, or calves' feet, place the macaroni in it, stew them together for twenty minutes, and serve up.

Macaroni - -with tomato sauce. - Sauce: Put butter, the size of an egg, into a sauce-pan; when it is at the boiling point throw in an onion (minced), two sprigs of parsley, chopped fine, and a little pep- per. Let it cook five or eight minutes longer. Now pour in a coffe- cup of tomatoes which have been stewed and strained through a col- andar; stir all together. Boil your macaroni in salt water until ten- der; put in a layer of macaroni, in a baking dish, pour over sauce and again macaroni, and have sauce on the top; set in a moderate oven for three minutes. Serve immediately.

Macaroni- with white sauce. - Warm half a pound of macaroni boiled and washed in cold water, in the following sauce, and use it as soon as it is hot: Stir together over the fire one ounce each of butter

JVHA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO IV. 277

and flour, pouring in one pint of boiling water and milk as soon as the butter and flour are mixed. Season it with salt and pepper to taste, and put the macaroni into it. This dish is very good and wholesome.

Macaroni - proper way to cook. - I took the pains to get an au- thentic recipe for cooking macaroni, and for all who wish a most de- licious, easy and cheap dish, I write it: Take three pints of beef soup, clear, and put one pound of macaroni in it, and boil fifteen minutes, with a little salt; then take up the macaroni - which should have absorbed nearly all the liquid - and put it on a flat plate, and sprinkle grated cheese over it thickly, and pour over all plentifully a sauce made of tomatoes, well boiled, strained, and seasoned with salt and pepper. Some people prefer to only put the cheese on it, but I prefer it with the tomato as well. If anybody don't like that when it is done, it is because they don't know what is good.

Macaroons - (Hickorynut). - Make frosting as for cake; stir in enough pounded hickorynut meats, with mixed ground spice to taste, to make convenient to handle. Flour the hands and form the mix- ture into little balls. Place on buttered tins, allowing room to spread and bake in a quick oven.

Mackerel - how to select. - Mackerel must be perfectly fresh, or it is a very indifferent fish; it will neither bear carriage, nor being kept many hours out of the water. The firmness of the flesh and the clearness of the eyes, must be the criterion of fresh mackerel, as they are of all other fish.

Mackerel - to preserve for months. - Mackerel, being at certain times exceedingly plentiful, may be preserved to make an excellent and well-flavored dish, weeks or months after the season is past, by the following means: Having chosen fine fish, cleaned them per- fectly, and either boiled them or lightly fried them in oil, the fish should be divided, and the bones, heads, and skins being removed, they should then be well rubbed over with the following seasoning: For every dozen good-sized fish, it will be requisite to use three tablespoonfuls of salt (heaped), one ounce and a half of common black pepper, six or eight cloves, and a little mace, finely powdered, and as much nutmeg, grated, as the operator chooses to afford, not, however, exceeding one nutmeg. Let the whole surface be well covered with the seasoning; then lay the fish in layers, packed into a stone jar (not a glazed one); cover the whole with pretty good vin- egar, and, if it be intended to be long kept, pour salad oil or melted suet over the top. N. B. - The glazing on earthen jars is made from lead or arsenic, from which vinegar draws forth poison.

Madeira Shell Boats. - These are pretty for Christmas trees, and please the little ones. Take half a shell, glue a slender mast in, and put in a sail of gilt or silver paper. They will sail nicely.

Magnetic Pain Killer. - Laudanum, one dram; gum camphor, four drams; oil of cloves, one-half dram; oil of lavender, one dram; add then to one ounce alcohol, six drams sulphuric ether, and five

278

fluid drams chloroform. Apply with lint, or for toothache rub on the gums, and upon the face against the teeth.

Mahogany - to give a rich color to. - Ingredients: One pint of cold-drawn linseed oil, ten cents worth of alkanetroot, and five cents worth of rose-pink. Put these ingredients into an earthen basin, stir them well, and leave them one night; then, having washed the fur- niture perfectly clean with vinegar, and removed all stains, cover it lightly with the above, on a soft rag. Leave it for some hours; then polish off with linen cloths.

Mahogany - to remove stains from, - Ingredients; Six parts of spirits of salts, one part of salts of lemon. Mix them and keep them in a bottle, corked. When required for use, drop a little of the mix- ture on the stains, and rub them until they disappear.

Mahogany - to remove hot-water marks. - The whitish stain left on a mahogany table by a jug of boiling water, or a very hot dish, may be removed by rubbing in oil, and afterward pouring a little spirits of wine on the spot and rubbing it dry with a soft cloth

Manure from Bones. - Take one hundred pounds of bones, broken into as small fragments as possible; pack them in a tight cask or box with one hundred pounds of good wood ashes. Mix with the ashes, before packing, twenty-five pounds of slaked lime and twelve pounds of sal-soda, powdered fine. It will require about twenty gallons of water to saturate the mass, and more may and should be added from time to time to maintain moisture. In two or three weeks, it is as- serted, the bones will be broken down completely, and the whole may be turned out upon a floor and mixed with two bushels of dry peat or good soil; and, after drying, it is fit for use. It has been recom- mended to pour onto this mass dilute sulphuric acid to aid decompo- silion and prevent the escape of ammonia.

Another method is to take a kettle holding a barrel or more; fill with bones; pour caustic lye over to cover them. A genFle fire is built for two or three successive days, to barely warm the liquid through. In a week the bones will become softened. Mix the mass with three loads of muck, afterward adding the leached ashes, from which the lye was obtained. Let the whole remain, in order to de- compose the muck, and apply.

Manure - to compost. - Mixing manure or fertilizers is laborious work, and if nothing is gained by it, it is labor lost. But something may be gained by it when the condition of the material can be changed for the better, and at the same time something may be lost when any- thing can be changed for the worse. In composting, for instance, such raw substances as swamp muck, leaves, tannery wastes, with manure, or in mixing various manures, as from the horse stable, cow sheds, pig-pens, and poultry house, valuable results may be obtained; while in mixing lime or wood ashes with manure, and especially in mixing the common fertilizer with poultry manure and wood ashes, harm may be done and valuable fertilizing matter may be wasted. In the one case the moire actively fermenting horse or pig manure

27g

will serve to decompose more readily the colder cow manure, and to produce decomposition in the abundant litter or raw matter that may- have been used. Besides, when the whole manure heap has been re- duced to an even and homogenous condition and quality, it is made more valuable for use in the field, and neither unduly or wastefully enriches one portion of it while inadequately fertilizing another por- tion. It is, therefore, a judicious and useful practice to mix these manures or these substances in the heap, either in the yard or the field, and so add considerably to the value of a part without detract- ing from the value of other portions. But in the other case much harm may be done by mixing any substances in the heap which may exert an injurious action upon the others. This may happen when lime or wood ashes are mixed with the manure or with the poultry manure; and the more harm is done, the richer in ammonia the ma- nure may be. Lime and potash are alkalies, and when fresh are in a caustic condition - that is, they are free from carbonic acid, which, when combined with an alkali, renders it neutral, or mild and inert. When fresh lime or wood ashes are mixed with manure they at once seek to combine with carbonic acid, from whatever source they can procure it. Ammonia is an alkali, and in manure is generally in com- bination with carbonic acid as carbonate of ammonia. The lime or wood ashes takes the carbonic acid from this carbonate of ammonia, and the ammonia escapes as gas into the air, and so far as the owner of the manure is concerned this ammonia is lost, and as ammonia is the most valuable and costly fertilizing element in existence, the loss is very serious. It is easy, however, to avoid this loss by using the lime or the ashes by themselves on the soil, and not with the manure directly, in which way they will do as much good.

But sometimes it is advisable to mix lime or wood ashes in a com- post heap, and this may be done safely when the special behavior of these three indispensable substances are understood. If the manure is quite fresh there is very little ammonia in it, and if there is more, a large proportion of absorbent matter, as swamp muck in the heap will absorb and hold it, and carbonic acid will be produced by its de- composition in sufficient quantity to saturate the alkali of the lime or ashes or to take up the ammonia as fast as it is formed or set free. In fact, a farmer who understands the chemical decompositions and com- binations which go on in a heap of decaying manure or compost may use lime and wood ashes with safety and advantage. With regard to the common mixture of ashes, hen manure, and plaster, this may be safely and beneficially made at the time it is to be used, but not if it is to remain mixed for any considerable time previously.

Manure (Barn) - substitute for. - Dissolve a bushel of salt in water enough to slake five or six bushels of lime. The best rule for prepar- ing the compost heat is, one bushel of this lime to one load of swamp muck, intimately mixed; though three bushels to five loads make a very good manure. In laying up the heap, let the layer of muck and lime be thin, so that decomposition may be more rapid and complete.

28o PI'' J/ A r KVER Y ONE SHOULD KNOW.

WIkmi lime cannot l)e got, use unleached ashes - three or four bushels to a cord of muck. In a month or six weeks, overhaul ami work over the heap, when it will be ready for use. Sprinkle the salt water on the lime as the heap ^oes uj).

Manure- from fish, refuse, etc. - The fish owes its fertilizing; value to the animal matter and bone-earth which it contains. The former is precisely similar to flesh or blood, consisting of twenty-five per cent, of fibrin, the rest being water, and their bones are similar in composition to those of terrestrial animals. As fertilizing agents, therefore, the bodies of fishes will act nearly in the same way as the bodies and blood of animals; one hundred pounds, in decaying, pro- duce two and a half pounds of ammonia, ilence four hundred pounds of fish rotted in compost are enough for an acre. The great effect is due to the animoniacal portion ; for it renders the herbage dark green, and starts it very rapidly. One of the best composts is made as folU)vvs: Dried bog-earth, loam, or peat, seven barrels; hard- wood ashes, two barrels; fish, t)ne barrel; sUiked Hme, one bushel. Place a thick layer of the bog-earth on the bottom; on the top of this put a layer of the fish, then a sprinkling of lime, then a layer of ashes; on top of tlie ashes put a thick layer of bog-earth, loam, or peat; then another thin layer of fish, lime, and ashes, and so on till your materials are worked in; then top off with a thick layer of the absorbents, to retain the fertilizing gases. The decomposition of the fish will proceed very rapidly, and a very rich compost will be the result. It should be shoveled over and over ami thoroughly in- termixed and pulveriated. Put this on so as to have four hundred pounds of fish to the acre. It may be applied with the greatest bene- fit to corn, turnips, potatoes, beans, etc., in the drill, and broad cast on the grass.

Superphosphate can be made from pogy-chum, or the refuse of other fish, after the oil is expressed, by dissolving in sulphuric acid, and afterward mixing with dry loam, precisely as directed for mak- ing supcrphospiiate with bones. Whale oil or the oil of any fish, when made into a compost with loam, and a little lime or wood ashes, yields a very powerful manure, merely mixed with absorbent earth and applied at the end of the month. Impure whale oil, at the rate of forty gallons per acre, has produced a crop of twenty-three and a quarter tons of turnips per acre; while on the same soil, and during the same season, it took forty bushels of bone-dust to produce only twenty-two tons per acre.

Manure- how to double th'e usual quantity on the farm. - Pro- viile a good supply of l)lack swamp n\old ox loam from the woods, within easy reach of your stable, aiul place a layer of this, one foot thick, under each horse, with litter as usual on the top of the loam or mold. Remove the droppings of the animals every day, but let the loam remain io\ two weeks, then remove it, mixing it with the other manure, and reiplace with fresh mt)ld. Hy this simple means any farmer can double not only the quantity but also the quality of his

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manure, and never feel himself one penny the poorer by the trouble or expense incurred, while the ferlilizinj^ value of the ingredients ab- sorbed and-saved by the loam can scarcely be estimated.

Josiah Quincy, Jr., has been very successful in keeping cattle in stables the year through, and feeding them by means of soiling. The amount of manure thus made had enabled him to improve the fertili- ty of a poor farm of one hundred acVes, so that in twenty years the hay crop had increased from twenty to three hundred tons. The cattle are kept in a well-arranged stable, and are let out into the yard an h(nir or two mornings and afternoons; but they generally appear glad to return to their quarters. By this process, one acre enables him to support three or four cows. They are fed on grass, green oats, corn fodder, l^arley, etc., which are sown at intervals through the spring and summer months, to be cut as required; but he re- marks that his most valuable crop is his manure crop. Each cow produces thrfcc and a half cords of solid, and three cords of liquid manure, or six and a half cords in all. Five to eight miles from Bos- ton, such manure is worth from five to eight dollars a cord. From this estimate, he has come to the conclusion that a cow's manure may be made as valuable as her milk.

Manure for Almost Nothing. - If you have any dead animal - say, for instance, the body of a dead horse - do not suffer it to pollute the atmosphere by drawing it away to the woods or any other out-of- the-way place, but remove it a short distance only from your prem- ises, and put down four or five loads of muck or sods, place the car- cass thereon, and sprinkle it over wi

Manifold Paper. - -A process by which several letters can be writ- ten at one time. It is commonly known as copying paper. Mix lard with black lead or lamp-black into a stiff paste, rub it over tissue paper with flannel, and wipe off the superfluous quantity with a soft rag. These sheets alternated with black carbon paper, and written with a hard pencil, will produce several copies of a letter at once.

Manuscripts - when almost illegible, to renovate. - Wash them lightly and carefully with a very weak solution of fer-ro-cyanide of potash in clean water.

Maple (Curled) - to imitate. - Prepare a light yellow for the ground, by mixing chrome yellow and white lead, tinged with Vene- tian red. The graining color is a mixture of equal portions of raw sienna and Vandyke, ground in ale; spread the surface to be grained in an even manner; then with a piece of cork rub across the work to

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and fro, to form the grains which run across the wood. When dry, varnish.

Maple (Curled) - in oil for outside work. - Prepare a rich ground by mixini^ chrome yellow, white lead and burned sienna. For the j^^raining color, grind equal parts of raw sienna and umber with a little burned copperas in turpentine, and mix with a small quantity of grainer's cream. Thin the color with boiled oil; then fdl a tool and spread the surface even, and rub out the lights with the sharp edge of a jiiece of buff leather, which must now and then be wiped to keep it clean; soften the edges of the work very lightly, and when dry, put on the top grain witli burned umber and raw sienna, ground in ale, with the white of an egg beat into it. When dry, varnish.

Maple (Bird's Eye) - to imitate. - The ground is a light buff, pre- pared with blue lead, chrome yellow, and a little vermillion or Eng- lish Venetian red, to take off the rawness of the yellow. The grain- ing color is equal parts of raw umber and sienna grouild in oil to the proper consistency. Spread the surface of the work with this color, and, having some of the same prepared a little thicker, immediately take a sash tool or sponge, and put on the dark shades, and soften with the badger's-hair brush before the color is dry, put on the eyes by dabbing the dotting machine on the work. When dry; put on the grain with the camel's-hair pencil on the prominent parts, to imitate the small hearts of the wood. When dry, varnish.

Marble - to imitate black and gold.- This description of marble is now in great demand. The ground is a deep jet black, or a dead color, in gold size, drop black and turps; second coat, black japan. Commence veining; mix white and yellow ochre with a small quanti- ty of Vermillion to give a golil tinge; tlip the pencil in this color, and dab on the ground with great freedom some large patches, from which small threails must be drawn in various directions. In the deepest parts of the black, a white vein is sometimes seen running with a great number of small veins attached to it; but care must be taken that these threads are connected with, and run in some degree in the same direction with the thicker veins. If durability is not an object and the work is required in a short time, it may be executed very quick in distemper colors, and, when varnished, it will look well.

Marble (Blue and Gold). - For the ground put on a light blue; then lake blue, with a small piece of white lead and some dark com- mon blue, ami dab on the grt)und in patches, leaving portions of the ground to shine between; then blenil the edges together with duster or softener; afterward draw on some white veins in every direction, leaving large open spaces to be filled up with a pale yellow or gold- {Kunt; rmisii with some fine white running threads, and a coat of varnish at last.

Marble - to clean. - It is said that marble may be cleaned by mik- ing up a (piantity of the strongest soap lye with quick-lime, to the consistency of milk, and laying it on the marble for twenty-four

JVI/A T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 283

hours. Clean it afterwards with soap and water. Or else use the following: Take two parts of common soda, one part of pumice-stone and one part of powdered chalk; sift through a very fine sieve, and mix with water. Then rub it well all over the marble, and the stains will be removed. Then wash with soap and water as before, and it will be as clean as it was at first.

Marble - to clean. - i. Brush the dust off the dish to be cleaned, then apply with a brush a good coat of gum arable, about the consis- tency of a thick office mucilage, expose it to the sun or dry wind, (jr both. In a short time it will crack and peel off. If all the gum should not peel off, wash it with clean water and a clean cloth. Of course, if the first application does not have the desired effect, it should be applied again.

2. Make a paste with soft soap and whiting. Wash the marble first with it, and then leave a coat of the paste upon it for two or three days. Afterward wash off with warm (not hot) water and soap.

3. Chalk, in fine powder, one part; pumice, one part; common soda, two parts. Mix. Wash the spots with this powder, mixed with a little water, then clean the whole of the stone, and wash off with soap and water.

Marble - to remove dirt and stains from. - A solution of gum arabic will remove dirt and stains from marble. Let it remain till it dries, when it will peel off or can be washed off.

Marble - to cut and polish. - The marble saw is a thin plate of soft iron, continually supplied, during its sawing motion, with water and the sharpest sand. The sawing of moderate pieces is performed by hand; that of large slabs is most economically done by a proper mill. The first substance used in the polishing process is the sharp- est sand, which must be worked with till the surface becomes per- fectly flat. Then a second and even a third sand, of increasing fine- ness, is to be api)Hed. The next substance is emery, of progressive degrees of fineness; after which, tripoli is employed; and the last polish is given with tin putty. The body with which the sand is rubbed upon the marble is usually a plate of iron; but, for the subse- quent process, a plate of l<5ad is used, with fine sand and emery. The polishing-rubbers are coarse linen cloths, or bagging, wedged tight into an iron plaining tool. In every step of the operation, a constant trickling supply of water is required.

Marble - powerful cement for. - Take one pound of gum arabic, make into a thick mucilage; add to it powdered plaster of Paris, one and one-half pound; sifted quicklime, five ounces; mix well; heat the marble, and apply the mixture.

Marble - seven colors for staining. - It is necessary to heat the marble hot, but not so hot as to injure it, the proper heat being that at which the colors nearly boil.

Bi.UK. - Alkaline indigo dye, or turnsole with alkali.

Rku. - Dragon's blood in spirits of wine.

284 '^^A T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

Yellow. - Gamboge in spirits of wine.

Gold Color. - Sal-ammoniac, sulphate of zinc, and verdigris, equal parts.

Green. - Sap green in spirits of potash. Brown. - Tincture of logwood. Crimson. - Alkanet root in turpentine.

Marble may be veined according to taste. To stain marble well is a difficult operation.

Marble (Jasper). - Put on a white ground lightly tinged with blue; then put on patches of rich reds or rose pink, leaving spaces of the white grounds; then partly cover those spaces with various browns to form fossils, in places running veins; then put in a few spots of white in the center of some of the red patches, and leave in places masses nearly all white. When dry, use the clearest varnish.

Marble Mantelpieces - to clean. - There is great art in cleaning properly a marble mantelpiece. It must be washed with soap and warm water. If there are any stains, mix two ounces of powdered pumice-stone with two ounces of powdered chalk and a quarter of a pound of soda. Sift these; then make them into a paste with cold water. Rub the marble with the paste, and afterward wash it with soap and water.

Marble and Glass - to polish. - Marble of any kind, alabaster, and hard stone, or glass, may be repolished by rubbing it with a linen cloth dressed with oxide of tin (sold under the name of putty powder). For this purpose, a couple or more folds of linen should be fastened tight over a piece of wood, fiat or otherwise, according to the form of the stone. To repolish a mantelpiece, it should be first perfectly clean. This is best done by making a paste of lime, soda and water, wetting well the marble, and applymg the paste. Then let it remain for a day or so, keeping it moist during the interval. When this paste has been removed the polishing may begin. Chips in the marble should be rubbed out first with emery and water. At every stage of polishing, the linen and putty powder must be kept constantly wet. Glass, such as jewelers' show counter-cases, which become scratched, may be polished in the same way.

Marble (To) - books or paper. - Provide a wooden trough two inches deep and the length and width of any desired sheet, boil in a brass or copper pan any quantity of linseed and water until a thick mucilage is formed; strain it into the trough, and let cool; then grind on a marble slab any of the following colors in small beer; Blue. - Prussian blue or indigo. Red. - Rose-pink, vermilion, or drop lake. Yellow. - King's yellow, yellow ochre, etc. White. - Flake white. Black. - Burned ivory or lampblack. Brown. - Umber, burned do; terra di sienna, burned do. Black. - Mixed with yellow or red; also makes brown. Green, - Blue and yellow mixed.

JVHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO IV. 285

Orange. - Red and yellow mixed.

Purple. - Red and blue mixed.

For each color you must have two cups, one for the color after grinding, the other to mix it with ox-gall, which must be used to thin the colors at discretion. If too much gall is used, the colors will spread; when they keep their place on the surface of the trough, when moved with a quill, they are fit for use. All things in readiness, the colors are successively sprinkled on the surface of the mucilage in the trough with a brush, and are waved or drawn about with a quill or a stick, according to taste. When the design is just formed, the book, tied t'ghtly between cutting boards of the same size is lightly pressed with its edge on the surface of the liquid pattern, and then withdrawn and dried. The covers may be marbled in the same way, only let- ting the liquid colors run over them. In marbling paper the sides of the paper is gently applied to the colors in the trough. The flim of color in the trough may be as thin as possible, and if any remains after the marbling it may be taken off by applying paper to it before you prepare for marbling again. To diversify the effects, colors are often mixed with a little sweet oil before sprinkling them on, by which means a light halo or circle appears around each spot.

Marble - to gild letters on.- Apply first a coating of size and then several successive coats of size thickened with finely powdered whiting until a good face is produced. Let each coat become dry and rub it down with fine glass paper before applying the next. Then go over it thinly and evenly with gold size and apply the gold leaf, burnishing with agate; several coats of leaf will be required to give a good effect.

Marble - to extract oil from. - Soft soap, one part; fuller's earth, two parts; potash, one part; boiling water to mix. Lay it on the spots of grease, and let it remain for a few hours.

Marble - to imitate. - For white marble, get up a pure white ground, then hold a lighted candle near the surface, and allow the smoke to form the shades and various tints desired. This will make a very handsome imitation. Black marble imitation is made by streaking a black surface with colors, using a feather and pencil. An- other plan is to get up a smooth black surface; then take the colors, green, yellow, red, white, etc., ground thick in gold size, and streak the surface with a stick of pencil. Allow it to dry, and apply a heavy coat of lampblack and yellow ochre, mixed with rough stuff. When all is hard, rub down to a level surface with a lump of pumice-stone, varnish, and a beautiful variegated marble will be the result.

Marking Ink - to take out of linen. - A saturated solution of cyanuret of potassium, applied with a camel's-hair brush. After the marking ink disappears, the linen should be well washed in cold water.

Marmalade (Pear). - To six pounds of small pears, take four pounds of sugar; put the pears into a saucepan with a little cold water; cover it, and set it over the fire until the fruit is soft, then put them into

286 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

cold water; pare, quarter, and core them; put to them three teacups of water; set them over the fire; roll the sugar fine, mash the fruit fine and smooth, put the sugar to it, stir it well together until it is thick like jelly, then put it in tumblers, or jars, and when cold secure it as jelly.

Marmalade (Scotch). - Take of the juice of Seville oranges, two pints; yellow honey, two pounds. Boil to a proper consistence.

Marsh Mallows. - Dissolve one-half pound of gum arable in one pint of water, strain and add one-half pound of fine sugar, and place over the fire, stirring constantly until the syrup is dissolved and all of the consistency of honey. Add gradually the whites of four eggs well beaten. Stir the mixture until it becomes somewhat thin and does not adhere to the finger. Flavor to taste and pour into a tin slightly dusted with powdered starch, and when cool divide into small squares.

Mats (Braided). - Braided mats are easily made, and are very durable. The strips of cloth should be all of one size when rolled together for braiding, the thin pieces wide, and the thick ones nar- row. The braiding should be firm and even, sewed with best carpet thread, and the stitches hidden beneath the folds of cloth, that the thread may not wear off. If braided with five strands instead of three, less sewing is required.

Mat (Foot) - to make. - Cut woolen and flannel pieces of cloth into strips three; inches long and half an inch wide. Get a pair of very coarse steel knitting needles and some jute twine - no other will answer - the same that is used in making gunny-sacks, and can al- ways be obtained where they are made, if not at the shops. Set up fifteen stitches on the needles, and knit once across; knit the first stitch on the second row, and between the needles put a piece of the cloth at right angles with the stitch, and knit another stitch; then turn the end of the cloth that points toward you out between the needles, so that the ends will be even, and so on clear across, two stitches to every piece of cloth; then knit across again plain to get back to the side where you began. The ends of the cloth must al- ways point from you as you knit them in.

I knit one for my phaeton one yard in length and five strips wide, sewed together with jute, over and over stitch. They are very warm for the feet and are very pretty, and it is a good way to use up dis- carded coats, vests and pants. The cloth must not be too thick; broadcloth, waterproof, ladies' cloth, etc., are the best for the pur- pose. Mine is really very pretty; the center is orange and black mixed waterproof and a border of black, brightened up with tufts of scarlet flannel.

Mats (Husk) - to make. - A good respectable-looking husk mat is not an unsightly looking object, and I wish all housekeepers knew what a world of scrubbing and wiping of floors it saved, that they might have one. One bushel basket and a boiler full of husks is suf- ficient to braid a large mat. If you have boys or girls, it will be fun

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 287

for them to braid one in the evening; but, if like myself, you have neither, it would pay you to take the time and do it yourself. Have ready a teakettle full of hot water and turn into the boiler of husks. Begin a common three-strand braid, and as you bring over a strand place about three husks on ; leave the large ends of the husks up. When enough is braided for a mat, sew firmly with twme in any shape you choose - long, round or oval. Then sprinkle warm water on the upper side. Run a fork through the husks, splintering the ends into a mass of little, curly fibers. Then, with the shears, trim off evenly. This can all be done in one evening by a good v/orker. I braid enough in the fall to last the year round.

Matches (Approved Friction). - About the best know preparation for friction matches is gum arable, sixteen parts by weight; phos- phorus, nine parts; niter, fourteen parts; peroxyde of manganese, in powder, sixteen parts. The gum is first made into a mucilage Vv^ith water, then the manganese, then the phosphorus, and the whole is heated to about one hundred and thirty degrees Fahrenheit. When the phosphorus is melted the niter is added, and the whole is thor- oughly stirred until the mass is a uniform paste. The wooden matches prepared first with sulphur are then dipped in this and after- ward dried in the air. Friction papers, for carrying in the pocket, may be made in the same manner, and by adding benzoin to the muci- lage they will have an agreeable odor when ignited.

Matches (Japanese Paper). - When lighted, burn with a small, scarcely luminous flame, a red-hot ball of glowing saline matter accu- mulating as the combustion proceeds. When about one-half of the match has been consumed the glowing heat begins to send forth a succession of splendid sparks. The phenomenon gradually as- sumes the character of a brilliant scintillation, very similar to that ob- served on burning a steel spring in oxygen, only much more delicate, the individual sparks branching out in beautiful dendritic ramifica- tions. A mixture of carbon, one part, (powdered wood charcoal); sulphur, one and one-half parts; and niter, three and one-fourth parts, produce the phenomenon. English tissue paper may be used for the wrapper.

Mead (Sparkling) - very superior. - Ingredients: Fourteen pounds of honey, three eggs, a small bunch of marjoram, the same of balm, and the same of sweetbriar, one-half ounce of cinnamon, one-half ounce of cloves, one-half ounce of bruised ginger, one-fourth of a pint of yeast, a bottle of white hermitage or moselle; six gallons of water. Set the v/ater to boil; when quite hot, stir in the honey, and then immediately the three eggs, slightly beaten up. Put the herbs together into a muslin bag, and the spices into another bag, and when the liquor with the honey and eggs has boiled half an hour, put in these two bags with their contents, and boil again for a quarter of an hour. After this pour out the liquor into an open tub to cool, take out the bags, and set it to work in the usual way by spreading the yeast on pieces of toasted bread and floating them on the surface.

288

After being left twenty-four hours, the toasts must be removed, and the liquor put into the cask. Now add the moselle or hermitage; when fermentation has ceased, bung the cask closely. After a month bottle it, and wire down the corks.

Mead (Sarsaparilla). - One pound of Spanish sarsaparilla, boil five hours and strain off two gallons; add sugar sixteen pounds and tar- taric acid ten ounces, half a wine glass of syrup to half pint tumbler of water, and half teaspoonful of soda is a fair proportion for a drink.

Measles - treatment. - Measles are an acute inflammation of the skin, internal and external, combined with an infectious fever.

Symptoms. - Chills, succeded by great heat, languor, and drowsi- ness, pains in the head, back, and limbs, quick pulse, soreness of throat, thirst, nausea and vomiting, a dry cough, and high colored urine. These symptons increase in violence for four days. The eyes are inflamed and weak, and the nose pours forth a watery secre- tion, with frequent sneezing. There is considerable inflammation in the larynx, windpipe, and bronchial tubes, with soreness of the breast and hoarseness. About the fourth day the skin is covered with a breaking out which produces heat and itching, and is red in spots, upon the face first, gradually spreading over the whole body. It goes off in the same way, from the face first and then from the body, and the hoarseness and other symptoms decline with it; at last the outside skin peels off in scales.

Treatment. - In a mild form, nothing is required but a light diet, slightly acid drinks, and flax seed or slippery elm tea. Warm herb teas, and frequent sponge baths with tepid water, serve to allay the fever; care should be taken not to let the patient take cold. � If the fever is very high, and prevents the rash coming out, a slight dose of salts, or a nauseating dose of ipecac, lobelia, or hive syrup should be given, and followed by teaspoonful doses of compound tincture of Virginia snake-root until the fever is allayed. If the patient from any derangement takes on a low typhoid type of fever, and the rash does not come out until the seventh day, and is then of a dark and livid color, tonics and stimulants must be given, and the expec- toration promoted by some suitable remedy. The room should be kept dark to protect the inflamed eyes. As long as the fever remains the patient should be kept in bed. Exposure may cause pneumonia, which, in other words, is acute inflammation of the lungs. Keep in the room as long as the cough lasts. There is always danger of the lungs being left in an inflamed state after the measels, unless the greatest care is taken not to suffer the patient to take cold. Should there be much pain, and a severe cough, this must be treated as a separate disease, with other remedies.

Medicines - terms used to express their properties. - Absorbents are medicines which destroy acidities in the tuomach and bowels, such as magnesia, jirepared chalk, etc.

Alteratives are medicines which restoK; health to the constitution,

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 289

without producing any sensible effect, such as sarsaparilla, sulphur, etc.

Analeptics are medicines that restore the strength which has been lost by sickness, such as gentian, bark, etc.

Anodynes are medicines which relieve pain, and they are divided in'o three kinds, paregorics, hypnotics, narcotics (see these terms); camphor is anodyne as well as narcotic.

Antacids are medicines which destroy acidity, such as lime, mag- nesia, soda, etc.

Antalkalies are medicines given to neutralize alkalies in the sys- tem, such as citric, nitric, or sulphuric acids, etc.

Anthelmintics are medicines used to expel and destroy worms from the stomach and intestines, such as turpentine, cowhage, male fern, etc.

Antibilious are medicines which are useful in bilious affections^ such as calomel, etc.

Antiscorbutics are medicines against scurvy, such as citric acid, etc.

Antiseptics are substances used to correct putrefaction, such as bark, camphor, etc.

Antispasmodics are medicines which possess the power of over- coming spasms of the muscles, or allaying severe pain from any cause unconnected with inflammation, such as valerian, ammonia, etc.

Aperients are medicines which move the bowels gently, such as dandelion root, etc.

Aromatics are cordial, spicy, and agreeably flavored medicines, such as cardamoms, cinnamon, etc.

Astringents are medicines which contract the fibres of the body, diminish Excessive discharges, and act indirectly as tonics, such as oak-bark, galls, etc.

Attenuants are medicines which are supposed to thin the blood, such as ammonia, iron, etc.

Balsalmics are medicines of a soothing kind, such as Tolu, Peru- vian balsam, etc.

Carminatives are medicines which allay pain in the stomach and bowels, and expel flatulence, such as aniseed water, etc.

Cathartics are strong purgative medicines, such as jalap, etc.

Cordials are exhilarating and warming medicines, such as aromatic confection, etc.

Corroborants are medicines and food which increase the strength, such as iron, gentian, sago, etc.

Demulcents correct acrimony, diminish irritation, and soften parts by covering their surfaces 'with a mild and viscid matter, such as lin- seed tea, etc.

Deobstruents are medicines which remove obstructions, such as iodide of potash, etc.

290

Detergents clean the surfaces over which they pass, such as soap, etc.

Diaphoretics i)roduces ixTspiralion, such as tartrate of antimony, etc.

Digestives are remedies applied to ulcers or wounds, to promote the formation of matter, such as resin ointments, warm poultices, etc.

Discuticnts possess the power of repelling or resolving tumors, such as galbanimi, etc.

Diuretics act upon the kidneys and bladder, and increase the How of urine, such as niter, squills, etc.

Drastics are violent jnirgatives, such as gamboge, etc.

I'imetics produce vomiting, or the discharge of the contents of the stomacli, such as mustard, tartar emetic, warm water bloodroot, etc.

r''mf)llients are remedies used externally to soften the parts they are ajjplied to, such as spermaceti, palm oil, etc.

ICpispastics are medicines which blister or cause effusion of serum under the cuticle, such as Spanish flies, etc.

Errhines are medicines which produce sneezing, such as tobacco, etc.

Escharotics are medicines which corrode or destroy the vitidity of the jiart to which they are applieil, such as lunar caustic, etc.

Expectorants are medicines which increase exi)ectoration, or the discharge of the bronchial tubes, such as ipecacuanha, etc.

Febrifuges are remedies used in fevers, such as antimonial w^nes, etc.

Hydragogues are medicines which have the effect of removing the fluid of dropsy, by producing water evacuations, such as gamboge, calomel, etc.

Hypnotics are medicines that relieve pain l)y procuring sleep, such as hops, etc.

Laxatives are medicines which cause the bowels to act rather more than natural, such as manna, etc.

Narcotics are medicines which cause sleep or stupor, and allay pain, such as opium, etc.

Nutrients are remedies that nourish the body, such as sugar, sago, etc.

Paregorics are medicines which actually assuage \yM\\, such as compound tincture of camphor, etc. .

Prophylactics are remedies employed to prevent the attack of any particular disease, such as (juinine, etc.

Purgatives are medicines that promote the evacuation of the bowels, such as senna, etc.

Refrigerants arc medicines which suppress an unusual heat of tiie body, such as wood-sorrel, tamarind.

Rubefacients are medicines which cause redness of the skin, such as mustard, etc.

291

Sedatives arc medicines which depress ihc nervous energy, and destroy sensation, so as to compose, sucli as foxglove, etc.

Sialagogues are medicines which pnjmotc the How of saliva or spittle, such as salt, calomel, etc.

.Soporifics are medicines which induce sleep, as hops, etc.

Stimulants are remedies which increase the action of the heart and arteries, or the energy of the part to which they are applied, such ar sassafras, which is an internal stimulant, and savinc, which is an ex- ternal one.

Stomachics restore the tone of the stomach, such as gentian, etc.

Styptics are medicines which constrict the surface of , a part, and prevent the effusion of blood, such as kino, etc.

Sudorifics promote profuse perspiration or sweating, such as ipeca- cuanha, etc.

Topics give general strength to the constitution, restore the nat- ural energies, and improve the tone of the system, such as chamo- mile, etc.

Vesicants are medicines which blister, such as strong liquid am- monia, etc.

Measures - of housekeepers. - A great deal of poor food, espe- cially cakes and other " recipe" preparations, is due to inaccuracy in measuring. " A pinch " of salt or pepper, or other condiment, may mean four times as much in one hand as in another - quite enough to entirely change the quality and flavor. Teaspoons, teacups, and coffeecups now vary greatly. The old standard teacup held just half a pint, or four to the (juart.

It vv(;uid be a sim[)le matter and a great convenience for any house- keeper to keep always at hand accurate measuring-cups of earthen- ware or tin. Let a teacupful or a turablerfull always mean exactly half a pint, and keep a cup of that size. Or use a small tin cup - one with a side handle being preferable. A cup just three inches in di- ameter and a trifle over two inches deep, holds half a j)int (three inches across and two and one-ninth inches deep inside; or two inches in diameter and three and one-seventh inches deej)). Any square or oblong cup whose inside length, depth, and width in inches multi- plied together make about fourteen and one-half inches (14.437) holds a pint.

Sjjoon measuring is more important, especially in giving medicines. The top is so broad and it is so dillicult to know when a spoon is evenly full, that a " tcaspoonful dose" of any medicine, or of a flavoring extract in cooking, may be double what is prescribed.. The standard teaspoon, evenly full, holds one-eighth of a fluid ounce, or one hundred and twenty-eight to a pint ; and a standard tablespoon just three times as much, or forty-two to the pint. Sixty drops of water equal one teaspoonful, but drops of different liquids vary in size. Every family should have a "minim glass" (minim means a drop). This is a little glass tube or cup having a broad base and a lip for pouring from. There are markd on the side and figures ten.

292 WHA T E VER V OA'E S//0 ULD KNO W.

twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, for so many drops - the figure sixty making just a standard teaspoonful. With this at hand one is always able to measure off exact teaspoonfuls of anything. In giving medi- cine, such regularity of doses may mean recovery of health. These glasses can be bought at most druggists for fifteen to twenty cents each.

Wheat flour, one pound is one quart; Indian meal, one pound and two ounces is one quart; butter, when soft, one pound is one quart; loaf sugar, broken, one pound is one quart; white sugar, powtiered, one pound and one ounce is one quart; best brown sugar, one pound and two ounces is one quart; eggs, ten eggs are one pound; flour, eight quarts are one peck; flour, four pecks are one bushel.

Liquids. - Sixteen large tablespoonfuls are one-half pint; eight large tablespoonfuls are one gill; four large tablespoonfuls are one- half gill; two gills are one-half pint; two pints are one quart; four quarts are one gallon; a common sized tumbler holds one-half a pint; a common sized wineglass holds one-half a gill; twenty-five drops are equal to one teaspoonful ; sixty drops are equal to one tablespoon- ful.

Meats - to cure. - For curing beef, pork, mutton and hams, the following recipe is good; To one gallon of water take one and a half pounds of salt, one-half pound of sugar, one-half ounce each of saltpeter and potash. In this ratio the pickle can be increased to any quantity desired. Let these be boiled together until all the dirt from the sugar rises to the top, and is skimmed off. Then throw it into a tub to cool, and when cold, pour it over your beef or pork. The meat must be well covered with pickle, and should not be put down for at least two days after killing, during which time it should be sprinkled with powdered saltpeter, which removes all the surface blood, etc., leaving the meat fresh and clean.

Meat (Cold) - to prepare. - Meat balls or croquettes are nice. Re- move all gristle and chop fine any and all kinds of meat you may have, mix with an equal quantity of mashed potato and grated bread, about half and half, season v/ell with pepper and salt, and a little sage if you like, add any cold gravy you may have, or make moist enough v^ith water, m.ake into balls or cakes and fry, or use cold boiled rice and one or two eggs instead of potato and bread. An- other way is to take a deep dish, put a layer of the chopped met^t, then one of bread crumbs, season well; when the dish is full cover with a thick layer of nicely mashed potato, having previously moist- ened the meat and bread with milk, and unless quite fat meat is used, we add some lumps of butter. Bake in the oven three-fourths of an hour. It is very nice.

Meat (Escaloped). - Chop the meat rather coarse, season with salt and pepper. For one pint of meat use half a cupful of gravy and a heaping cupful of bread crumbs. Put a layer of the meat in an escalop dish, then gravy, then^ thin layer of crumbs, and continue until the dish is full. The last layer should be a thick one of crum'^s.

293

Cook in a hot oven from fifteen to twenty minutes. All kinds of cold meat can be escaloped, but beef is so dry that it is not so good as mutton and veal.

Meat - economy in. - Take cold meat of any kind - pieces left from the table - and cut in pieces a quarter of an inch square, put in a frying-pan, and cover the meat with water; then put in a small piece of butter; pepper and salt, and when this comes to boil, stir in a little flour and- water, previously mixed. Have two or three slices of bread, toasted; place them on a platter, and pour the meat and gravy over them while hot. This will be found an excellent dish prepared from meat usually thrown away.

Meat - economical use of. - There is no difficulty in any man, however limited his means, having meat for his family every day. Take, for example, what is called a shank of beef. The very best can be bought for a fraction of what the dearest parts cost. A single pound cooked in a stew with dry bits of bread will make an excellent meal for an entire family.

Meat - to boil properly. - Boiling extracts a portion of the juice of meat, which mixes with the water, and also dissolves some of the solids; the more fusible parts of the fat melt out, combine with the water, and form soup or broth. The meat loses its red color, becomes more savory in taste and smell, more firm and digestible. If the process is continued too long, the meat becomes indigestible, less succulent, and tough. To boil meat to perfection, it should be done slowly, in plenty of water, replaced by other hot water as evaporation takes place; for, if boiled too quickly, the outside becomes tough; and not allowing the ready transmission of heat, the interior remains rare. The loss by boiling varies, according to Professor Donovan, from six and a quarter to sixteen per cent. The average loss on boiling butcher's meat, hams, pork and bacon is twelve, and on domestic poultry is fourteen and three-quarters. The loss per cent, on boiling salt beef is fifteen; on legs of. mutton, ten; hams, twelve and a half; on salt pork, thirteen and a half; knuckles of veal, eight and a third;- bacon, six and a quarter; turkeys, sixteen; chick- ens, thirteen and a half. The established rule as regards time, is to allow a quarter of an hour for each pound of meat if the boiling is rapid, and twenty minutes if slow. There are exceptions to this; for instance, ham and pork, which require from twenty to twenty- five minutes per pound, and bacon nearly half an hour. For solid joints allow fifteen minutes for every pound, and from ten to twenty minute over though of course, the length of time will depend much on the strength of the fire, regularity in the boiling, and size of the joint. The following table will be useful as an average of the time required to boil the various articles: Ham, twenty pounds' weight, requires six hours and a half, tongue, if dry, after soaking; four hours; tongue, out of pickle, two and a half to three hours, neck of mutton, one hour and a half; chicken, twenty minutes; large fowl, forty-five minutes; capon, thirty-five minutes; pigeon, fifteen minutes.

204 IV J/ A j' F.I ^ER ) ' ONE SIIO UL D AW 'Oil'.

Meat - to keep a week or two in summer. - Farmers or others living at a distance from butchers can keep fresh meat very nicely for a week or two, by putting it into sour milk, or butter-milk, plac- ing it in a cool cellar. The bone or fat need not be removed. Rinse well when user!.

Meats and Fish - to preserve. - The mcai to be preserved is first parboiled or somewhat m(jre and freed from bones. It is then put into tin cases or canisters, which are quite filled up with a rich gravy, A tin cover, with a small aperture, is then carefully fixed on by solder; and, while the vessel is perfectly full, it is placed in boiling water, and undergoes the remainder of the cooking. The small hole in the cover is completely closed up by soldering while the whole is yet hot. The canister, with its ingredients, is now allowed to cool, in con.sequence of which these contract, and the sides of the vessel are slightly forced inward by atmospheric pressure, and becomes a little concave. The vessel being thus hermetically sealed, and all ac- cess of the air prevented, it may be sent into any climate without fear of putrefaction; and the most delicate food of one country may be used in another in all its original perfection, months and years after its preparation. Lobsters should be boiled longer than meats, and the scales removed previous to putting into the canisters. Salmon put up by this jirocess is most delicious. By the French process the meat is boiled till it is three-quarters done, when two-thirds of it are taken out, the remaining one-third is boiled into a concentrated soup, and the meat previously taken out is put into the canisters, which are then filled up with the soup; the tin cover with aperture is soldered on, and the canister with its contents submitted to further boiling in hot water, when the aperture is closed, as above stated, and the can- isters laid away in store.

Meat (Injured) - to restore. - When the brine sours and taints the meat, pour it off; skim it well, then pour it back again on the meat boiling hot; this will restore it, even when much injured. If tainted meat is injured, dip It in the solution of chloride of lime prescribed for rancid butter; It will restore it. Fly-blown meat can be com- pletely restored by immersing it for a few hours in a vessel co itain- ing a small quantity of beer; but it will taint and impart a putrid smell to the liquor. Fresh meat, hams, fish, etc., can be preserved for an indefinite length of time without salt, by a light application of pyroligneous acid applied with a brush; it imparts a fine smoky flavor to the meat, and is an effectual preservative. But pure acetic acid may be used instead.

Meat - to sweeten. - Meat which has been slightly tainted may be restored to perfect sweetness, and the odor arising from it while boil- ing entirely jirevented, by throwing into the pot a few pieces of char- coal contained in a small bag. The odor of vegetables slightly affect- ed may be prevented in the same way. Red pepper, and even black pepper, produces a siniilar but less perfect result.

Meat - to make tender. - Tough meat may be made as tender as

IVIIA T E VER V ONE SI/0 ULD KNO W. 295

any by the addition of a little vinegar to the water when it is put on to boil.

Medicine - to destroy the taste of. - Have the medicine in a glass as usual; and a tumbler of water by the side of it, then take the medi- cine and retain it in the mouth, which should be kept closed, and if you then commence drinking the water the taste of the medicine is washed away. Even the bitterness of quinine and aloes may be pre- vented l)y this means.

/ Medical Hints - short and safe. - In health and disease endeavor always to live on the sunny side. Sir James Wyle, late physician to the Emperor of Russia^ remarked during long oI)servation in the hospitals of that country, that the cases of death occurring in rooms averted from the light of the sun, were four times more numerous than the fatal cases in the rooms exposed to the direct action of tlie solar rays. When poison is swallowed, a good off-lvmd remedy is to mix salt and mustard, one heaped teaspoonful of each, in a glass of water and drink immediately. It is quick in its operation. Then give the whites c;f two eggs in a cup of coffee, or the eggs alone if coffee cannot be had. For acid poisons give acids. In cases of opium poisoning, give strong coffee and keep moving. For light burns or scalds, dip the part in cold water or in flour, if the skin is destroyed, cover with varnish. If you fall into the water, float on the back, with the nose and mouth projecting. For apoplexy, raise the head and body ; for fainting lay the i)erson flat. Suck poisonous wounds, unless your mouth is s(;re. Enlarge the wound, or better cut out the part without delay, cauterize it with caustic, the end of a cigar, or a hot coal. If an artery is cut. compress above the wound ; if a vein is cut, compress below. If choked, get upon all-fours and cough. Before passmg through smoke take a full breath, stoop low, then go ahead; but if you fear carbonic acid gas, walk erect and be careful. Smother a fire with blankets or carpets; water tends to spread boiling oil and increase the danger. Remove dust from the eyes by dashing water into them, and avoid rubbing. Remove cinders, etc., with a soft, smooth wooden point. Preserve health and avoid catching cold, l^y regular diet, healthy food, and cleanli- ness. Sir Astley Cooper said: " The methods i;y which I have preserved my own health, are temperance, early rising, and sponging the body every morning with cold water, immediately after getting out of bed; a practice which I have adopted for thirty years without ever catching cold." Water diluted with two per cent, of carbolic acid will disinfect any room or building, if liberally used as a sprinkle. Diphtheria can be cured by a gargle of lemon juice, swallowing a little so as to reach all the affected parts. To avert cold from the feet, wear two pairs of stockings made from different fabrics, one i)air of cotton or silk, the other of wool, and the natural heat of the feet will be preserved if the feet are kept clean. In arranging sleeping- rooms the soundest and most refreshing slumber will be enjoyed when the head is toward the north. Late hours and anxious pursuits ex-

2(/) wiiAi' r:\'i-:k'y oxf. siu)i!i.n a. voir.

h.iiisl vilalilv, pioiluciil)^ (lis<-asr and pi cmal in c dcalli I licicfon: the hours <)( labor and study should bc.slioil Take ahuiidaiil cxtMciscr and rcciraliou. He iiKxIcralr in catnip' and drinking;, usiii^^ siinp'c and plain diet, uvt>idinK slioiij^ dtinU, l(>lia((<). siuilT, opium, und every excess Keep llie body vvaiin, tlie leiupci tabu, serene, and pla* id; shun idleness, il your hanils cannol be uselully cniph^yod, allend lo the < ullivalion of your ininr Stocklon l|ouj.jh asserts thai il all the in- habilanls ot the um Id were livinj;; in cities of the nJaj^miludc of Lon- don, the human rai c would ln-eome extinct in a century or two. The 111! Mil avera}.'.e ol human lile in the United ^ites is thirty-nine and a loiiiiii scai;., wlidr in New \'oik and I'liilam-lphia it is only Iwenty- ihree yeais, about lilly per ((ill. ol the deaths in these cities heinj,f of children under livi* years of a^c. A ^reat ptMcenta^e of this ex- �cs',ive nioil.ililv is ( aiised by bad air and bad food.

Meeisclmum (Imitation). This lan be larved like the Kenuine ar- ticle. Take (ommon potatoes peel(;d, and maceiate them in water acidulated with eiKhl per cent, sulphuric acid for thirty-six hours. Dry on bhittin^; |)aper, and for several tiays on plates of plastiT of I'aris in hot sand. The potatoes .should be strongly compressed while drying.'.

Men how to judge. JudKc ol men by what they do, nc)l by what they say. It -lieve in looks rather than in words. Observe all their moven\ents. Ascertain their motives and their ends. Notice wlial lluy say and do ni llit ii imj^uarded moments, when uder then inlliuiit (� of excitemeii! Ihc passions h�ve been tomparedlo tor- tures, whit h fence nun to uveal their secrets. Hefore trustintf a man, bettnc puttiii)^ it in his power to cause you a loss, possess your- self ��f every aviiilable information relative to him. l.earn his his- tory, his Itabits, im linations ami propensities ; his reputation for lionesty, industry, fruj.;alily ami puiKtualily ; his prospects, resources, supp(�rts, advantaj^i'S and disadvantaj^es ; his Intentions ami motives of action ; who are his friends and enemies, and what are his ^ood or bad ([ualitles. Yon n\ay liarn a man's good iiu.ilities and advan- tages from his friends - his bad (pialities and disadvantages from his enendes. Make due allowance Un' exaggeration in both. I'inally, examine catcfnlly before engaging in anything and act with eiu-rgy afterward. Nave the hundred eyes of Argus beft)uh.iiid and the huiidi(*d h.iiids ol Mriaiius alleiwaul.

Menstruation (Painful) anodyne for. Mxtraci of stramonium and sulphate �>! tpiinim-, lach sixteen grains ; macrotin, eight grains ; morciotin, eiKht grains ; morphine, one grain ; make into eight pills. Dose, one pill, repealing once or twice oidy, ftirly or litly minnles .ipail. il the pain does not subside i>efore this liim*. i'ain nuisl sub- .'ul � iiiidei the irsi- of this [)ill, and costiveness is not increased.

Metal to clean. Mix half a pint of refined neal's-fool oil and Ivalf a gill of spirits �)f tmpintini". .Scrape a little kernel of rotten tjlonr, wet a w<�olen rag therewith, dip it into the scraped kernel, and

W//A 7' J< VKR V ONE SHOULD KNO W. 297

rub the metal well. Wipe it off with a soft cloth, and polish with dry leather.

Metals - to harden. - Iron, sixty parts ; chrome, forty parts ; form a comjjosition as hard as the diamond. A high degree of hard- ness may als

Metals - to plane. - The first operation abcjut planing, is to oil your planer and find out if the bed is smooth. If it is not, file off the rough places , then change the dogs to .see if they will work well, and find out the movments of the planer. After doing this, bolt your work on the bed, and, if it is a long, thin piece, plane off a chip, then turn it over and finish the other .side, taking two chips, the last of which should be very light, (ireat care should be taken in bolting it to the bed, not to sjjring it. After finishing this side turn it to the other side, and take off a light cut to finish it.

Metronome- to construct. - Take a cheap clock movement and substitute for the pendulum a wire with a sliding weight, marking the wire with a file at the different points ot graduation. Used to indicate the i)roper time in music.

Mice in Corn Stacks - to prevent ravages of. - Sprinkle from four to six bushels of dry white sand upon the root of the stack be- fore the thatch is put on. The sand is no detriment to the corn, and stacks thus dressed have remained without injury. So very effective is the remedy, that nests of dead young mice have been found v/here the sand has been used, but not a live mouse could be seen.

Mica - to clean. - Mica in stoves (often wrongly called " isinglass"), when smoked, is readily cleaned by taking it out and thoroughly washing with vinegar a little diluted. If the black does not come off at once, let it soak a little.

Mildew - to remove from cloth.- The mof t effectual method is one which has never failerl with us, but which needs to be used with care. It worked to a charm in one case where a careless laundress left a basket of clothes, including the fine clothing of two little chil- dren, to stand in hot weather till every article was mildewed. De- spairing, we put them in the hands of a woman noted for her wisdom in all household ways, and she brought them back in perfect con- dition.

Dissolve two ounces of chloride of lime in one quart of boiling water; then add three quarts of cold water. Strain this through cloth, lest any tiny lumps remain, and soak the mildewed spots in the li(juid for five or six hours, and then thoroughly rinse in clean water. This is effectual. The dangers to be avoided are the use of too strong a s<^)lution, soaking too long, and insufficient rinsin/^, the result of which would be a weakening of the fiber of the cloth itself. Other methods are:

29S WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

1. Cover the spot with a paste composed of soft soap, starcn, salt, and the juice of a lemon. The directions say half as much salt as starch Lay the cloth wet with this mixture in the sun, and renew the operation till the spots disappear.

2. Wet the spots in buttermilk, and leave in the sun till dry, then rinse.

3. Use soft soap and chalk.

The difficulty is an obstinate one, and while some of the mildc methods may succeed, they may fail entirely.

Mildew - to remove from linen, - Remove mildew from linen b} wetting the spot, rubbing on chalk, and exposing it to the air. Di- luted hartshorn will take out mildew from woolen stuffs. A weak solution of chloride of lime can be applied to almost any fabric, but must be used with care, especially on some colors.

Milk - for drink. - Some persons are averse to milk, because they find it indigestible, or makes them bilious. A frequent reason for such consequences is that milk is drunk as if it were so much water. Where digestion is not strong it only agrees when leisurely sipped, and bread eaten with it, or else cooked with suitable solids.

Milk and Butter - increase of. - If cows are given four ounces of French boiled hemp seed, it will greatly increase the quantity of milk. If pans are turned over this milk for fifteen minutes when first milked, or till cold, the same milk will give double the quantity of butter.

Milk - healthfulness of. - If any one wishes to grow fleshy, a pint of milk on retiring at night will soon cover the scrawniest bones. Although we see a good many fleshy persons nowadays, there are a great many lean and lank ones, who sigh for the fashionable meas- ure of plumpness, and who would be vastly improved in health and appearance could their flesh be rounded with good, solid flesh. Noth- ing is more coveted by a thin woman than a full figure, and nothing will so rise the ire and provoke the scandal of the " clipper-build " as the consciousness of plumpness in a rival. In a case of fever and summer complaint, milk is now given with excellent results. The idea that milk is feverish has exploded, and it is now the physician's great reliance in bringing through typhoid patients, or those in too low a state to be nourished by solid food. It is a mistake to scrimp the milk-pitcher. Take more milk and buy less meat.

Milk (Hot) - as a stimulant. - If any one is fatigued, the best re- storative is hot milk, a tumbler of the beverage as hot as can be sipped. This is far more of a restorative than any alcoholic drink.

Milk - to increase the flow of in cows. - Give your cows three times a day, water slightly warm, slightly salted, in v/hich bran has been stirred at the rate of one quart to two gallons of water. You will find if you have not tried this daily practice, that the cow will give twenty-five per cent, more milk, and she will become so much attached to the diet that she will refuse to drink clear water unless very thirsty, but this mess she will drink at almost any time, and ask for more. The amount ot this drink necessary is an ordinary water-

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 299

pailful each time, morning, noon, and night. Avoid giving cows "slops," as they are no more fit for the animal than they are for the human.

Milk - preserved or solidified - i. Fresh-skimmed milk, one gal- lon; sesquicarbonate of soda (in powder), one and one-half drams. Mix; evaporate to one-third part by heat of steam or water-bath, with constant agitation; then add of powdered sugar six and one-half pounds, and complete the evaporation at a reduced temperature. Reduce the dry mass to powder, add the cream, well drained, which was taken from the milk. After thorough admixture, put the whole into well-stopped bottles or tins, and hermetically seal.

2. Carbonate of soda, one-half dram; water, one fluid ounce; dis- solve ; add of fresh milk, one quart ; sugar, one pound ; reduce by heat to the consistency of a syrup, and finish the evaporation on plates, by exposure in an oven. Observe - About one ounce of the powder agitated with one pint of water forms a good substitute for milk.

Milk - punch - Yellow rinds of two dozen lemons; steep two days in two quarts brandy; add spirit, three quarts; hot water, two quarts; lemon juice one quart; loaf-sugar, four pounds; boiling milk, two quarts; two nutmegs grated. Mix, and in two hours strain through wool.

Milk - to keep sweet - Put into the milk a small quantity of car- bonate of magnesia.

Mi k (Quality) - how to test. - Procure any long glass vessel - a cologne bottle or long phial. Take a narrow strip of paper, just the length from the neck to the bottom of the phial, and mark it off with one hundred lines at equal distances; or into fifty lines, and count each as two, and paste it upon the phial, so as to divide its length" into a hundred equal parts. Fill it to the highest part with milk fresh from the cow, and allow it to stand in a perpendicular position twenty-four hours. The number of spaces occupied by the cream will give you its exact percentage in the milk without any guess work.

Milk - to preserve - Provide bottles, which must be perfectly clean, sweet, and dry; draw the milk from the cow into the bottles, and as they arf^ filled, immediately cork them well up, and fasten the corks with pack-thread or wire. Then spread a little straw at the bottom of a boiler, on which place bottles with straw between them, until the boiler contains a sufficient quantity. Fill it up with cold water; heat the water, and as soon as it begins to boil, draw the fire, and let the whole gradually cool. When quite cold, take out the bottles and pack them in saw-dust, in hampers, and stow them in the coolest part of the house. Milk preserved in this manner, and al- lowed to remain even eighteen months in the bottles, will be as sweet as when first milked from the cow.

Mirrors - to clean. - Cleaning mirrors is an easy operation when rightly understood. The greatest care should be taken in cleaning

300 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W,

to use only the softest articles, lest the glass should be scratched. It should first be dusted with a feather brush ; then washed over with a sponge dipped in spirits to remove the fly spots ; after this it should be dusted with the powder blue in a thin muslin bag, and finally pol- ished with an old silk handkerchief.

Mirrors - to repair. - To repair a damaged mirror : Pour upon a sheet of tin-foil about three drams of quicksilver to the square foot of foil. Rub smartly with a piece of buckskin until the foil becomes brilliant. Lay the glass upon a flat table, face downward; place the foil upon the damaged portion of the glass, lay a sheet of paper over the foil, and place upon it a block of wood or a piece of marble with a perfectly fiat surface; put upon it sufficient weight to press it down tight; let it remain in this position a few hours. The foil will ad- here to the glass.

Mirrors - to care for. - The strong light of the sun should never be allowed to fall directly upon a mirror. The amalgam or union of tin-foil and mercury which is spread on glass to form a looking-glass is easily ruined by the direct continued exposure to the solar rays, causing the glass to look misty.

Miscellaneous Items. - Cream of tartar rubbed upon soiled white kid gloves clean them well.

A fine comb loosens the dead skin of the scalp just as friction rubs off the scarf skin of the body.

Grained wood should be washed with cold tea.

Sour milk removes iron rust from white goods.

Try pure benzine to remove stains from hair-cloth furniture.

When washing oil-cloths, put a little milk in the last water they are washed with. This will keep them bright and clean longer than clear water.

Furniture needs cleaning as much as other wood-work. It may be washed with warm soap-suds, quickly wiped dry and then rubbed with an oily cloth.

To make silk which has been wrinkled appear exactly like new, sponge it on the surface with a weak solution of gum arable or white glue, and iron on the wrong side.

A paste maci/e of whiting and benzine will clean marble, and one made of whiting and chloride of soda spread and left to dry (in the sun if possible) on the marble will remove spots.

Single cream is cream that has stood on the milk twelve hours V is best for tea and coffee.'

In boiling eggs put them in boiling water. It will prevent the yolk from coloring black.

In making a crust of any kind, do not melt the lard in flour. Melt- ing will injure the crust.

To beat the white of eggs quickly put in a pinch of salt. The cooler the eggs the quicker they will froth. Salt cools and also freshens them.

There is a greenness in onions and potatoes that renders them hard

PFI/A T E VER V ONE SHOULD KNOW. 301

to digest. For health's sake put them m warm v/ater for an hour be- fore cooking.

A few dried or preserved cherries, with stones out, are the very best thing possible to garnish sweet dishes.

Double cream stands on its milk twentj^-four hours, and cream for butter frequently stands forty-eight hours.

Cod-liver oil contains iodine and bromide.

There are 174,000,000 air cells in the lungs.

The nearer the rain cloud is to the earth the larger the drops.

Soda put into the sea water makes it fit for washing clothes.

Glauber is the sulphate of soda of modern chemists.

Meat immersed in molasses has been preserved for months.

Cucumber peelings are said to be a sure cure for cockroaches.

The distilled juice of the cocoa tree forms the well-known arrak.

A small piece of paper or linen moistened with turpentine and put into the wardrobe or drawers for a single day at a time, two or three times a year, is a preventative against moths.

To take machine oil out of white cotton goods, rub on spirits of turpentine before washing.

Benzine and common clay will clean marble.

Some ingenious man in Rhode Island has discovered a use for the despised milk-weed. Its seeds yield a finer oil than linseed. Its gum is as good as India rubber, and its floss resembles Irish poplin when spun.

Plug up mice holes with soap. The mice will not go through.

Camphor placed in drawers or trunks will prevent mice from doing them any injury.

Jelly molds should be greased with cold butter. When you wish to remove the jelly or pudding, plunge the mold into hot water, remove quickly, and the contents will come out in perfect form and without any trouble.

Mites in Cheese - to destroy, - i. These are at all times better avoided than destroyed, for when they have become very numerous they do a great deal of damage in a short time. To avoid mites the best plan seems to be to leave the cheese exposed to the air, and to brush it occasionally; some prefer wrapping the cheese in a buttered paper, but the former plan, we think, is the best. When mites have become very numerous, they may be killed by suspending the cheese by a piece of wire or string, and dipping it for a moment into a pail of boiling water. The boiling water will kill all the mites, and do no harm to the cheese unless it is left in it too long.

2. Cheese kept in a cool larder or cellar, with a cloth rung out of clean, cold water constantly upon it, will never have mites in it, or if it has, this will soon destroy them, and also greatly improve the cheese, keeping it always moist.

Mittens - to knit. - For the hand cast on sixty stitches, and widen at one end every time you knit across until you have widened twelve stitches, knit plain four times across, narrow down twelve stitches

302 WHA T E VER V ONE SHOULD KNO W.

widen twelve stitches, narrow twelve, and you have the head of the mitten. Bind off and sew it off, leaving a space for the thumb to be sewed in. For the thumb cast on eighteen stitches and widen at both ends - at the top widen five stitches, knit two plain, then narrow five, but at the other end of the needle widen continuously, as this is the gore that runs toward the wrist. When one-half of the thumb has been knitted begin to narrow at this end, Avhile you repeat the widening and narrowing at the top. When the thumb is knitted bind off all but six stitches - knit a little square with them for a gore be- tween the thumb and hand. Sew up, and then sew into the space left in the hand. The wrist may be finished as long as wanted, either by knitting or crocheting. This number of stitches makes a medium sized mitten in Saxony yarn, and, of course, is to be varied according to the size of the yarn used.

Mittens (Silk) - for gentlemen. - Four No. i8 needles, three half ounce balls of knitting silk. Cast on seventy-eight stitches; knit two and purl two round the needles till there is about an inch and a half of webbing; then knit plain once around, knit to the middle of the needle, seam one, make one, knit one, make one, seam one. Knit plain, always seaming the seam stitch, and every sixth or seventh row make a stitch inside the seam stitch as directed until there are as many stitches between the seams as there are in the other needles (twenty-six). Slip these stitches on a thread; tie the ends. Cast on eight or ten stitches between the seams and knit around plain till the mitten reaches the nail of the third rows, narrow and knit two rows plain, narrow and knit one row, then narrow every time till all the stitches but two are knit. Draw the end of the silk through these stitches and fasten securely; a fine darning needle is the best thing to do it with.

For the thumb take the stitches ofif the thread and take up the eight or ten stitches made between the seams. Knit once around plain, then knit two together of the made stitches every time around till they are all taken up. Then knit round and round till the thumb is long enough. Narrow it off by knitting two together at the begin- ning of each needle till it can be finished as the hand. These direc- tions are equally good for yarn mittens, changing the size of the needles and the number of stitches according to the size of the yarn used.

Mock Terrapin - a supper dish. - Half a calf's liver, season, fry brown. Hash it, not very fine, dust thickly with flour, a teaspoonful of mixed mustard, as much cayenne pepper as will lie on a half dime; two hard eggs, chopped fine, a lump of butter as large as an (t^^, a teacupful of water. Let it boil a minute or two. Cold veal will do if liver is not liked.

Money Maxims. - When a mortgage on a farm is so heavy that the farmer never tries to lessen or lift it, the sooner he finds a smaller place the better.

WHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W, 303

If you want to understand fully the meaning of the old adage, " A fool and his money are soon parted," buy a lottery ticket.

In whatever you undertake form a plan and stick to it, working like a gimlet to a point.

All kinds of useful employments are equally honorable.

Every man starting in life should consider what his physical make, tastes, education, habits of thinking and of life, fit him for, and hav- ing decided, that should be his life work, and no consideration of assumed respectability should cause him to turn from the bench or forge to sermons or briefs, unless his judgement convinces him that for the new field of action he has a natural aptitude or predilection.

It don't pay to fold your hands and wait for a fortune to fall into your lap. Twenty men remain hopelessly poor waiting for a fortune to fall into their lap, where one is made rich by the longed-for trans- action of the dricd-up uncle or grandfather.

Moss on Trees - to destroy. - Paint them with whitewash made of quicklime and wood ashes.

Mosquitoes - to protect from. - Quassia is used in medicine as a powerful tonic, and the chips are sold by chemists from fifteen to twenty-five cents per pound. The tree is indigenous to the West Indies and to South America. A young friend of mine, severely bit- ten by mosquitoes, and unwilling to be seen so disfigured, sent for quassia chips, and had boiling water poured upon them. At night, after washing, she dipped her hands into the quassia water, and left it to dry on her face. This was a perfect protection, and continued to be so whenever applied. At the approach of winter, when flies and gnats get into houses, and sometimes bite venomously, a grandchild of mine, eighteen months old, was thus attacked. I gave the nurse some of my weak solution of quassia to be left dry on his face, and he was not bitten again. It is inocuous to children, and it may be a protection also against bed insects, which I have not had the oppor- tunity of trying. When the solution or the quassia is strong it is well known to be an active fly poison, and is mixed with sugar to attract flies, but this is not strong enough to kill at once.

Mosquitoes - to get rid of. - Mosquitoes, says somebody, love beef blood better than they do any that flows in the veins of human kind. Just put a couple of generous pieces on plates near your bed at night, and you will sleep untroubled by these pests. In the morning you will find them full and stupid with the beef blood, and the meat sucked as dry as a cork.

Mosquito Remedy. - To clear a sleeping-room of mosquitoes, take a piece of paper rolled around a lead-pencil to form a case, and fill this with very dry Pyrethrum powder (Persian insect powder) put- ting in a little at a time, and pressing it down with the pencil. This cartridge, or cigarette, may be set in a cup of sand to hold it erect. An hour before going to bed the room is to be closed, and one of these cartridges burned. A single cartridge will answer for a small

304 WI/A T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

room, but for a large one two are required. Those who have tried this find that it effectually disposes of the mosquitoes.

Moths - protection against. - In May the clothes moth begins to fly about our I'ooms. It isasmall, light, buff-colored *' miller, "dainty an i beautiftil on close inspection. But it is necessary to keep a sharp lookout for the safety of our furs and flannels, and we must wage war upon it. In the first place, we must carefully put away everything we can, upon which it \hich they may be kept. Beat them well when you finally put them away for the sea- son. If you delay putting them away until June, examine the 'urs well, and shake and beat them very thoroughly, in order that any moth eggs that may possibly have been laid in them may be thor- oughly removed oi killed. Furs sealed up early in May need no camphor or tobacco or other preventive. Muff and tippet boxes should be tied up securely in bags, or made safe by mending holes and pasting a strip of paper around the junction of the cover with the box below, so as to close all openings. Woolen garments must not hang in closets through the summer, in parts of the country where moths abound. They should be packed away in tight trunks or boxes, or sealed up in bags. Woolen blankets must be well shaken and carefully put away, unless they are in daily use. Early in June the larvae of the moth begin their ravages, and now unless you dwell in places where moths are not found, look sharp, or you will find some precious thing that you have forgotten - some good coat unused for a few weeks, or the woolen cover of a neglected piano, already more or less riddled by the voracious moths. It is their nature to eat until they have grown strong enough to retire from the eating business and go into the chrysalis condition.

Some things cannot be well packed away in light boxes and bags, and among these it is well to scatter small lumps of camphor or clip- pings of Russian leather.- Some use tobacco, though I think camphor is usually preferred. It is said that powdered black pepper scattered under the edge of carpets will preserve them from attacks.

Moths in Carpets. - Moths will work in carpets in rooms that are kept warm in winter as well as in the summer. A sure method of re- moving the pests is to pour strong alum water on the floor to the dis- tance of half a yard around the edges before laying the carpets. Then once or twice during the season sprinkle dry salt over the car-

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 305

pet before sweeping. Insects do not like salt, and sufficient adheres to the carpet to prevent their alighting upon it.

Moths in Carpets - to kill. - Untack your carpet, turn it back a half yard all around the room, wash the boards with a saturated solu- tion of camphor, putting it on with a brush - a paint brush is good, then lay the carpet back in its proper place, and put over it a towel wrung out of water and camphor, and iron it thoroughly with a real hot iron so as to steam it through and through, this will kill the in- sects and all their larvae.

Moth Preventive. - A very pleasant perfume, and also preventive against moths, may be made of the following ingredients . Take of cloves, carraway seeds, nutmeg, mace, cinnamon and Tonquin beans, of each one ounce; then add as much Florentine orris-root as will equal the other ingredients put together; Grind the whole well to powder, and then put it in little bags, among your clothes, etc.

Moths in Feather Beds. - If you are troubled with moths in your feather beds, boil the feathers in water for a short time; then put them in sacics and dry them, working them with the hands all the time.

Moths - to prevent the damage of. - Furs, flannels and woolen goods, when laid by for any time, are very liable to injury from moths. Most persons may have noticed at times in their houses a small, light brown-colored moth, and another with black and white wings; both these are very dangerous inmates. Whenever they are seen they should be destroyed. But no articles of fur, flannel and woolen fabric should be left long without being taken out and shaken or brushed. They should always be well aired before they are put away. If a few bitter apples, which can be bought at the chemists, are enclosed in muslin bags, and put into the drawers or closets, no moth will ever come near them.

Moth Patches - to remove. - Moth patches may be removed from the face by the following remedy; Into a pint bottle of rum put a teaspoonful of flour of sulphur. Apply this to the patches once a day, and they will disappear in two or three weeks.

Mother of Pearl - to clean. - Mother of pearl may be polished with finely powdered pumice-stone which has been washed to sepa- ate the impurities and dirt, and then finished with putty powder and .vater applied by a rubber, which will produce a fine gloss.

Mother cf Pearl Work. - This delicate substance requires great care in its workmanship, but it may be cut with the aid of saws, files and drills, with the aid of muriatic or sulphuric acid, and it is polish- ed by colcothar, or the brown-red oxide of iron left after the distilla- tion of the acid from sulphate of iron. In all ornamental Avork, where pearl is said to be used, for fiat surfaces, such as inlaying, mosaic work, etc., it is not real pearl, but mother of pearl that is used.

Mountain Ash Berries - to preserve. - Mountain ash berries are very showy, and would be of great use in holiday decoration were

3o6 WIIA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

they not ripe and away long before winter. If gathered when ripe, they shrivel and become discolored long before they are wanted for use. They may be preserved in perfection if the clusters arc covered with strong brine. Stick a pin here, and try it next autumn, not only on the berries of the mountain ash, but on a number of other brilliant and perishable fruits. Let us pickle the berries.

Mouse-trap - cheap and good. - Take the -bowl of a clean clay pipe and fill it with cheese; put it under the edge of a glass tumbler in such a manner that a slight touch will cause the tumbler to slip off - the bait and mouse of course underneath. This arrangement will catch more mice than any trap I ever saw, at the cost of one cent.

Mouth Wash. - Proof spirits, one quart; borax and honey, of each one ounce; gum myrrh, one ounce; red sanders wood, one ounce. Rub the honey and borax well together in a mortar, then gradually add the spirit, the myrrh and sanders wood, and macerate fourteen days.

Mucilage - to make. - i. To make good mucilage, take equal parts of gum arable and gum tragacanth, and add sufficient water to dis- solve; add a couple of cloves, and you have good, cheap mucilage.

2. This is generally made of water and gum arable. An excellent mucilage can also be made with one tablespoonful of common dry starch boikd in a teacupful of water.

Muffs - for the feet. - A nice present for any one who has to get out of bed at night in order to tend to small children or an invalid is a pair of foot-muffs. They are of clouded zephyr, knit on wooden needles, garter fashion Forty stitches are set up, and the knitting proceeds back and forth across the needles, until the strip is about ten inches long. Bind it off, and double it together, and make it into a bag, whole at the bottom, and with a seam at each side. The seams are crocheted together, or may be loosely sewed with zephyr, like that used in knitting. With a coarse crochet needle make loops around the top of the bag, crocheting a long stitch into every third stitch around the bag, and joining them together by chain-stitch. These loops are for a rubber tape about ten inches long. Crochet scallops around the top, as ornamental as you like. This bag does not look much like boot, shoe, or slipper, but put it on your foot and it an- swers nicely for a foot warmer. The number of stitches required would depend upon the size of the needles. The knitting should be loose and elastic.

Muffins (Graham). - To three cups of self-raising Graham flour, rub in one large spoonful of shortening, and two spoonfuls of mo- lasses, making a thick batter. Bake in a quick oven, in iron molds or muffin-rings. By simply mixing self-raising Graham flour and cold water, and baking as above, an excellent and healthful article of food for dyspeptics is produced. One recommemled and used at most of the water-cure and health establishments throughout the country. In making bread or cake, the smaller the mass or loaf the better - about a pound or so is best - so as to allow a thorough baking

WIT A T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W, 307

in a short time. Bake in a hot oven immediately after mixing; the oven should be ready when you begin to mix.

Muffins (Graham). - One quart of Graham flour, two teaspoonfuls of baking-powder, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, one t.g^� one tablespoonful of sugar, one-half teaspoonful of salt, milk enough to make a batter as thick as for griddle-cakes.

Muffins - of granulated wheat. - Are made of three cupfuls of ?ranulated wheat, four of sugar, two of cream tartar, one of soda, one of salt, two cupfuls of milk, two-thirds cupful of water, two eggs. Mix all the dry ingredients together; beat the eggs Hghc and add the milk to them ; stir this on the dry ingredients, and bake half an hour in a buttered muffin-pan.

Muffins (Hominy). - Two and one-half cups of soft-boiled hominy, one quart of sweet milk, three eggs beaten well, a large tablespoonful of melted butter, a tablespoonful of sugar, a little salt, and a large cupful of flour with two teaspoonfuls of baking powder sifted with it. Mix well before adding flour, beat the flour quickly, and bake in hot muffin rings.

Muffins (Mush). - Cold mush is not a very promising mixture to the eye, but when thinned with milk and thickened with a little wheat flour and eggs, in the proportion of four to a quart, it makes very good muffins.

Muffins (Raised). - One pint of warm milk, one-half cake com- pressed yeast or one-half cupful of liquid yeast, one quart of flour, one tablespoonful of butter, two eggs, one teaspoonful of salt. Beat the eggs well, and add them and the salt, yeast and butter to the milk; stir gradually into the flour; beat until the batter is light and smooth; let it rise four hours in a warm place. Fill buttered muffin pans two thirds full, let them stand in a warm place until the pans are full, and then bake half an hour. In case you do not have much time to let them rise, use double the quantity of yeast.

Mumps. - This disease, most common among children, begins with soreness and stiffness in the side of the neck. Soon a swelling of the paratoid gland takes place, which is painful and continues to increase for four or five days, sometimes making it difficult to swallow, or open the mouth. The swelling sometimes comes on one side at a time, but commonly upon both. There is often heat and sometimes fever, with a dry skin, quick pulse, furred tongue, constipated bow- els, and scanty and high-colored urine. The disease is contagious.

Treatment. - Keep the face and neck warm, and avoid taking cold. Drink warm herb teas, and if the symptoms are severe, four to six grains of Dover's powder; or if there is costiveness, a slight physic, and observe a very simple diet. If the disease is aggravated by tak- ing cold, and is very severe, or is translated to other glands, physic must be used freely, leeches applied to the swelling, or cooling poul- tices. Sweating must be resorted to in this case.

Mushrooms - to pickle. - Choose small white mushrooms; they should be but one night's growth. Cut off the roots and rub the

3o3 JVIIA T EVERY ONE SHOULD KNOW.

mushrooms clean with a bit of flannel and salt; put them in a jar, allowing to every quart of mushrooms one ounce each of salt and ginger, half an ounce of whole pei)per, eight blades of mace, a bay leaf, a strip of lemon rind and a wineglassful of sherry; cover the jar close, and let it stand on the stove, so as to be thoroughly heated and on the point of boiling; so let it remain a day or two, till the liquor is absorbed by the mushrooms and spices; then cover them with hot vinegar, close them Jiguin, and stand till it just comes to a boil; then take them away from the fire. When they are quite cold divide the mushrooms and spice into wide-mouthed bottles, fill them up with the vinegar, and tie them over. In a week's time, if the vinegar has shrunk so as not entirely to cover the mushrooms, add cold vinegar. At the top of each bottle put a teaspoonful of salad or almond oil; cork close, and di]) in bottle resin.

Mushrooms -to select. - Whenever a fungus is pleasant in flavor and odor it may be considered wholesome; if, on the contrary, it have an offensive smell, a bitter, astrmgent, or styptic taste, or even if it leave an unpleasant flavor in the mouth, it should not be considered fit for food. The color, figure, and texture of these vegetables do not afford any characters on which we can safely rely; yet it may be re- marked that in color the pure yellow, gold color, bluish pale, dark or luster brown, wine red, or the violet, belong to many that are escu- lent; while the pale or sulphur yellow, bright or blood-red, and the greenish belong to few but the poisonous. The safe kinds have most frequently ii compact, brittle texture; the flesh is white; they grow more readily in open places, such as dry pastures and waste lands, than in places humid or shaded by wood. In general, those should be suspected which grow in caverns and subterranean passages, on animal matter undergoing putrefaction, as well as those whose flesh is soft and watery.

Mushrooms (Stewed). - Cut off the ends of the stalks, and pare neatly some middle sized or button mushrooms, and put them into a basin of water with the juice of a lemon as they are done. When all are prepared, take them from the water with the hands to avoid the sediment, and put them into a stew-pan with a little fresh butter, white j)epper, salt, and a little lemon juice; cover the pan close, and let them stew gently for twenty minutes or half an hour; then thicken the butter with a spoonful of flour, and add gradually sufficient cream, or cream and milk, to make the same about the thickness of good cream. Season the sauce to palate, adding a little pounded mace or grated nutmeg. Let the whole stew gently until the mush- rooms are tender. Remove every particle of butter which may be floating on the toj^ before serving.

Muslin - ways to bleach. - For every five pounds dissolve twelve ounces chloride of linu- in a small cjuantity of soft boiling water. When cold strain into it enough water to cover the goods. Boil them fifteen mimUes in strong soap-suds, wring out in clear cold water, then put the goods in the chloride of lime solution from ten to

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thirty minutes, with frequent airiuKs; rinse well and rlry the pfoods; then scald in clear soft water and dry. An excellent lileachinjj fluid is made by boiling together one j^allon of water, two ounces of pearl- ash, two ounces salts of tartar, and a quarter of a pound of hard soap. One i)int of this mixture is to be put into one tub of clothes, which should l>e soaked over night and washed as usual the next day, 'I'hose who have ])lenty of sour milk may bleach muslin in the fol- lowing manner Jioil thick sour milk, strain it into a stone pot, and ihen j)tit ifi what(!ver is to be bleachefi; let it remain there a fevi days, turning and airing it thrice a day, wring out, wash in cold sf>ft water, and sjxrad in the hot sun. J^cpeat the process if necessary.

Mustard - to make. - Mustard should always be made in small quantities, fr(;sh as required. It soon spoils by keeping. Put the quantity required into a teacup, and stir in the boiling water till it is of the proper consistency, and perfectly smf)Oth. It should never be made in the musiard-fxH in which it is to be brought to th<; table. The French mix mustard with vinegar instead of water, and som(! [)ersons add salt; but good Durham mustard is best made i)lain. Milk, with the addition of a little cream, if used instead of water, is said to take away all bitterness and to impart great softness Ui mustard.

Mustard - to mix. - 1. To two sj)oonfuliw>f mustard add one tca- Kpoonfid of salt, two of sugar, and vinegar enough to mix in a very stiff paste. Then add sufficient boiling water to make it of i)roper consistency for table use.

2. Mustard should be mixed with water that has been boiled and allowed to cool. Hot water destroys its essential qualities, and raw cold water mjght cause it to ferment. Put the mustard in a cup with a small i)in( h of salt, and mix with it very gradually sufficient boil- ing water to mak(; it drojjfrom the spoon without becoming watery.

Musty Flour -to correct. - Carbonate of magnesia, three pcnjnds; flout, seven hutidred and sixty-five j^ounds; mix. This improves l>ad fh>ur, causing it to become more wholesome, i^rodui ing lighter and ])etter l>read than when alum is used, and absorbs and dissipates the musty smell.

Mutton (Harricot). - Take a'loin of mutton, cut it into small chops, season it with ground pepi)er, allspice, and salt; let it stand a night and then fry it. Have good gravy well seascmed with flour, butter, catsup and jxrppcr, if necessary. Hoil turnii)s antl carrots, cut them small, and add to the mutton stewed in the gravy, with the yolks of hard boiled eggs, and forced meat balls.

Mutton (Roast). - The loin, haunch, and saddle of mutton and lamb must be done the same as beef. All other parts must be roasted with a quick, clear fire; baste it when you put it down, and dredge it with a little flour just before you take it uj). A leg of mutton of six pounds will re(|uire (jne hour to roast before u quick fire.

Nails - to whiten. - Diluted sulphuric acid, two drams; tincture of myrrh, one dram; spring water, four ounces. Mix. First

3IO

cleanse the nails with white soap, and then dip the fingers into the wash.

Napery. - Every housekeeper feels the need of at least one set of handsome table linen that shall always be ready for company occa- sions. Fringed and embroidered damask tablecloths are very ex- pensive, but I have seen a tablecloth in a mountain farmhouse that was pretty without being costly. The material was good linen sheet- ing with a fringe raveled out and tied by the daughter of the owner. Above the fringe was a running pattern, not exactly a vine, but close- ly set groups of leaves and small fruits of various kinds, done very sketchily in outline work, which is simply long back stitching, in colored thread, crewel or silk. The work I refer to was indelible cotton of various shades. In the center was a large June apple with leaves. From the same linen, which, as it was bought, was of course too wide for a table cover, small square napkins had been cut off and finished with a narrow fringe. In the center of each was work- ed patterns of fruit, a bunch of grapes on one, a pear on another and berries of different kinds on others. The designs were all taken with the help of transfer paper from agricultural papers and seed catalogues, and the outlining is such rapid work that two or three napkins could be embroidered in an afternoon. Kate Greenaway patterns, copied from " Under the Window," and other children's books, or even from advertising cards, would be as pretty as fruit designs, and easy to execute. If they are used, the patterns on the tablecloth should correspond.

Napkin Ring - to crochet. - Use cotton twine, of a quality be- tween the common wrapping twine and macrame thread. It is smoother and harder twisted than the common white twine, yet not so stiff as the macrame. Use a small steel needle and crochet rather tight and firm. i. Make a chain of forty stitches. Join the ends. 2. One chain. (Draw thread through the two upper threads of first stitch in first row, then through the two stitches on the needle, thus making a single crochet). Finish the row in single crochet, 3. Like the second row. 4. Five chain, one double crochet into the fourth stitch of third row (three chain, one double crochet into the fourth stitch in third row from last double crochet). Repeat between par- enthesis until you have finished the row, but at the end, instead of one double crochet, catch it into the second stitch of fine chain. 5. Same as second row. 6. Same as second row. 7. Two chain, three doul)le crochet into the first stitch of sixth row (skip three stitches in sixth row and four double crochet into the next stitch). Repeat be- tween parenthesis until you finish the row, 8. (Five double crochet into the middle of four double crochet in seventh row, one single crochet into the end of four double crochet in seventh row). Re- peat between parenthesis until the row is finished, then break off the thread. 9. Tie the thread on to the end where you first began, and make two rows on this edge like the seventh and eight rows. Make some very thick flour starch and starch your ring, rubbing well into

WHA T E VER Y ONE SHOULD KNO W, 311

the twine, then pull into the shape of an hour glass and dry. Re- peat the starching two or three times until it is perfectly stiff. When thoroughly dry give it a coat of unbleached shellac. Weave ribbon into the open meshes in the middle, and finish with a knot.

Nausea - to relieve. - The following drink for relieving sickness of the stomach is said to be very palatable and agreeable. Beat up one ^g^ very v/ell, say for twenty minutes, then add fresh milk, one pint; water, one pint; sugar to make it palatable; boil, and get it cool; drink when cold. If it becomes curds and whey, it is useless.

Neck (Enlarged) - to cure. - To cure enlarged neck take two table- spoonfuls of salt, two of borax, and two of alum; dissolve in two of water, and apply three times a day for three days.

Nervousness. - This unhealthy state of system depends upon gen- eral debility. It is often inherited from birth, and as often brought on by excess of sedentary occupation, overstrained employment of the brain, mental emotion, dissipation, and excess. The nerves con- sist of a structure of fibers or cords passing through the entire body, branching off from, and having a connection with each other, and finally centers on the brain. They are the organs of feeling and sen- sation of every kind, and through them the mind operates upon the body. It is obvious, therefore, that what is termed the "nervous system" has an important part in the bodily functions; and upon them not only much of the health, but happiness, depends.

Treatment. - The cure of nervous complaints lies rather in moral than in medical treatment. For, although much good may be effect- ed by tonics, such as bark, quinine, etc., there is far more benefit to be derived from attention to diet and regimen. In such cases, solid food should preponderate over liquid, and the indulgence in warm and relaxing fluids should be especially avoided; plain and nourish- ing meat, as beef or mutton, a steak or chop, together v/ith half a pint of bitter ale or stout, forming the best dinner. Cocoa is preferable to tea; vegetables should be but sparingly eaten. Sedentary pursuits should be cast aside as much as possible, but where they are compul- sory, every spare moment should be devoted to out-door employ- ment and brisk exercise. Early bedtime and early rising will prove beneficial, and the use of the cold shower bath is excellent. Gym- nastic exercises, fencing, horse-riding, rowing, dancing, and other pursuits which call forth the energies, serve also to brace and invigor- ate the nervous system. It will also be as well to mingle with soci- ety; frequent public assemblies and amusements, and thus dispel that morbid desire for seclusion and quietude which, if indulged in to ex- cess, renders a person unfitted for intercourse with mankind, and materially interferes with advancement in life.

Net - how to wash. - Net should be washed in a lather of fine soap and warm water, then dipped in water very slightly blued, and again dipped in either sugar and water, weak starch, or gum arable and water ; it must be pinned out to dry after being well clapped with the hand. This clapping is one of the great secrets of clear starch-

3 1 2 WHA T E VER V GATE SHO ULD KNO W.

ing ; nothing clears nets, muslins, etc., better, for it removes the sticky portion of the stiffening matter without lessening its crispness. Net should be ironed on the wrong side with a very hot iron, which brings up the stiffness ; but ironing renders tarlatan limp.

Neuralgia Cures. - A noted cure for neuralgia is hot vinegar va- porized. Heat a flat-iron sufficiently hot to vaporize the vinegar; cover this with some woolen material, which is moistened with vine- gar, and <^he apparatus is then applied at once to the painful spot. The application may be repeated until the pain disappears

2. For neuralgia and rheumatism, two tablespoonfuls each of beef's gall, laudanum, spirits of turpentine, hemlock oil, half pint al- cohol, mix all together. Apply three or four times a day.

3 A few years ago when in China, I became acquainted with the fact of the native, when suffering with facial neuralgia, using oil of peppermentv which they lightly applied to the seat of pain with a camel's-hair pencil. Since then, in my own practice, I frequently em- ploy this oil as a local anaesthetic, not only in neuralgia, but also in gout, with remarkably good results.

4. Neuralgia and toothache are sometimes speedily relieved by ap- plying to the wrist a quantity of bruised or grated horseradish,

5. What is said to be a sure cure for this horrible ailment is nothing but a poultice and tea made from the common field-thistle. The leaves are macerated and used on the parts affected, as a poultice, while a small quantity of the leaves are boiled down to the proportion of a quart to a pint, and a small wineglassful of the decoction drank before each meal.

6. Persons troubled with neuralgia will find this a cure, if they try it: Two drops of laudanum in half a teaspoonful of warm water, and dropped into the ears. It will give immediate relief.

7. For neuralgia in the head, have a'flannel cap made to fasten under the chin; wear three nights; let three nights pass, then put on again if necessary.

8. For neuralgia in the eyebrows, bind a strip of flannel around the head; rub the teeth with equal parts of salt and alum, pulverized, on a soft, wet bit of linen.

Neuralgia and Sciatica. - An English officer, who served with dis- tinction in the war wfth Napolean, was once laid up in a small village in France with a severe attack of sciatica. It so happened that at that time, a tinman was being employed at the hotel where he lodged, and that this tinman, having been himself a soldier, took an interest in the oflScer's case^ and gave him the cure which in this instance succeeded immediately and forever, and which I am about to set down. It is, at any rate, so simple as to be worth a trial. Take a moderate sized potato, rather large than small, and boil it in one quart of water. Foment the part affected with the water in which the potato has been boiled as hot as it can be borne at night before going to bed; then crush the potato and put it on the affected part as a poul- tice. Wear this all night, and in the morning heat the water, which

WIIA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO IV. 313

should have been preserved, over again, and again foment the part with It as hot as can be borne. This treatment must be persevered with for several days. It occasionally requires to be continued for as much as two or three weeks, but in the shorter or longer time it has never yet failed to be successful.

Neuralgia and Rheumatism - king of oils for. - Burning fluid, one pint ; oils of cedar, hemlock, sassafras and origanum, of each two ounces ; carbonate of ammonia, pulverized, one ounce ; mix. Direc- tions : Apply freely to the nerve and gums around the tooth , and to the face in neuralgic pains, by wetting brown paper and laying it on the parts, not too long, for fear of blistering ; to the nerves of teeth by lint.

Neuralgia - internal remedy. - Sal ammoniac, one-half dram ; dis- solve in water, one ounce. Dose, one tablespoonful every three minutes for twenty minutes, at the end of which time, if not before, the pain will have disappeared.

Nickel Plating - to polish. - Take the finest of coal ashes - you will fir.d deposits as fine as flour in your stove, and siit through mus- lin. Dip a soft cloth in kerosene, then in the ash dust, and rub vigorously on the plating. Dry and polish with a woolen cloth.

Nickel Ornaments - to polish. - Nickel ornaments on stoves, etc., may be kept bright by using ammonia and whiting. Mix together in a bottle and apply with a cloth. A very little polishing gives a fine luster. It is good for silver-plated ware as well. We use pumice powder to polish tin pans when we use anything.

Night Sweats. - Drink freely of cold sage tea; said to be a certain remedy ; or, take elixir of vitriol in a little sweetened water. Dose, from twenty to thirty drops.

Nipples (Cracked) - to cure. - Glycerine and tannin, equal weights, rubbed together into an ointment, is very highly recommended, as is also mutton tallow.

Nipples <^Sore). - Pour boiling water on nutgalls (oak bark if galls cannot be obtained), and when cold, strain it off. and bathe the parts with it, or dip the cloth in the tea, and apply it; or twenty grains of tannin may be dissolved in an ounce of water, and applied. The application of a few drops of collodion to the raw surface is highly recommended. It forms, when dry, a perfect coating over the diseased surface.

Nitrous Oxide, or Laughing Gas. - Take two or three ounces of nitrate of ammonia in crystals and put it into a retort, taking care that the heat does not exceed five hundred degrees; when the crystals begin to melt, the gas will be produced in considerable quantities. The gas may also be procured, though not so pure, by pouring nitric acid, diluted with five or six times it weight of water, on copper filings or small pieces of tin. The gas is given out till the acid begins to turn brown; the process must then be stopped.

Nitrate of Silver. - Pure silver, one and one-half ounces; nitric acid, one ounce, diluted with water, two ounces; heat by a sand bath

314 WHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W,

until ebullition ceases, and the water is expelled; then pour into molds. This substance must be kept from the light.

Nose Bleeding - remedies for. - i. While going down Broadway, New York, blood commenced running from my nose quite freely. I stepped aside and applied my handkerchief, intending to repair to the nearest hotel, when a gentleman accosted me, saying: " Just put a piece of paper in your mouth, chew it rapidly, and it will stop your nose bleeding.' Thanking him rather doubtfully, I did as he sug- gested, and the flow of blood ceased almost immediately. I have seen the remedy tried since quite frequently, and always with success. Doubtless any substance would answer the same purpose as paper, the stoppage of the flow of blood being caused, no doubt, by the rapid motion of the jaws, and counter action of the muscles and arteries connecting the jaws and mouth.

2. Physicians say that placing a small roll of paper or muslin above the fiont teeth, under the upper lip, and pressing hard on the same will arrest bleeding from the nose - checking the passage of blood through the arteries leading to the nose.

3. Lint dipped in nettle juice and put up the nostril has been known to stay the bleeding of the nose when all other remedies have failed. Fourteen or fifteen of the seeds ground into powder and taken daily will cure swelling of the neck, known by the name of goitre^ without in any way injuring the general health.

Nutrition in Food. - The following is '* Poussingault's Scale of Nutritive Equivalents," and shows how many parts of the various articles of food in common use it takes to be equal in nutrition to one hundred parts of wheat flour: Wheat flour, one hundred; wheat, one hundred and seven; barley meal, one hundred and nineteen; bar- ley, one hundred and thirty; white haricots, fifty-six; lentils, fifty- seven; white cabbage, eight hundred and ten; oats, one hundred and seventeen; rye, one hundred and eleven; rice, one hundred and seven- ty-seven; buckwheat, one hundred and eight; maize, one hundred and thirty; horse beans, forty-four; peas, sixty-seven; potatoes, three hundred and thirteen; carrots, seven hundred and seventy-seven; turnips, one thousand, three hundred and thirty-five.

Oat or Wheat Straw Made Equal to Hay. - Bring ten gallons water to a boiling heat; take it off the fire, and add to it at once three gallons of linseed unground; let it remain till it gets cold; then empty the whole into a cask containing forty-four gallons of cold water, and let it remain for forty-eight hours. At the end of that time, it will be reduced into a thin jelly, like arrow-root. Spread out one-half ton straw, and sprinkle it over regularly with the whole of the liquid from the cask. The stock will eat up as clean, and keep as fat on it, quantity for quantity, as they would do on hay.

Oatmeal - hov/ to cook. - Very often this nutritious article of diet is objectionable because not properly prepared. When it is to be made as food, selec^ithe coarse, recently ground meal. To a coffee- cupful add a quart of cold water, and mix in a tin vessel holding at

315

least two quarts. The vessel should then be placed in a boiler con- taining water and put upon the fire to cook, stirring frequently and boiled until dry enough to eat as mush, or the meal is well done. It may then be eaten with butter, molasses, milk, cream and sugar, or any other dressing that may be preferred. When thus prepared it will not have that sickly, salvy consistence that makes it objection- able, and people who could not eat it before will now take it with a relish. The finer quality of meal is best adapted to making gruel for acute diseases. People suffering from habitual constipation will find oatmeal once or twice a day a valuable adjunct to other treatment and far preferable to Graham.

^ Oatmeal Diamonds. - Into cold oatmeal mush work enough wheat meal (Graham flour) to enable you, when well floured, to roll it out one inch thick, and cut into diamonds, say two by three inches. Place in a well-floured tin and bake twenty minutes. Serve warm. The success of this operation depends largely upon its quickness. Much manipulation of the dough makes them hard and tough, but when made up rapidly they will be light, tender and toothsome.

Oatmeal Wafers. - Oatmeal wafers are relished by babies, and older children, too. Take a pint of oatmeal and a pint of water, with almost a teaspoonful of salt; mix and spread on buttered pans; make it just as thin as it is possible, and yet have the bottom of the pan covered; bake slowly.

Oak - spirit graining for. - Two pounds of whiting, quarter of a pound of gold size, thinned down with spirits of turpentine; then tinge your whiting with Vandyke brown and raw sienna, ground fine. Strike out the lights with a fitch dipped in turpentine, tinged with a little color to show the lights. If your lights do not appear clear, add a little more turpentine. Turpentine varnish is a good substitute for the above mentioned. This kind of graining must be brushed over with beer, with a clean brush, before varnishing. Strong beer must be used for glazing up top-graining and shading.

Oak - oil for graining. - Grind Vandyke brown in turpentine, add as much gold size as will set, and as much soft soap as will make it stand the comb. Should it set too quickly, add a little boiled oil. Put a teaspoonful of gold size to half a pint of turpentine, and as much soap as will lie on a twenty-five cent piece, then take a little soda mixed with water and take out the veins.

Oak Rollers - to prepare the ground for. - Stain your white lead with raw sienna and red lead, or with chrome yellow and Venetian red ; thin it with oil and turps, and strain for use. When the ground work is dry, grind in beer, Vandyke brown, whiting and a little burnt sienna, for graining color ; or you may use raw sienna with a little whiting, umbers, etc.

Oak (Old) - to imitate. - To make an exceedingly rich color for the imitation of old oak, the ground is a composition of stone ochre or orange chrome and burnt sienna ; the graining color is burnt umber or Vandyke brown, to darken it a little. Observe that the above,

3 16 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

colors must be used whether the imitation is in oil or distemper. When dry varnish.

Oak (Pollard) - to imitate. - The ground color is prepared Avith a mixture of chrome yellow, vermillion and white lead, to a rich light buff. The graining colors are Vandyke brown and small portions of raw and burnt sienna and lake ground in ale or beer. Fill a large tool vv'ith color spread over the surface to be grained, and soften Avith the badger hair brush. Take a moistened sponge betv/een the thumb and finger and dapple round and round in kind of knobs, then soften very lightly ; then draw a softener from one set of knobs to the other while wet, to form a multiplicity of grains, and finish the knots witi^ a hair pencil, in some places in thicker clusters than others. When dry put the top grain on in a variety of directions, and varnish with turps and gold size ; then glaze up with Vandyke and strong ale To finish, varnish with copal.

Odds and Ends. - To cleanse shells, wash them first in cold water, and then boiling milk.

A pinch of common table-salt dissolved in water will relieve a bee- sting.

The powder of a ripe puff-ball is useful in stopping the flow of blood after amputation.

Old boot-tops cut into pieces of the required size, and lined, make good thick iron-holders.

Machine-oil stains can be removed, if, before washing, the spot is rubbed with a cloth wet with ammonia.

Stoves may be looking nicely for some time by rubbing them thor- oughly with newspaper every morning.

To prevent the hair from falling out, wet it thoroughly once or twice a week with a weak solution of salt-water.

Kid boots may be nicely cleaned with a mixture of oil and ink ; the oil softens the leather and the ink blackens it.

A little glue dissolved in skim-milk and water will restore the stiff- ness and luster to crape and make it look like new.

A good powder or snuff which will cure catarrh is made of equal parts of gum arable, gum myrrh and bloodroot.

Red ants maybe exterminated with sprigs of wintergreen or ground- ivy ; wormwood will serve the same purpose for black ants.

Odors from Cooking - to prevent. - Odors from boiling ham, cab- bage, onions, etc., may be prevented by putting red pepper pods, or pieces of charcoal into the kettle.

Odors (Offensive) - to destroy. - Copperas, called sulphate of iron, dissolved in water, one-fourth of a pound to a gallon, and poured into a sink-drain as often as needed will keep it sweet. A little chlo- ride of lime, say half a pound to the gallon of water, will have equally as good an effect, and neither of these costs but a few cents.

Oil (Black). - Best alcohol, tincture of arnica, British oil and oil of tar, of each two ounces ; and slowly add sulphuric acid, one-half ounce. These black oils are getting into extensive use as a liniment,

317

and are indeed valuable, especially in cases attended with much in- flammation.

Oil (Buffalo). - Take the best lard oil and perfume it well with equal parts of oil garden lavender and oil lemon.

Oil (Balm of Gilead). - Useful for cuts and burns, etc. Take a half-pint bottle and fill one-third of it with the flowers of the common balm of Gilead, lightly packed, and then pour in sweet oil till the jottle is nearly full ; shake it occasionally. After a few days it will be fit for use, but it is the better for long keeping ; the bottle, how- ever, must be closely stopped.

Oil-Cloths - how to clean. - If you wish to have them look new and nice, wash them with soft flannel and lukewarm water, and wipe them perfectly dry. If you want them to look extra nice, after they are wiped, drop a few spoonfuls of milk over them and rub them with a dry cloth.

Oil (Waterproof) Blacking. - Camphene, one pint; add all the India-rubber it will dissolve; curriers' oil, one pint; tallow, seven pounds; lampblack, two ounces. Mix thoroughly by heat.

Oil of Roses. - Olive oil, one pound; attar of roses, fifty drops; oil of rosemary, twenty-five drops; mix. Another, roses (hardly opened), twelve ounces; olive oil, ten ounces; beat them together in a mortar; let them remain for a few days, then express the oil.

Oil (Macassar). - Olive oil, one pound; oil origanum, one dram; oil rosemary, one scruple; mix.

Oil (Neat's-foot). - After the hair and hoofs have been removed from the feet of oxen, they yield, when boiled with water, a peculiar fatty matter, which is known as neat's-foot oil; after standing, it de- posits some solid fat, which is separated by filtration; the oil then does not congeal at thirty-two degrees, and is not liable to become rancid. It is often mixed with other oils. The oil is used for various purposes, such as harness dressing, oiling tower clocks, etc.

Oil (Tallow). - The oil is obtained from tallow by pressure. The tallow is melted, and when separated from the ordinary impurities by subsidence, is poured into vessels and allowed to cool slowly to about eighty degrees, when the stearine separates in granules, which may be separated from the liquid part by straining through flannel, and is then pressed, when it yields a fresh portion of liquid oil. It is used in soap manufacture, etc.

Oil (Lard). - Lard oil is obtained from hog's lard by pressure, when the liquid part separates, while the lard itself becomes much harder. According to Braconet, lard yields 0.62 of its weight in this oil, which is nearly colorless. It is employed for greasing wool, and other purposes.

Oil-paintings - to clean. - i. Oil-paintings on canvas or panel are best cleaned by washing with soap and soft water just warm. When wiped dry with a soft cloth, they should be rubbed with a warm silk handkerchief before the fire. An immediate brightness may be given

3i8

to any very dull oil-paintings by gently wiping the surface over with a fresh-cut onion.

2. To clean, dissolve a small quantity of salt in stale urine; dip a woolen cloth in the mixture, and rub the paintings over with it till they are clean; then wash them with a sponge and clean water; dry them gradually, and rub them over with a clean cloth. Should the dirt not be easily removed by the above application, add a small quantity of soft soap. Be very careful not to rub the paintings too hard.

Oil-paintings - to renew. - The blackened lights of old pictures may be instantly restored to their original hue by touching them with deutoxide of hydrogen diluted with six or eight times iis weight of water. The part must be afterward washed with a clean sponge and water.

Oil-cloth - to polish. - Wash it clean in luke-warm water, using a scrubbing brush, then rub it with a woolen cloth wrung out of skim- milk.

Oil Liniments. - i. In cases of whooping-cough and some chronic bronchitic affections, the following liniment may be advantageously rubbed into the chest and along the spine. Spirits of camphor, two parts; laudanum, half a part; spirits of turpentine, one part; castile soap in powder, finely divided, half an ounce; alcohol, three parts, digest the whole together for three days, and strain through linen. This liniment should be gently warmed before using.

2. A powerful liniment for all rheumatic pains, especially when affecting the loins, is the following: Camphorated oil and spirits of turpentine, of each two parts; water of hartshorn, one part; lauda- num, one part; to be well shaken together.

3. Another very efficient liniment or embrocation, serviceable in chronic painful affections, may be conveniently and easily made as follows. Take of camphor, one ounce; cayenne pepper, in powder, two teaspoonfuls; alcohol, one pint. The whole to be digested with moderate heat for ten days, and filtered. It is an active rubificant; and after a slight friction with it, it produces a grateful thrilling sen- sation of heat in the pained part, which is rapidly relieved.

Oil Finishes. - i. Linseed oil, sixteen ounces; black resin, four ounces, vinegar, four ounces; rectified spirits, three ounces; butter of antimony, ten ounces; spirit of salts, two ounces; melt the resin, add the oil, take it off the fire, and stir in the vinegar; let it boil for a few minutes, stirring it; when cool, put it into a bottle, add the other ingredients, shaking all together.

2. Linseed oil, one pint; oil of turpentine, one-half pint; rectified spirits, four ounces; powdered resin, one and one-half ounces; rose pink, one-half ounce; mix.

3. Acetic acid, two drams; oil of lavender, one-half dram; recti- fied spirits, one dram; linseed oil, four ounces.

4. Linseed oil, one pint; alkanet root, two ounces; heat, strain, and add lac varnish, one ounce.

WffA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 319

5. Linseed oil, one pint; rectified spirits, two ounces; butter of antimony, four ounces.

6 Linseed oil, one gallon; alkanet root, three ounces; rose pink, one ounce. Boil them together ten minutes, and strain so that the oil be quite clear.

Oil for Fine Mechanism. - Oil for fine mechanism can be pre- pared by putting zinc and led shavings, in equal parts, into good Florence olive oil, and placing in a cool place until the oil becomes colorless. Unequaled for sewing machines, etc.

Ointments (Chilblain). - Take of gallnuts, in very fine powder, one dram avoirdupois; spermaceti cerate, seven drams; mix, add pure glycerine, two drams, and rub the whole to a uniform mass. An excellent application to obstinate broken chilblains, particularly when used as a dressing. When the parts are very painful, one ounce of compound ointment of galls may be advantageously sub- stituted for the galls and cerate ordered above.

Ointment (Green). - Honey and beeswax, each one-half pound; spirits of turpentine; oneounce; wintergreen oil and laudanum, each two ounces; verdigris, finely pulverized, one-half ounce; lard, one and one-half poufid; mix by a stove fire, in a copper kettle, heating slowly.

Ointment (Healing). - Put a little pure beeswax in a pipkin, and add some fine olive oil; as it melts, add more, till the mixture as- sumes the consistency of butter. This is good for abraded flesh cuts, chilblains, or any broken surface, which requires to be healed, not drawn.

Ointment and Pills (Holloway's). - Butter, twenty-two ounces; beeswax, three ounces; yellow resin, three ounces; melt; add vine- gar of cantharides, one ounce; evaporate, and add Canada balsam, one ounce; oil of mace, one-half dram; balsarxi of Peru, fifteen drops. Pills : Aloes, four parts; myrrh, jalap, and ginger, of each two parts; mucilage to mix.

Ointment (Itch). - Unsalted butter, one pound; burgundy pitch, two ounces; spirits of turpentine, two ounces; red precipitate, one and one-fourth ounces; melt the pitch and add the butter, stirring well together; then remove from the fire, and when a little cool, add the spirits of turpentine, and lastly the precipitate, and stir until cold.

Ointment (Judkin's). - Linseed oil, one pint; sweet oil, two ounces; and boil them in a kettle on coals for nearly fpur hours, as warm as you can; then have pulverized and mixed borax, one-half ounce; red lead, four ounces, and sugar of lead, one and one-half ounces; remove the kettle from the fire, and thicken in the powder; continue the stirring until cooled to blood heat, then stir in one ounce of spirits of turpentine; and now take out a little, letting it get cold, and if not then sufficiently thick to spread upon thin soft linen as a salve, you will boil again until this point is reached. It is good for all kinds of wounds, bruises, sores, burns, white swelling, rheuma-

320 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

tism, ulcers, sore breasts; and even where there are wounds on the inside, it has been used with advantage, by applying a plaster over the part.

Ointment (Magnetic). - i Lard, raisins cut in pieces, and fine-cut tobacco, equal weights; simmer well together, then strain and press out all from the dregs. This is an excellent ointment for salt-rheum and other skin diseases. It is also good for piles, bruises and cuts.

2, Elder bark spikenard and yellow dock roots, of each one pound; boil in two gallons of water down to one; then press the strength out of the roots and boil the liquid down to half a gallon; add eight pounds of the best resin, one pound of beeswax and tallow enough to soften. Roll into rolls, and apply by warming and spreading on linen.

Ointments - for piles. - i. Take carbonate of lead, one-half ounce; sulphate of morphia fifteen grains, stramonium ointment, one ounce; olive oil, twenty drops. Mix, and apply three times a day, or as the pain may require.

2. Powdered nut-gall, two drams; camphor, one dram; melted wax, ten ounces; tincture of opium, two drams. Mix.

Ointment - for old sores. - Red precipitate, one-half ounce; sugar of lead, one-half ounce; burnt alum, one ounce; white vitriol, one- quarter ounce, or a little less; all to be very finely pulverized; have mutton tallow made warm, one-half pound; stir all in. and stir until cool.

Ointment (Sulphur). - Lard, four ounces; flour of sulphur, one and a half ounces; sal ammonia, two drams; essence of lemon, twelve drops; make it into an ointment. Will generally cure the itch, and has no disagreeable smell.

Omelet. - Comparatively few of our housekeepers dare attempt an omelet, but there is nothing difficult about it. The chief cause of failure lies in not having the spider hot enough, or in making an omelet too large for the pan. For a spider eight inches in diameter, not more than four eggs should be used. For an omelet of this size, use four eggs, one teaspoonful of salt, and two tablespoonfuls of cream, or in place of that, use milk. A larger omelet, and very good, is made with six eggs, a scant teacupful of salt, milk, and pepper. Beat the yolks alone to a smooth batter, add the milk, salt and pep- per, and lastly, the well-beaten whites. Have the frying-pan very hot. Put in a tablespoonful of butter, which should instantly hiss. Follow it quickly with the well-beaten mixture, and do not stir this after it goes in. Cook over a hot fire, and as the e.^,% sets, loosen it from the pan without breaking, to prevent burning. It should cook in about ten minutes. When the middle is set, it is a good plan to place the pan on the high grate in the oven to brown the top. This is not needed if you turn half of the omelet over upon itself before turn- ing the whole from the pan upon a hot dish. Eat while hot.

Omelet - with cold meat. - Almost any cold meat - beef, mutton, chicken, may be chopped fine, seasoned a little, spread upon the ome-

WIIA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 321

let before it is doubled together, making an excellent dish, and af- fording variety.

Omelets - ^to make. - An omelet should have the yolks and whites of the eggs well beaten separately, with a spoonful of milk to each ^g^ added, with salt and pepper to season, and just before placing in a very hot spider, which should have a small piece of butter in it, the whites of the eggs should be added to the yolks and milk. They ought not to be beaten in, but dipped through and through the yolks, etc., then poured into the spider, the part which thickens around the edge lifted back to the center in a heap and taken up just before it is all set. If the butter was hot enough it will be a delicate brown when turned over upon the plate for the table.

Omelet (Government Clerk's). - The following recipe may be found palatable and economical: Take two eggs, beat them well, whites and yolks, and one cupful of milk, in which a tablespoonful of cornstarch has been dissolved; add a little salt and pepper; have butter sufficiently hot in the pan; stir up the omelet while cooking; enough for two persons, and no more.

Omelet (Oyster). - Twelve oysters, if large, double the number if small; six eggs, one cup of milk, one tablespoonful of butter, chopped parsley, salt and pepper; chop the oysters very fine; beat the yolks and whites of the eggs separately, as for nice cake, the whites until they stand in a heap. Put three tablespoonfuls of butter in a frying- pan, and heat while you are mixing the omelet. Stir the milk in a deep dish with the yolks and seasoning. Next add the chopped oys- ters, beating them well as you add gradually. When thoroughly mixed pour in melted butter, and finally whip in the whites as lightly as possible. Have the butter in the pan very hot, and pour in the mixture. Do not stir it, but when it begins to stiffen slip a broad- bladed knife around the side and cautiously under the omelet, that the butter may reach every part. As soon as the center is fairly set, and the bottom brown, turn out into a hot dish. Lay the dish bot- tom upward over the frying-pan, which must be turned upside down dexterously. This brings the brown side of the omelet uppermost. This is a delicious breakfast or supper omelet.

Onions - healthful properties of. - Lung and liver complaints are certainly benefitted, often cured, by a free consumption of onions, either cooked or raw. Colds yield to them like magic. Don't be afraid of them. Taken at night all offense will be wanting by morn- ing, and the good effects will amply compensate for the trifling an- noyance. Taken regularly they greatly promote the health of the lungs and the digestive organs. An extract made by boiling down the jaice of onions to a syrup, and taken as a medicine, answers the purpose very well, but fried, loastcd or boiled onions are better. Onions are a very cheap medicine, within everybody's reach, and they are not by any means as " bad to take " as the costly nostrums a neglect of their use may necessitate.

Onions - to peel. - To many persons peeling onions is a most dis-

322

agreeable operation, and causes the greatest pain in the eyes. All this inconvenience may be avoided and as many onions as you please be peeled with impunity merely by taking a needle or any small piece of polished steel between the teeth during the operation. The steel will attract the acid juice of the onion and save the eyes.

Onions - to pickle. - Choose small round onions remove the skins, steep them in strong brine for a week in a stone vessel, pour it off, and heat till it boils, then pour on the onions, boiling hot; after twenty-four hours drain on a sieve, then put them in bottles, fill up over them with strong spiced vinegar boiling hot. cork down im- mediately and wax over the cork. In a similar manner are pickled mushrooms, cauliflowers, samphires, peas, beans green gooseberries, walnuts, red cabbages (without salt, with cold vinegar). Observe that the soft and more delicate do not require so much soaking in brine as the harder and coarser kinds, and may be often kept by sim- ply pouring very strong pickling vinegar on them without the appli- cation of heat.

Onions for Fowls. - Onions are a preventive of and a remedy for many diseases to which domestic fowls are liable. For gaps onions are the best things that can be fed. Give fowls as many as they will eat, chopped fine, as often as three times a week.

Onions - to sprout. - Pour hot water on the seed, let it remain two or three seconds, and they will immediately sprout, and come up much earlier.

Onions - to store. - For storing onions there is no better place than a dry, cool, and airy loft, where they can be spread out thinly, and often looked over for the removal of those which may have be- gun to decay. Warmth and moisture are fatal to the keeping of onions, and much handling is almost equally so.

Opium and its Uses. - Opium is a stimulant, narcotic, and ano- dyne Used externally, it acts almost as well as when taken into the stomach, and without affecting the head or causing nausea. Applied to irritable ulcers in the form of tincture, it promotes their cure and allays pain. Clothes dipped in a strong solution, and applied over pain- ful bruises, tumors or inflamed joints, allay pain. A small piece of solid opium stuffed into a hollow tooth relieves toothache. Two drops of the wine of opium dropped into the eye acts as an excellent stim- ulant in bloodshot eye, or after long-continued inflammation, it is use- ful in strengthening the eye. Applied as a liniment, in combination with ammonia or oil or with camphorated spirit, it relieves muscular pain. When combined with oil of turpentine it is useful as a lini- ment in spasmodic colic. Used internally, it acts as a very powerful stimulant, then as a sedative; and finally as an anodyne and narcc^tic, allaying pain in the most extraordinary manner, by acting directly upon the nervous system.

In acute rheumatism it is a most excellent medicine, when com- bined with calomel and taitarate of antimony; but its exhibition re- quires the judicious care cf a medical man.

WHAT EVERY ONE SHOULD KNOW, '^^in,

Doses of the various preparations. - Confection of opium, from five grains to half a dram; extract of opium, from one to five grains (this is a valuable form, as it does not produce so much after-derange- ment of the nervous system as solid opium); pills of soap and opium, from five to ten grains; compound ipecacuanha powder (Dover's pow- ders), from five to twenty grains, compound kino powder, from five to twenty grains; wine of opium, from ten minims to one dram.

Caution. - Opmm is a powerful poison when taken in too large a quantity and therefore should be used with extreme caution.

Opodeldoc (Liquid). - Warm brandy, one quart; add to it gum camphor, one ounce; sal ammoniac, one-quarter of an ounce; oils of origanum and rosemary, each one-half ounce; oil wormwood, one- quarter ounce: when the oils are dissolved, add six ounces of soft soap.

Oranges - promote health. - A well-known physician said to us once: " Let children eat one or two oranges every morning before breakfast through the spring season, and they will need no medi- cine during the rest of the year." If good for children, why not for older people as well?

Orchards (Old) - to renew. - It is very well known that the reason why peach apple, quince and pear orchards gradually grow poorer and poorer until they cease to produce at all, is because the potash is exhausted from the soil by the plant. This potash must be restored, and the most effective way to do it is to use the following compound, discovered by a distinguished German chemist: Thirty parts of sul- phate of potash, fifteen parts sulphate of magnesia; thirty-five parts salt; fifteen parts gypsum (plaster of Paris); five parts chloride of magnesia. This should be roughly powdered and mixed and then mingled with barnyard manure, or dug in about the roots of the trees. From ten to twenty pounds to a tree are quite enough.

Orchards - to renew. - Early in the spring, plough the entire orchard, and enrich the whole soil with a good dressing of compost of manure, swamp-muck, and lime; scrape off the old bark with a deck-scraper, or a sharp hoe, apply half a bushel of lime, and the same of ground charcoal round each tree. Then apply diluted soft soap, or strong sop-suds, on the trunks and limbs, as high as a man can reach. When the trees are in full bloom, throw over them a good proportion of fine slaked lime, and you will reap abundant fruits from your labors.

Orchards - to cultivate. - One of the most successful fruit growers of this section gave me his plan of cultivating his orchard. He plows his orchard one v/ay, leaving strips close to the trees about eight feet wide, and plants potatoes, covering them with straw. In the fall, when he digs his potatoes, he piles the straw, and the next spring he plows the ground crosswise, and plants again, using the same straw. After the straw has been used two years, it is turned under in the fall, to manure the ground. In this way his orchard is manured with very little trouble, and he cultivates his orchard at the same time. He

324 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO IV.

says that he docs not believe, from his own experience, that it is pood for fruit trees to have the plow run any closer than four feet on each side, but thinks it better to cultivate in this way between the rows than to seeii down to grass and pasture.

Ornament - for mantelpiece. - x\n ornament may be obtained by suspendinij^ an acorn by a piece of thread tied around it, within half an inch of the surface of some water contained in a vase, tumbler or saucer, and allowing it to remain undisturbed for several weeks. It will soon burst open, and small roots will seek the water; a straight and tapering stem, with beautiful, gUissy green leaves will shoot up- wani and present a very pleasing appearance. Chestnut trees may be grown in the same manner, but their leaves are not so beautiful as those of the oak. The water should be changed once a month, tak- ing care to supply water of the same warmth; bits of charcoal added to it will prevent the water from souring. If the little leaves turn yellow, put a grain of nitrate of ammonia in the utensil which holds the water, and it will renew their luxuriance.

Ornament for Table. - One-half dozen eggs; make a hole at one end and empty the contents; fill up with cornstarch made stiff. When cold strip oft' the shells; pare lemon rind very thin, boil till tender, then cut in narrow strips like straw, and lay in powdered sugar; fill a deep dish half full with either cold custard or wine jelly, put the eggs together in the center, and lay the straws nest-like around them.

Ostrich Feathers - to clean. - White or light tinted ones can be laid on a plate ami scrubbed gently with a toothbrush, in warm soap- suds, then well shaken out and well dried either by the hot sun or a good fire. At first the feather will have a most discouraging appear- ance, and a novice is apt to think it perfectly spoiled. But after it is perfectly dry it should be carefully curled with a penknife or scis- sors blade, and it will recover all its former plumy softness.

Ostrich Feathers (White) - to clean. - To clean a white ostrich feather, put otie ounce Castile soap in one pint of water. Wash the feather in this, and rinse in pure water.

Ottoman - to make. - A neat and useful ottoman may be made by taking a box in which fine-cut tobacco is packed and covering it with cretonne. The top may be taken off and put on without difficulty, if, after covering, a narrow ruffle to fall over the edge is tacked on. An ottoman of this sort is convenient in the bedroom, where it may serve as a receptacle for stockings. If one does not care to buy cre- tonne, bits of carpet may be used for the covering.

Oven-holders- to make. - Oven-holders, for taking out bread, meat, etc., are made two and one-half feet long, by one foot wide, of coffee sacking, first boiling it in ashes to soften and then washing it, or of three or four thicknesses of old cotton cloth. They are a great necessity. Have three or four of them, or better, half a dozen, so part can be washed each week. Keep those in use on nails be-

325

side stove, and it is handy to have a smaller one with a loop and tied with a tape to the aprcm binding of the cook.

Overshoes - to make. - Very nice overshoes can be made of dcjublc zcjjhyr, or coarse domestic yarn. Set up forty stitches on three larj^e steel needles, join; knit two plain and two stitches seam, all around till two inches have been knit, then commence to narrow in the center of one needle; on each side of two plain stitches, nar- row on the right side, slip and bind on the left. Do thus every time you come around to it, till there are but twenty stitches left on each needle; knit two or three inches more, two plain and two seam, and bind off. They are nice to wear when riding in cold weather.

Oysters (Imitation). - I wish to tell those who are fond of oysters of a way I have learned of preparing corn oysters, which have a taste similar to real fried oysters; and are equal, if not superior to the bivalves themselves. Grate six ears of sweet corn (the proper age for boiling), add two beaten eggs, a little salt and pepper. Drop spoonfuls into your hot, well buttered frying-pan, fry and turn the same as oysters, browning nicely on both sides, and you have a dish which you cannot but pronounce excellent.

Oysters - to broil. - Use a double gridiron that folds together; grease the bars, which prevents sticking; then dip each oyster into melted butter, place them on the iron enough to cover it, have a brisk fire and broil; constantly baste with butter; when done, serve on very hot toast on hot dishes. Use no cracker or crumbs of any kind.

Oysters (Fried). - Use for frying the largest and best oysters you can get. Take them from the liquor, lay them in rows upon a clean cloth and press anf>lher lightly upon them to absr^rb the moisture; have ready some beaten eggs and some bread-crumbs. Heat enough butter in the pan to cover the oysters. Dip each one in the egg first, then into the crumbs, rolling it over, that it may be completely covered. Drop them into the frying-pan and fry quickly to a light brown. Do not let them remain in the pan an instant after they are done. Serve dry, on a hot dish.

Oyster Omelet. - An oyster omelet may be a new dish to some cooks, and 1 can assure them that it will be a favorite if the family likes oysters. Stew a dozen oysters in their own liquor, if possible; if not, use a very little water; roll two or three lumps of butter the size of butternuts in flour, and put in and let it come to a boil; salt it well, and black or cayenne pepper to suit your taste. Take out the oysters and chop them, and if necessary to make it thick, add a little flour to the sauce; then put the oysters in, and set the saucepan in which they are on the back part of the stove. Beat your eggs until very light, and add to them two tablespoonfuls of cream or rich milk; fry in a well-buttered frying-pan. When done, remove to a hot plat- ter or a deep plate, and pour the oyster sauce over it. Serve while hot.

Oysters - new ways of preparing them. - The ways of preparing oysters are not many. This method, however, is not widely known:

32^) IVIIA T E VEK V ONE SIIO ULD A' NO IV.

Take two dozen oysters and throw them in a hir^e deep dish; then take a small buiuh of parsley chopped fine, a little lemon rind }T^ra(cd, half a mitnu-ji; grated, and the crumbs of a stale French roll, also j^rated; let the latter be well incorporated, addinj^ some cayenne. Have in readiness the yolks of three fresh ej4>js beaten up into a foam; dip each oyster separately into the ei;^s and roll them \\\io the bread crumbs initil they are all covered with a good coat. Put a quarter of a pound of butter in the oven till it is melted while arrang- ing the oysters in the i)an, then turn them continually until they as- sume a perfect bri)vvn and crusty appearance. When fully cooked serve them with si)me celery, salt, and thin slices of Graham bread and butter.

Oysters (Pickled). - Select the largest oysters, drain off their licpior, and wash them in clear water; put them in a stew-pan with water i)roportioned to the number ot oysters, sc^me salt, blades of mace, and wlu)!e black pepper. Stew them a few minutes, and then put them in a pot, and when cold, add as much jKde vinegar as will give the li(|Ui)r an agreeable acid.

Oyster Sauce.- The oysters are to be beardi-d ami scaldeil, \\\v\\ strain the liquor and thicken it with a little tlour and butter, adding lemon juice in small tpiantity, and a few tablespoonfuls of cream; heat the oysters'well in this mixture, but do not let them boil; some pers(Mis add spices in making oyster sauce, in which case it must be left longer on the fire, simmering gently, but never being allowed lO boil.

Pails (Wood) - to cleanse. ^To take the woody taste out of a wooden pail, till the pail with bcnling lu^t water ; let it remain until cold, then empty it and dissolve some soda in lukewarm water, add- ing a little lime to it, and wash the inside well with the solution ,- after that scaUl with hot water and rinse well.

Pain in the Feet - to cure. - If your feet become painful from walking or standing too long, put them into warm salt and water mixed in the proportion of two large handfuls of salt to a gallon of water. Sea water made warm, is still better. Keep your feet and ankle in the water until it begins to feel cool, rubbing" them well with your hamls. Then wipe them dry and rub them long and hard Avith a coarse tcnvel. Where the feet are teiuler and easily fatigued, it is an excellent thing to go through this practice regidarly every night, also on coming home from a walk. With perseverance this has cured neuralgia in the feet.

Pain Extractor. - Spirits of ammonia, one ounce; laudanum, one ounce; oil of origamun, one ounce; mutton tallow, half pound; com- bine the articles with the tallow when it is nearly cool.

Paint - to remove from windows. - To remove paint from win- dows, take strong biiarbonate of soda and dis^solve it in hot water. Wash the glass, and, in twenty minutes ov half an hour, rub thor- oughly with a ilry cloth. Paint, varnish or japan may be softened

WITA T E VER Y ONE SIIO ULD KNO W. 327

or easily removed from old surfaces wilh a solution of caustic soda.

Paint Cleaner. - Provide a plate with some of the best whitinj^ to be had, and have ready some clean warm water and a piece of flan- nel, which dip into the water and squeeze nearly dry ; then take as much whilinj< as will adhere to it, apply it to the painted surface, when a little rubbing will instantly remove any dirt or grease. After which wash the part well with clean water, rubbing it dry with a soft chamois. Paint thus cleaned looks as well as when first laid on, without any injury to the most delicate colors. It is far better than using soap, and does not require more than half the time and labor.

Paint - mixture for cleaning. - Dissolve two ounces of soda in a quart of hot water, which will make a ready and useful solution for cleaning old painted work preparatory to repainting. The mixture in the above proportions should be used when warm, and the wood- work afterward washed with water to remove the remains of the soda.

Painting Walls. - Before paint or kalsomine is applied to walls, every crevice should be filled with plaster or cement. For the kalso- mine put a quarter of a pound of white glue in cold water over night, and heat gradually in the morning until dissolved. Mix eight i)ounds of whiting with hot water, add the dissolved glue and stir together, adding warm water until about the ccmsistency of thick cream. Use a kalsomine brush, and finish as ycni go along. If skim milk is used instead of water, the glue may be omitted.

Paint - to remove from a wall. - If you inte.id papering a painted wall, you must first get off the paint, otherwise the paper will not stick. To do this, mix in a bucket with warm water a sufficient quantity of pearlash or potash, so as to make a strong solution. Dip a brush into this, and with it scour off all the paint, finishing with cold water and a flannel.

Paint (Old) - to remove. - Cover with a wash of three parts quick stone lime, slaked in water, to which one part pearlash is added. Allow the coating to remain sixteen hours, when the paint may be easily scraped off.

Paint - for damp walls. - A good metallic paint mixed in pure linseed oil will protect a wall from dampness as well as any paint can do it.

Paint (New) - to remove odor. - Newly painted rooms are very unpleasant for many days, but if a handful of hay be strewn <.n\ the floor upon which is sprinkled a little chloride gf lime, after a couple of hours the offensive smell will have entirely disappeared.

Paint for Black Boards in Schools. - Common glue, four ounces; flour (jf cincry, three ounces; and just lampblack enough to give an inky culor t

328

Painting Banners. - Lay out the letters very accurately with char- coal or crayon, then saturate the cloth with water to render the paint- ing easy. On large work a stencil will be found useful. Take a piece of tin, lay the straight edge to the mark, brush over wiLh a sash tool, and by this means you will make a very clean-edged letter. Use stiff bristle pencils in painting on canvas.

Painters' Cream. - Pale nut oil, six ounces; mastic, one ounce; dissolve; add sugar of lead, one-fourth of an ounce, previously ground in the least possible quantity of oil; then add of water quan- tity sufficient gradually, until it acquires the consistency of cream, working it well all the time. Used to cover the unfinished work of painters. It will wash off with water.

Paint for Buildings. - There are buildings that were painted in this way fifteen years ago, and still look well. It is considered equal to, if not better than, pure oil: One gallon of soft water, one gallon of soft soap, one gallon of oil; put in a kettle and bring to a boil; re- move from the fire; let it stand till only warm, then mix in your paint the same as you would if clear oil. Apply warm. One coat will last a great many years.

Paint (Compound Iron), - Finely pulverized iron filings, one part; brick dust, one part, and ashes, one part. Pour over them glue- water or size, set the whole near the fire, and, when warm, stir them well together. With this paint cover all the woodwork which may be in danger; when dry, give a second coat, and the wood will be rendered incombustible.

Paint (Hard Drying). - Grind Venetian red, or any other color you wish, in boiled oil; then thin it with black japan. It will dry very hard for counter tops, etc.

Paint for Farmers. - Farmers will find the following profitable for house or fence paint: Skim milk, two quarts; fresh slaked lime, eight ounces; linseed oil, six ounces; white burgundy pitch, two ounces; Spanish white, three pounds. The lime is to be slaked in water, ex- posed to the air, and then mixed with about one-fourth of the milk; the oil in which the pitch is dissolved to be added a little at a time, then the rest of the milk, and afterward the Spanish white. This is sufficient for twenty-seven yards, two coats. This is for white paint. If desirable, any other color may be produced; thus, if cream color is desired, in place of the part of Spanish white use the other alone.

Paint (Spruce Yello^v) - for floors. - One quart of water, four ounces of glue, three pounds of spruce yellow; dissolve the glue by putting the water cold upon the glue the night before, then heat in the morning, being careful not to scorch it; paint while hot; add more water if too thick; dry three hours, 'then oil; use in twenty- four hours.

Paint (Flexible) - for canvas. - Yellow soap, two and one-half pounds; boiling water, one and one-half gallons; dissolve; grind the solution while hot with good oil paint, one and one-quarter cwt. Paint (Beautiful Green) - for walls. - Take four pounds Roman

WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 329

vitriol, and pour on it a teakettleful of boiling water. When dis- solved, add two pounds pearlash, and stir the mixture well with a stick until the effervescence ceases; then add one-fourth pound pul- verized yellow arsenic, and stir the whole together. Lay it on with a paint brush; and if the wall has not been painted before, two or even three coats will be requisite. If a pea-green is required, put in less, if an apple-green, more of the yellow arsenic. This paint does not cost the quarter of oil paint, and looks better.

Paint - to imitate tortoise shell. - Paint a ground of salmon color; then when dry and smoothed off, coat it over with rose pink, mixed in varnish and turpentine; then with a fiat piece of glass press on the surface, and remove the glass quickly, being careful not to push it over the paint so as to disturb the curious figures which the pressure will form thereon. Varnish when dry, and you will find you have a beautiful imitation of tortoise shell.

Painting Houses - the best season for. - The outside of build- ings should be painted during autumn or winter. Hot weather in- jures the paint by drying in the oil too quickly; then the paint will easily rub off. But when the paint is laid on during the cold weather, it hardens in drying, and is firmly set.

Paint for Magic Lantern Sides. - Transparent colors only are used for this work, such as lakes, sap-green, ultramarine, verdigris, gamboge, asphaltum, etc., mixed in oil, and tempered with light colored varnish (white Demar). Draw on the paper the design de- sired, and stick it to the glass with water or gum; then with a fine pencil put the outlines on the opposite side of the glass with the proper colors; then shade or fill up with black Vandyke brown, as you find best.

Paint (Milk) - for barns - any color. - Mix water lime with skim- milk to a proper consistence to apply with a brush, and it is ready to use. It will adhere well to wood, whether smooth or rough, to brick, mortar or stone, where oil has not been used (in which case it cleaves to some extent), and forms a very hard substance, as durable as the best oil paint. It is too cheap to estimate, and any one can put it on who can use a brush. Any color may be given to it by using colors of the tinge desired. If a red is preferred, mix Venetian red with milk, not using any lime. It looks well for fifteen years.

Paint - to make without lead or oil.- Whiting, five pounds; skim- med milk, two quarts; fresh slaked lime, two ounces. Put the lime into a stoneware vessel, pour upon it a sufficient quantity of milk to make a mixture resembling cream; the balance of the milk is then to be added; and lastly, the whiting is to be crumbled upon the surface of the fluid, in which it gradually sinks. At this period it must be well stirred in or ground, as you would other paint, and it is fit for use.

Paint Odors - to get rid of. - Place a vessel full of lighted char- coal in the middle of the room, and throw on it two or three hand- fuls of juniper berries; shut the windows, the chimney, and the door

330 IVHA r E VER V OA^E SIJO ULD KNO W.

close; twenty-four hours afterward, the room may be opened, then it will be found that the sickly unwholesome smell will be entirely gone. The smoke of the juniper berry possesses this advantage, that should anything be left in the room, such as tapestry, etc., none of it will be spoiled.

Paint for One Cent a Pound. - To one gallon of soft, hot water, add four poumls sulphate of zinc (crude). Let it dissolve perfectly, and a sediment will settle at the bottom. Turn the clear solution into another vessel. To one gallon of paint (lead and oil), mix one gallon of the compound. Stir it into the paint slowly for ten or fif- teen minutes, and the compound and paint will perfectly combine. If too thick thin it with turpentine.

Paint (Durable Outside). - Take two parts (in bulk) of water lime, grouml fine; t)iK' part (in bulk) of white lead, in oil. Mix them thoroughly by atlding best boiled linseed oil, enough to prepare it to pass through a paint-mill; after which temper with oil till it can be applied with a common paint brush. Make any color to suit. It will Ixist three times as long as lead paint. It is superior.

Painting Oil-cloths. - To paint canvas for floors, the canvas should fast be saturated with glue-water or flour paste, and allowed to dry first. Then paint it with any color desired. To put in the figures, cut out designs in tin plates or stiff paper, and stencil them on various colors.

Paint Without Oil or Lead. - Slake stone-lime with boiling water in a tub or I)arrel to keep in the steam; then pass six quarts through a fine sieve. Now, to this quantity add one quart of coarse salt iind a gallon of water; boil the mixture, and skim it clear. To every five gallons of this skimmed mixture add one pound alum; one-half pound copperas; and by slow degrees three-quarters pound potash, and four quarts sifted ashes or fine sand; add any fine color- ing desired. A more durable paint was never made.

Paint (White). - For inside work, which ceases to smell, and dries in a few hours : Add one pound of frankincense to two quarts tur- pentine; dissolve it over a clear fire, strain it, and bottle it for use; then add one pint of this mixture to four pints bleached linseed oil, shake them well together, grind white lead in spirts of turpentine, and strain it; then add sutficienl of the lead to make it proper for painting; if too thick in using, thin with turpentine, it being suitable for the best internal work on account of its superiority and ex- pense.

Paint (Common White) - to mix. - Mix or grind white lead in linseed oil to the consistency of paste; add turpentine in the propor- tion of one quart to the gallon of oil; but these proportions must be varied according to circumstances. Remember to strain your color for the better sort of work. If the work is exposed to the sun, use more turpentine for the ground-color to prevent its blistering.

Paint Skins - to utilize. - Dissolve sal-soda, one-half pound, in rain water, one gallon; cover the refuse jiaint for two days, then heat

331

it, adding oil to reduce it to a proper consistence for painting and straining.

Painters' Hints. - Painters' Colic. - To two and one-half gallons spruce or table beer add one dram of sulphuric acid, mix well and let it stand three hours. A tumblerful two or three times per day is said to be very beneficial in cases of lead colic. Sweet oil and milk are also good, but acids, fruits, spirituous liquors, and vinegar should lie avoided in every illness caused by paint. Avoid inhaling the dust when handling dry colors, or drinking water which has stood long in a painted room or paint shop. Never eat or sleep without washing the hands and face, and rinsing the mouth, cleaning well out under the nails. Hathe the whole body every few days, avoid spattering your clothes, and either wear overalls or change your garments every week, well airing those you put off. Keep your paint shop clean, well-ventilated, and avoid sleeping in it at any time.

To Rkmovk Paint from Clo thing. - Saturate the spots with equal parts turpentine and spirits of ammonia until they become soft, then wash out with soap-suds.

To Dissolve Paint Skins, Cleaning of Pots, Brushes, etc. - Save them carefully, and dissolve them by boiling them in oil.

To Clean Brushes. - Use turpentine first, then wash in warm soap-suds.

To Clean Paint Pails, etc. - Use strong lye, hot.

Sanding. - The perforated sprinkler of a watering-pot attached to the nozzle of a pair of bellows is a first-rate contrivance for applying sand to painted work. Apply on the fourth or fifth coat, with an- other coat on the sand. To remove old putty, apply nitric or muri- atic acid.

Pancakes (Apple). - Two cupfuls of sweet milk, one cg^,, four tablespoonfuls of sugar; one-half teaspoonful of soda, one-half tea- spoonful of salt, and flour enough to make a little thicker than grid- dles. Two good-sized apples, pleasantly sour, pare and slice into the batter. Drop into hot fat. Nice for breakfast.

Panes of Glass - to remove. - A safe and easy method for remov- ing panes of glass is to apply softsoap to the putty, which, in a few hours, will soften it, however hard it may be, sufficiently for a knife to cut it without fear of breaking the glass.

Pansy (The) - how to grow. - The pansy delights in a cool, rich loam; the richer, the larger will be the flowers, in a partially shaded situation. It never nourishes as well during the hot days of July and August as later in the season. Yoijng plants, from seeds sown early in the spring, if the bed be very rich, will come into handsome bloom during the latter part of June. All the first blossoms should be picked off that the plant may first become robust. Even with the old plants, the great secret of keeping them in constant bloom is to pick off the blossoms early and constantly, since it weakens the plant more to ripen one seed-pod than to yield a dozen flowers.

Papering and Painting. - Papering and painting are best don-j in

332

cold weather, especially the latter, for the wood absorbs the oil of paint in warm weather, while in cold weather the oil hardens on the outside, making a coat which will protect the wood insj^cad of soaking into it.

Paper - to fumigate. - Dip light paper in a solution of alum; strength of alum, one ounce; water, one pint. Dry thoroughly, and on one side spread a mixture of equal parts of gum benzoin, galban- um, or Peruvian balsam; melt the gums in an earthenware dish and spread with a hot spatula; slips of the paper are held over a light, when the odorous matter will be evaporated, the alum preventing the paper from igniting.

Paper (Dr. Smith's Healing). - Make a strong tincture of capsi- cum-pods by steeping them for several days, in a warm place, in twice their weight of rectified spirits of wine. Dissolve gum arable in water to about the consistency of molasses. Add to this an equal quantity of the tincture, stirring it together with a small brush or a large camel's-hair pencil, until they are well incorporated. The mix- ture will be cloudy and opaque. Take sheets of silk or tissue-paper; give them with the brush a coat of the mixture; let them dry, and then give another; let that dry, and, if the surface is shining, there is enough of the peppered gum;Mf not, give a third coat. This paper, applied in the same way as court plaster to chilblains that are not broken, and burns that are not blistered, speedily relieves the itching and the pain. It acts like a charm, and effects a rapid cure. The same with cuts and discolored bruises. It likewise allays rheumatic pains in the joints. Its great value is that, besides acting as ordinary sticking-plaster, it abates suffering and hastens the process of healing.

Paper (Magic). - Take lard oil, or sweet oil, mixed to the consist- ency of cream, with either of the following paints, the color of which is desired: Prussian blue, lampblack, Venetian red, or chrome green, either of which should be rubbed with a knife on a plate or stone un- til smooth. Use rather thin but firm paper; put on with a sponge, and wipe oflf as dry as convenient; then lay them between uncolored paper, or between newspapers, and press by laying books or some other flat substance upon them until the surplus oil is absorbed, when it is ready for use.

Paper - to make into parchment. - To produce this transforma- tion, take unsized paper, and plunge it into a solution of two parts of concentrated sulphuric acid combined with one part water; withdraw it immediately, and wash it in clean water, and the change is com- plete. It is now fit for writing; for the acid supplies the wantof'size, and it becomes so strong that a strip two or three inches wide will bear from sixty to eighty pounds' weight, while a light strap of parch- ment will bear only about twenty-five pounds.

Paper (Wall) - ho^v to clean. - To clean wall paper, take oflf the dust with a soft cloth. With a little flour and water make a lump of stiff dough, and rub the wall gently downward, taking the length of the arm each stroke, and in this way go round the whole room. As

333

the dough becomes dirty, cut the soiled parts off. In the second round commence the stroke a little above where the last one ended, and be very careful not to cross the paper or to go up again. Ordi- nary papers cleaned in this way will look fresh and bright, and almost as good as new. Some papers, however, and these most expensive ones, will not clean nicely; and in order to ascertain whether a paper can be cleaned nicely, it is best to try it in some obscure corner where it will not be noticed if the result is unsatisfactory. If there be any broken places in the wall, fill them up with a mixture of equal parts of plaster of Paris and silver-sand, made into a paste with a little water, then cover the place with a piece of paper like the rest, if it can be had.

Paper (Waterproof). - The waterproof oiled paper used so exten- sively around plants sent by mail, and to tie over pots and jars, and to wrap up ground white lead, etc., is made by simply brushing sheets of paper over with "boiled" oil, after, which they aie suspended on a line till dry.

Paper (Paraffine) - to make. - To prepare paraffine paper, dissolve paraffine in benzine, and into the warm solution dip the paper, sheet by sheet; let drip off and dry. On the large scale it may be done by letting paper from a continuous roll pass through such a solution, and then between flannel to absorb the surplus. Wax is best dissolved in carbon disulphide, and paper can thus be made ready for use in five minutes. A good plan is to apply the benzine solution of paraffine by means of a sponge.

Paraffine - as a wood preserver. - A German scientist recommends paraffine as an efficient means of protecting wood against damp, acids, and alkalies. The wood is first well dried, and then covered with a solution of one part melted paraffine in six parts petroleum ether or bisulphide of carbon. The solvent evaporates quickly, leav- ing the paraffine in the pores of the wood. Great care must be taken in the use of this preparation, since paraffine, as well as petroleum ether or bisulphide of carbon is very inflammable; and even the va- por of the last two mentioned substances, if mixed with air, may give rise to dangerous explosions. Paraffine, melted with equal parts of linseed oil, is also very useful to protect iron from rust.

Paregoric. - Ingredients: One ounce of laudanum, one pint of any kind of spirits, one-half dram of flowers of benzoin, one-half dram of oil of anise, one scruple of camphor. Blend the ingredients well together. Give as a dose, to adults, one or two drams ; to children, from two to four years old, fifteen to twenty drops.

Paregoric. - Best opium, three drams; dissolve in about two table- spoonfuls of boiling water; then add benzoic acid, one-half dram; oil of anise, one-half a fluid dram; clarified honey, one ounce; camphor gum, one scruple; alcohol, seventy-six per cent., eleven fluid ounces; distilled water, four fluid ounces; macerate (keep warm) for two weeks. Dose for children, five to twenty drops; adults, one to two teaspoonfuls.

334 WfTA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

Parlor Magic. - The Tobacco-Pipe Cannon. - Take of saltpeter, one ounce; cream of tartar, one ounce; sulphur, half an ounce; beat them to powder separately, then mix them together. Put a grain into a pipe of tobacco, and when it is lighted it will give the report of a musket, without breaking the pipe. By putting as much as may lie on your nail in a piece of paper, and setting fire to it, a tremendous report will be the result.

The Erratic Egg. - Have two wine-glasses. Transfer the ^%% from one wine-glass to the other, and back again to its original posi- tion, without touching the ^g^ or glasses, or allowing any person or anything to touch them. To perform this trick all you have to do, is to blow smartly on one side of the egg, and it will hop into the next glass; repeat this, and it will hop back again.

To Melt Lead in a Paper. - Wrap up a very smooth ball of lead in a piece of paper, taking care that there be no wrinkles in it, and that it be everywhere in contact with the ball; if it be held in this state over the flame of a taper, the lead will be melted without the paper being burned. The lead, indeed, when ounce fused, will not fail in a short time to pierce the paper, and, of course, run through.

Parsnip (Fried). - Boil, until tender, in hot water slightly salted ; let them get almost cold, scrape off the skin and cut in thin, long slices. Dredge with flour and fry in hot dripping, turning as they brown. Drain very dry in a hot colander ; pepper and salt and serve.

Parson (Tipsy). - Take a sponge cake baked several days, crumble it up fine, put a layer of it in a glass dish, sprinkle over it a very little wine, then add a large handful of very finely chopped almonds, then a layer of whipped cream, then begin over again by laying an- other layer of cake crumbs, and go through the same formula, leav- ing the whipped cream on the top. Any kind of old crumbs will do, but sponge cake is better. Makes an excellent dish for tea, and looks beautiful on the table.

Paste Blacking. - Half a pound of ivory black, half a pound of molasses, half an ounce of powdered alum, one dram of turpentine, one ounce of sulphuric acid, two ounces of raw linseed oil. The ivory black and molasses must first be mixed together until thorough- ly incorporated ; then add the rest of the ingredients. It keeps best in a bladder.

Paste - to make. - A clean paste may be made of two parts gum tragacanth and one part powdered gum arabic ; cover with cold water till dissolved, then reduce to desired consistency with same. A few drops of carbolic acid will prevent sourness.

Paste for Scrap-books, etc. - To make paste for scrap-books, mix smoothly flour and water till a thin batter is formed ; put in a pinch of pulverized alum, and pour in boiling water till a thick paste is formed. Let it boil a minute or two ; add a few drops of carbolic acid or oil of cloves. Put in a wide-necked bottle.

WHA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W, 335

faste (Perpetual) - to make. - This paste will remain sweet for a yea:. Dissolve a teaspoonfui of alum in a quart of water, to which add sufficient flour to make a thick cream. Stir in half a teaspoon- fui cf powdered resin and half a dozen cloves to give a pleasant odor. Havfe on the fire a teacup of boiling water; pour the flour mixture into it, stirring well at the time. In a few minutes it will be of the consistency of mush. Pour it into an earthen vessel; let it cool; lay a cover on, and put it in a cool place. When needed for use, take out a portion and soften it with warm water.

Paste for Paper-hangings, Books, Paper Boxes, etc. - Good wheat flour, sifted, four pounds, make it into a stiff batter with cold water in a pail, beat it well to break the lumps, then add pulverized alum, two ounces. Into this pour boiling water, hissing hot from the fire, stirring the batter thoroughly all the time. As it cooks it swells and loses its white color, and when cold, will make about three-fourths of a pail of thick paste. Thin with cold water to adapt ic for easy use with the brush. For painted or varnished walls, add one-half ounce pulverized resin to each two quarts paste, and reduce the mass with thin gum arable or glue water. A little pulverized corrosive sublimate will enhance the keeping qualities of paste, but alum used as above will do very well.

Paste - for destroying rats and mice. - Melt one pound of lard, with a very gentle heat, in a large-mouthed bottle or other vessel plunged into warm water; then add half an ounce of phosphorous, and one pint of proof spirit; cork the bottle securely, and as it cools shake it frequently, so as to mix the phosphorous uniformly; when cold pour off the spirit (which may be preserved for the same pur- pose), and thicken the mixture with flour. Small portions of this paste may be placed near the rat holes, and being luminous in the dark it attracts them, is eaten greedily, and is certainly fatal.

Paste (Puff) - to make. - An easy way of making puff paste is to mix the flour with three-quarters of its weight in butter, and milk enough to make it easy to rolL It should not be touched with the hands.

Pasture (Permanent) - profitable to the farmer. - The value of permanent pasture is not appreciated as it should be, and mainly, we apprehend, for want of knowledge and experience. The vast ma- jority of farms have certain pieces or sections which do not pay as they are now managed, but which Vv^ould yield handsome dividends if properly prepared, put in grass, and used as a permanent pasture. In certain localities, and under certain circumstances, soiling will un- questionably prove profitable, but upon the vast majority of the iarms of the country, the time-honored plan of grazing must be de- pended upon for the summer feeding of the stock. With all the in- novations and improvements in farming, it is still true that " fat pastures make fat pockets," and "heavy meadows make happy farmers,"

Custom generally sanctions onjy the growth of timothy, the

336 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

clovers, blue grass, and, in a limited way, orchard grass for tiese purposes; but enlightened research and intelligently conductec ex- periments have shown that very many more of our great fam'iy of grasses can be used to advantage. Thus, in their proper places and seasons, these are the best, "but at the same time there are other sorts which produce feed either before these have come to maiurity or after they are done, and which are of equal value for grazing pur- poses." Among others are rye grass of two or three sorts, red-top, meadow fox-tail, two or three fescues, oat grass, etc., mixtures of which, with those already mentioned, in proportions suited to the character of the land upon which they are sown, will yield larger and more nutritious crops, lasting through a very much longer season than any one or two of them.

Some of these mature early, others later, occupying the ground at different times, thus lengthening the season, and practically pro- ducing several successive crops, not the least advantage of which, perhaps, will be found in keeping the ground covered and shaded at times.

Patchouli - extract of, - Mix one and one-fourth ounce attar of Patchouli, and one-fourth ounce attar of rose with one gallon rectified spirits.

Patterns - to stamp on cloth. - A nice way to stamp any patterns on muslin, canvas or paper, is to procure from the stationery store a sheet of blue tracing paper. It will cost fifteen cents. Place a piece of tracing paper over the goods on which you want the pattern, now put your pattern on the tracing paper with the pattern up, and trace every line with a pencil or anything sharp. Do not move the pat- tern after you have begun to trace until you have finished, then take up both pattern and paper, and your stamping is completed.

Peaches - to can. - Before paring your peaches dip them a minute or two in boiling water. This will loosen the skin so they will slip off easily, and you will be surprised to know how much time is saved in paring, how smooth the peaches will look, and how many more cans you will have from the same number of peaches than if you pared them in the old wasteful way. The best way to scald them (or tomatoes either) is to fill your wire vegetable boiler with them, and then set that into a kettle of water. By the way, if you do not pos- sess one of these useful articles, I'm sorry for you. They are very cheap, and if you would once use one to boil potatoes or other veg- etables in, and find how easy it is to lift this little framework out of the water, you would think you never could go back to the old scald- ing way of lifting a heavy kettle and pouring the water off the veg- etables, with the extreme probability of blistering your nose and both hands with the escaping steam in the dangerous operation, even if the perverse kettle shouldn't give one grand lunge in the wrong di- rection and spill the entire contents on the floor or in the sink.

Peach Trees - care of. - A fruit-grower has discovered, it is said, that a mulch of tomato vines around peach trees will prevent the at-

WffA T E VER Y ONE SHO ULD KNO W. 337

ticks of the circulio and other noxious insects - an important discov- ery if true. It would be easy to test it, and for plum as well as peach trees.

Pearl Water for the Complexion. - Castile soap, one pound; water, one gallon. Dissolve, then add alcohol, one quart; oil of rosemary and oil of lavender, each two drams. Mix well.

Pear Trees - to protect from blight. - A correspondent preserves his pear trees from blight by winding a rope of straw around the trunks so as to completely cover them from the ground to the limbs, keeping it on moderately tight through the season. His theory is that the blight is caused by the rays of the hot sun coming in contact with the body of the tree, heating the sap and causing it to dry up and the bark to grow to the wood of the tree.

Pears - hints on marketing. - Pears, whether early or late, should never remain on the tree until they become mellow. Whenever they have made their growth they should be gathered. It is easy to tell the proper condition by observing the ease with which the stem parts from the tree. If, on taking hold of the pear and lifting it, the stem readily breaks away from the spur to which it is attached, the fruit has received all the nourishment it can get from the tree, and the sooner it is gathered the better. Pears are sent to market in crates and half barrels; especially fine specimens are sent in shallow boxes, only deep enough for a single layer of fruit, and each pear is wrap- ped in thin white paper. Extra specimens of any of the standard kinds will bring enough more to pay for this extra care in packing. The early varieties mature quicker after gathering than the later kinds, but all should reach the market in a firm and hard condition. As with all other fruits, it will pay to carefully assort pears. Make three lots, firsts and seconds for market, and the third for keeping at home - for the pigs, if need be; there is positively no sale for poor pears.

Peas (Green) - to preserve for winter use. - Gather the peas when plentiful, shell them ; then wash and scald them in hot water. When thoroughly drained, put them into bottles, and fill up each bottle with a strong brine ; at the top of the bottle pour a thin layer of salad oil, Cork and seal the bottles, which must be quite full and kept uprighl

Pen-wiper. - Twelves disks of cloth of various colors are edged with crystal beads. The rounds may be of any size wished, accord- ing as the pen-wiper is required, large or small. They are then folded in four, and fastened together in the center with a few stitches of strong silk.

Pencils - for -writing on glass. - Stearic acid, four parts; mutton- suet, three parts; wax, two parts; melt together and add six parts of red lead, and one part purified carbonate of potassa, previously trit- urated together; set aside for an hour in a warm situation, stirring frequently; then pour into glass tubes or hollow reeds.

Pencil Marks - to make indelible. - To fix pencil marks so they will not rub out, take well-skimmed milk and dilute with an equal

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niic piut and a h.dl nl hm lilted ^;pilil nl wine. Distill.

I'M I. I \ ( I I II Spiiir. I'l wim-, li\i- f^ulloiis; ni unj^e llnw�T walei , niir gallon; hulsaiu nt reiii, Inlll nume.s; essriirr nl heinanmi, ei^Iit niiiii es; es>*em<' nl miisU, �'i^lil nuiucH; csseiur nl ilnvefi, hull" niUHCs; esseiue oi iirinli, Iwonunees.

Kl^iS M l< ^^UK'lv, Spirit, OIK- ^alllln; es^i(�nl -� nl lliymc, nur Iniiilh niliiie; esseiue oC orunK'' lloweis, two oiiiu'es; essem e neinli, nny- li.di oil me; utttir of rnses, Ihii ly ill ops; essence ol jusniinc-, nne on me; ercieiici* nl hidni mint, nne hull ounce; petuls ol lost's, four ounctis; oil leinoii, twi'iity limps; (ulmiis aioniiiticus, one-half uuiice; essence m mil, (uiefointh ounce. Mix and strain.

I 'I'l'iCU Ti'.N. .Spirits of wine, fmir >aninl .iml nemli, each one hidf niince,

I . Aimi.s' ()\VN.- - Spirits nl wine, nne K'dlnii; .ill.ii nl in.MS twenty dinps; ChUCllce nf lliynir, one h.dl ninii e; cri.Miii e nl iicinli, niic It mi ill

wii.i r j'.i'j'.h'V ONE sjjoiii.n AA'oif. 339

r)iihre; eBfience of vanilla, one-half ounce; essen'c of br if^iunoi, orie- ffjiiVth ounrf'i orringe-flowcr waU^r, six ounces.

Perspiration to reniov�i the odor of. - The unplciHa/ii odor pro- diicqd hy ))<'jh)(iratioii irt (r<')u<(iily the Hource of vexation lo pcrhons who an* Huhjfct to it, Notliiii^ in hiinpli^r tjian to remove tlii� fjflor uiurh n)ore, It is only necewHary lo procure HotJie �oMi|joiiMd Hjiiriis ol ainmoiiia and plac^ .ahout (wo tahh'h|�oofiful� in a \>A^\i\ o| water. VVashiiif-i the face, harids, an

Perspiring' Hands. 'I he ordy effective methr)d of preventing ex- ceHisive perh|>iiaiiofi in the handw in to mix cjul) mowR In the water when wahhiiig llM-m. They should he w-'ished two or three times a day in tepid water, with the c luh-mosh, wliich need only he used fresh every *nioniiii;.'_.

Perspiring Feet. - Persons tioul>l

Pewter to make. M'-Ii in a < rucilyle seven i^ounds of lin, ;ind when fused throw in on'- j�oniid ol lead, six ounces of copper, and two ounces of y.inc.

Pewter to clean. - Ingredients; One pound of neat's-foot oil, one ounce of water of ammonia, powdered rotten-stone. Put the oil and ammonia into a hasin, and stir into them as much rotten-stone as will rnakct a thick paste. This (laste may he ke[)t in a jar for use. Wash th<' pewter vessel in soap and water, dry it, n\\) well with the paste, ,'tnd polish wilh a soft leather.

Phial Light to make. -I)ry phosphc>rus, one part; olive oil, six parts, I'ut them into a jihial, < ork it, and i)lace it in warn) water for two or three hours. l*'or use, pull out the cloyed instead of olive oil.

Phosphorus dangers of. - A series of investigations has led to the following general conclusirmu:

1. '1 In- manufactiue of matches from white jihosphorus, owifig to iIk* un.'ivoidahle evolution of phosphorus vapors, is fraught with the greatest danger to the heallli and lives of the women.

2. '[he vapors of the pliosj>horus, if hreathed for a long time, pro- duce gener.'il ill-he;tlth, Uinh-r circinnstances not yet fully undersi'jod, hut which are probably lo be sought for in the idiosyncrasi<-s ni I he individual. Usually it takes the local f

3. 'I'he necrosis of the jaw. if not relieved in time by .m o).cr;ttion, results in d^^ath.

y\n W'llA r K\ KKV UNJ'. SllOUI.n hA'DW.

.|. 'I'lu- iiijiiiiKiis � (uistiliUMils of lh(* phoHplioniH vupoiH are neither pliospliorus acid nor phosphoric acid, lail phosphorus itself, free anil nnconihincd, wlii

  • f;. The most dan^eious operations in makinjj; malchoti are inaU- luK lip 'he paste, dipping the splints, drying anil [jacking the matches.

    <). The nianuhu'lipc ol matches shonhloidy be permitted iindei the condilion lliat the phos|)horus vapoi:; sh.dl be (oinpletcly exi haled from the vv�>rk- rooms.

    7. These conditions irww be sulliciently compli<-<| with l)y �nerKetic ventilation, and the use of a vSafely ap|>aratus.

    Physic-Ball for horses. - Harbadoes aloes, from four to five or six drams (a� coidin^ to si/e and strenj.ith of the horse); lurtarate of polast-a, oiu- �h.ini ; ^in^er and castile soa|), each two drams ; "oil of anise, or peppeinuiu, twenty drops; pidveri/e and make all into one Itall, with ihii k Kinn solution. I'eed by giving scalded bran instead ��f oats, loi (wo d.iys bebxe K'^''"M '''*" |>hysic, and duiiiij.', its openu tioii.

    I'hysir for Cfittle. I ake half only ��f the dose jibove for a horsft, and add il to p,lanb�i salts, t'if^ht ounces; dissolve all in k'"*^'1i ^"C ipiail, and ^ive as a drench.

    Piano llanuiiers to re-cover, (iet felt ol ^^laduated thii kn<*.ss, < nl II in strips the exact width, touch only the two ends with ^lue- noi ihe part striking the firings, lloht in place with springs of nur> r4)w hoop iron.

    Pickles (Apple) - to make. - Apple pickle.s are delicious. Pare and halve ilu- .tpples, removing the cores carefully, to keep Iheiu in gooil sh.ip<-. Sleam till soil. I'ut spiced vinegar over then).

    Pickles (Sweet Cut umber). Take ripe cm umbers, ( nl out the Inside, pare, iind slice in stpiares an ii\ch or two long and or\e wide, as you fancy. Take seven pounds of this, boil in sail water ui\til tender, then drain. In a porcelain ketlh" put one ipiart of vinegar, three pounds ol sn^ar, one omn �' cassia bmls, one of cloves, one-half allspice. lioil tu^elhei, (hen .idd (he (uiundxi, and sinnner all two hours.

    Pickles (Cucumber, etc.) to make. - The pi(kles r>r small cucum- beis should be < aielully assm ted as they come from the liekl, and large ones salted by thenjselves or thrown away. The large ones need more salt, ait* harder to keep ai�d, prepare for sale, and sell for ? mil h less. A cucumber ihal begins lo grow yellow, �)r is too large to count one hundr<-d lo the bushel, sh�)uld not be salted at all. The nu'dium-si/.ed tuies, cmmting about three hui\dred to the bushel, and hue ones, counting abtnU sevj'U Innulied lo the bushel, iire the sixes most wanh'd. As st�on as jissorled, they slu>idd be placed in euipty beef b.iiiels 01 molasses hogsheads and covered wi(h biine; ihe

    WffA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO IV. 341

    brine is made strong enough to float a potato, and the pickles are kept under by a head fitting the barrel loosely, and loaded with one or two stones of about twenty pounds weight each for a hogshead. The brine soon becomes weak by absorbing the fresh juice of the pickles, and will need to be drawn off and poured on again in order to thoroughly mix the stronger brine at the bottom of the package with the portion at the top, which is weaker. This should be re- peated two or three times at intervals of two or three days, and if the brine is on large pickles, a few handfuls of salt added each tim.e. If carefully kept under the brine and the surface of the brine kept equally mixed with what is below, there will be no trouble in keeping them.

    They are taken out of the brine several days before wanted for sale, and placed in fresh, cold water, which must be changed as often as convenient - say two or three times a day - and after four or five days they will be fresh enough to receive the vinegar. The strongest of white wine (whisky) vinegar is used, and allspice and pepper added to taste. There is no need of scalding either the pickles or vinegar; if the latter is strong enough they will keep. Cider vinegar is of un- certain strength, and is often too weak to keep pickles after warm weather begins. If the vinegar is not strong enough, scalding will do no good. Pickles thus prepared are known as English pickles, and have a dull yellowish-brown color imparted by the brine. The bright green color often seen in the pickles in market is imparted by scalding them, when taken out of the brine, in a copper kettle; they absorb enough verdigris from the kettle to give them the desired color, and it is one of the signs of increasing knowledge of what is done in preparing our food, and of care in rejecting anything sus- picious, that the green pickle, so universally used a few years since, is fast becoming unpopular, and giving place to the English pickle, pre- pared without copper. Peppers, beans, cauliflowers, unripe melons, and martynias are p'"epared in the same way as cucumbers.

    Pickles - fine cucumber. - Make a brine that will bear an e^g, and drop in the cucumbers; cover them with grape leaves; weight them down, and let them stand ten or more days. Then take them out, drain well, and soak a day or two in plenty of clear water, fre- quently changed. Afterward put them in a kettle with grape and cabbage leaves and a lump of alum. Cover with weak vinegar, and let them stand until they turn green. Then take out, drain, and put into stone jars. For each three gallons of pickles use one gallon of cider vinegar, and place into it one ounce each of mace and celery seed, two ounces of ginger, three ounces each of cloves and stick cinnamon, four ounces each of mustard seed (black and white mixed), choice black pepper and allspice, two tablespoonfuls of ground mus- tard, a handful of chopped horseradish, two pods of red pepper, four onions, and two pounds of sugar. Boil, and pour it hot over the pickles. More sugar can be added to suit the taste. Cover the jar very closely, and expose to the sun every day during hot weather.

    342 WHA T E VER V ONE SHO ULD KNO W.

    Pickles in Jars. - Take gherkins or young cucumbers the size of your fcjrcfinger, puncture them with a needle, and put over them dry salt. In two days throw this off, add as much more, let this stay two days, and pour off. Drain them on a cloth, put them in jars, and pour over them boiling vinegar, in which ginger, black pepper, sliced horseradish, mace, cloves and allspice, withshalots and garlic, have been infused. In two days drain off the vinegar, boil, and pour it on the cucumbers. Repeat the process three or four times, and they will become perfectly green and plump.

    Pickle (French.) - One peck green tomatoes sliced, six large onions sliced; mix these and throw over them one teaspoonful of salt, and let them stand over night; next day drain thoroughly and boil in one quart of vinegar mixed with two quarts of water for fifteen or twenty minutes. Then take four quarts vinegar, two pounds brown sugar, one-half pound white mustard seed, two tablespoons ground allspice, and the same of cinnamon, cloves, gmger and ground mustard ; throw all together and boil fifteen minutes.

    Pickles - to color green. - Place a layer of cabbage leaves, the outside leaves arc best, in a pan; put in the pickles, and upon these another layer of leaves, and cover the whole with cold water. Place the pan upon the stove, and let the water come almost to the boiling point; actual boiling would soften the pickles. After a while the green color will have left the cabbage leaves, and will be found to have entered the pickles. Allow the pickles to become quite cold, then bottle with the best cider vinegar, adding to each quart a table- spoonful of sugar. If desired to be especially firm and crisp, add a piece of akun as large as a nutmeg to each quart.

    Pickles - to prevent molding. - Cut horseradish roots in thin slices, lengthwise and lay half a dozen or so of these pieces on the top of each crock of pickles, allowing them to remain until all the pickles are used. Grated horseradish will not do, as it soon loses its strength and then ferments.

    Pickles (Sweet) - to make. - These are made from peaches, pears, plums, apples and other fruits, ripe but not too mellow; over-ripe cucumbers, watermelon rind, and other fruits are also used. The article to be pickled is first cooked in water until a straw will pass through it. The vinegar is prepared thus: To each quart of vinegar acjd brown sugar, three pounds; stick cinnamon, four ounces* cloves, two ounces, l^ruise the spices, tie in a muslin bag and boil with the vinegar and sugar for five minutes. Pour the liquid over the fruit or other material placed in ajar. For three days in succession, heat the liquid to the boiling point, with the bag of spices, and pour over the fruit.

    Pickled Plums. - Twelve pounds of plums, six of sugar, one quart of vinegar, one ounce of mace, one of allspice, half an ounce of cloves (whole), boil fifteen minutes.

    Picture Frames -